Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Lymphatic system:

1) Transport tissue fluids (lymph) to the blood vessels

2) Protect the body by removing foreign materials such as bacteria
from the lymphatic stream and by serving as a site for lymphocytes
policing of body fluids and for lymphocyte multiplication
Lymphatic system: lymphatic vessels (lymphatic), lymphoid tissue, lymph
nodes, and a number of other lymphoid organstonsils, thymus, and spleen
Lymphatic capillariesbranch through nearly all the tissues of the body,
pick up leaked fluids and carry it through successively large vessels until the
lymph finally returns to the blood vascular system through one of the two
large ducts in the thoracic region
Collecting lymphatic vessels to lymphatic trunks (large vessels)
Right lymphatic ductdrains lymph from the right upper extremity, head,
and thorax delivered by the jugular, subclavian, and bronchomediastinal
Cisterna chylireceives lymph from the digestive organs
Lymph nodesbean shaped where the lymph is filtered and lymphocytes
are formed
The adaptive immune systema functional system that recognizes
something as foreign and acts to destroy or neutralize it
Immune response it not restricted to initial infection site; when operating
effectively, the immune response protects us from bacterial and vital
infections, bacterial toxins, and cancer
Memory, specificity, and self-tolerance
Memory for previously encountered foreign antigens
Nearly all foreign proteins, polysaccharides, bacteria and their toxins,
viruses, mismatched RBCs, caner cells, and many small molecules (haptens)
can be antigenic)
The cells that recognize antigens and initiate the immune response are
lymphocytes, the second most numerous member of the leukocytes or WBS,

Each immunocompetent lymphocyte has receptors on its surface allowing it

to bind with only one or a few very similar antigens, thus providing
Self tolerance: Autoimmunity (autoimmune disease) include multiple
sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, graves disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and
diabetes mellitus
Organs, cells and cell interactions of the immune response
Lymphoid organs and lymphoid tissues: thymus, lymph nodes, spleen,
tonsils, appendix, and red bone marrow
Primary lymphoid organs: thymus and red bone marrow
B and T lymphocytes = B and T cells
B and T cells originate from the red bone marrow
- Each must go through a maturation process whereby they become
immunocompetent and self-tolerance
- Immunocompetent is the addition of recptors on the cell surface that
recognize and bind to a specific antigen
- Self-tolerance involves the cells ability to distinguish self from nonself
- B cells mature in the red bone marrow
- T cells ravel to the thymus for their maturation process
After maturation, the B and T cells leave the bone marrow and thymus, enter
the bloodstream, and travel to secondary lymphoid organs, where clonal
selection occurs
Clonal selection is triggered when an antigen binds to the specific cellsurface receptors of a T or B cell.
- This causes the lymphocyte to proliferate rapidly, forming a clone of
like cells, all bearing the same antigen-specific receptors
Type of immune response
- B cells are humoral immunity (antibody mediate immunity
- T cells are cell-mediated immunity
Site of maturation
- B cells mature in the red bone marrow
- T cells mature in the thymus
Effector cells
- B ells affect plasma cells (antibody-secreting cells)
- T cells effect cytotoxic cells, helper T cells, regulatory T cells

Both have memory cell formation

- B cells, plasma cells produce antibodies that inactive antigen and tag
antigen for destruction
- T cells: cytotoxic T cells attack infected cells and tumor cells. Helper T
cells activate B cells and other T cells.
The node is enclosed within a fibrous capsule, from which connective tissue
septa (trabeculae) extend inward to divide the node into several
Cortex (outer region of the node)
Germinal centerscontain rapidly diving B cells
Most of the medullary cells are macrophages; important sine they play a role
in presenting the antigens to the T cells
Lymph enters the node through a number of afferent vessels, circulates
through lymph sinuses within the node, and leaves the node through efferent
vessels at the hilum
Each node has fever efferent than afferent vessels, the lymph flow stagnates
somewhat within the node, allowing time for generating an immune response
and for their macrophages to remove debris from the lymph before it
reenters the blood vascular system
Spleen: white pulp clustered around the central arteries
Red pulp: composed of splenic sinusoids and areas of reticular tissue and
macrophages called splenic cords
White pulp composed primarily of lymphocytes is responsible for the immune
functions of the spleen
Macrophages remove worn out red blood cells, debris, bacteria, viruses, and
toxins from blood flowing through the sinuses of the red pulp
Lymphoid follicles contain germinal centers surrounded by scattered
Tonsillar crypts (invaginations of the mucosal epithelium) of tonsils trap
bacteria and other foreign materials.

Eventually the bacteria work their way into the lymphoid tissue and are
White pulp = lymphoid tissues with many lymphocytes
Red pulp = contain many erythrocytes

1. Match the terms

1. Faggregated lymphoid nodules (in small intestine)
2. KAxillary lymph nodes
3. Bcervical nodes
4. Jcisterna chyli
5. Ginguinal lymph nodes
6. Hlymphatic vessels
7. Ired bone marrow
8. Lright lymphatic duct
9. Espleen
Cthymus duct
Dthymus gland
2. Blood vessels form a complete circuit from and to the heart whereas the
lymphatic system lacks arteries and beings with blind-ended lymph
3. The lymphatic collecting vessels have 3 tunics and are equipped with
The blood capillaries carry blood from small arterioles to small venules
Lymphatic capillaries carry lymphatic fluid from tissue to lymphatic venules
Lymph capillaries are bigger in diameter but have thinner walls than blood
What is the function of the lymphatic vessels?
The lymphatic vessels carry lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous
The lymphatic system transports lymphocytes, and it is involved in the
removal of foreign matter, cell debris by phagocytes, and its a part of the
immune system
It also transports fats from the small intestine to the blood
5. Lymph is a clear to yellowish watery fluid which is found throughout the
body. It circulates through body tissues, packing up fats, bacteria, and other
unwanted materials, filtering thoese substances out through the lymphatic
A thin coagulate fluid (similar to plasma but) containing white blood cells
(lymphocytes) and chyle
6. The milking action of the skeletal muscles and on pressure changes within
the thorax that occur during breathing

7. What is the name given to the terminal duct draining most of the body?
Thoracic duct
What is cisterna chyli? Enlarged terminus of the thoracic duct that receives
lymph from the digestive viscera.
10. lymph in the cisterna chyli is very rich in fat
Which portion of the body is drained by the right lymphatic duct?
The right upper extremity, head, and thorax
3 areas where the lymph nodes are densely clustered? Inguinal, axillary, and
cervical regions of the body
2 majors function of the lymph nodes are filtering and protection
The lymphatic fluid is not being drained from the area due to a disruption of
lymphatic vessels and nodes
B cells differentiate into plasma cells that secrete antibodies. Antibodies are
proteins that bind to specific antigens and mark them for destruction. They
provide humoral immunity
T cells directly attack virus-infected tissue cells, some helper T cells active
the B cells and cytotoxic T cells, and other can inhibit the immune response.
They provide cellular immunity.
When the immunity has/stores a memory from a previously encountered
foreign antibody
The quality of having a certain action, reacting only with certain substances,
as antibodies with certain antigens. B cells with antibodies
Each lymph node has fewer efferent than afferent vessels, so the lymph flow
stagnates somewhat within the node; this is desirable because it allows time
for the generation of an immune response and for the macrophages to
remove debris from the lymph before it reenters the blood vascular system
Lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils
Structurally: they have capsules, tehye are rounded organs with an internal
parenchyma of lymphoid cells
They are placed strategically about the body in order to maximally filter

Antigens are substances that provoke an immune response

Antibodies are simply proteins that are secreted as a result of the antigen
provoked immune response.