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2-Ethylhexanol (2-EH) Production and Manufacturing Process

23 April 2010 10:11 [Source: Chemical Report]


The industrial production of 2-ethylhexanol is by a three-step process involving the aldol selfcondensation of n-butyraldehyde followed by dehydration and hydrogenation. The n-butyraldehyde
was originally obtained from acetaldehyde via ethylene but this has been superseded by the oxo
process frompropylene.
Today, nearly all 2-EH is produced by catalytic hydroformylation of propylene with
synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). The catalytic process now mostly uses rhodium
catalysts rather than the older cobalt hydrocarbonyl catalysts.
Davy Process Technology (formerly Kvaerner) and Dow (Union Carbide) jointly have led the
development of newer catalytic technologies and have developed a phosphite ligand modified

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

rhodium catalyst. The two companies have also dominated the licensing of 2-EH process
technology.
Shell has developed and operates a one-step process that converts propylene directly to butanol,
iso-butanol and 2-ethylhexanol.

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

The oxo process involves production of aldehydes by hydroformylation, which is


defined as the addition of synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to an
olefin. The initial product is most commonly an aldehyde, which can be hydrogenated to the

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

corresponding alcohol, oxidized to the acid or converted to other derivatives. By far the most
important oxo chemical is n-butyraldehyde, followed by C6-C13 aldehydes for plasticizer
alcohols, isobutyraldehyde and C12-C18 aldehydes for detergent alcohols.
Plasticizer alcohols, including butanols, 2-ethylhexanol and C7-C13 plasticizer oxo alcohols,
and, increasingly, 2-propylheptanol, are the largest market for oxo chemicals in all regions;
world consumption of plasticizer alcohols is forecast to grow at an average annual rate of
3.8% during 20112018.

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

Valeraldehyde is the fastest-growing oxo chemical; world consumption is forecast to grow at


an average annual rate of 4.8% during 20112018, albeit from a relatively small base. New
C5 aldehyde capacity is scheduled to come onstream by 2014 in Western Europe. Most of
this valeraldehyde will be captively consumed for 2-propylheptanol.
The following pie chart shows world consumption of oxo chemicals:

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

Asia (including Japan), Europe and North America are the largest markets for oxo chemicals,
accounting for 95% of world demand in 2012.
The long-term prospects for oxo chemicals in Western Europe improved considerably during
20052008, as consolidations and capacity reductions resulted in improved efficiencies and
capacity utilization. The commissioning of plants for 2-propylheptanol and additional isononyl
alcohol capacity helped reduce the former reliance on 2-ethylhexanol. Western European

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

consumption of oxo chemicals is forecast to grow at an average annual rate of 1.8% during
20112018.
Demand for oxo chemicals in the United States is expected to grow moderately, at an
average annual rate of 2.8% during 20112018.
Consumption in China and Other Asia (excluding Japan) is expected to grow at 5.4%
annually during the same period; China, Singapore, India and Taiwan are the main growth

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

markets in this region. Japanese consumption is forecast to experience 0.3% average


annual growth during 20112018.
Middle Eastern consumption of oxo chemicals is forecast to grow significantly at an average
annual rate of 13.0% during 20112018, albeit from a small base, largely the result of
increased n-butanol/2-ethylhexanol demand for acrylates by 2014.
World demand for oxo chemicals recovered in 2010, but stumbled in some regions, including

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

the United States, the eurozone and Japan, in 20112012. Largely as a result of strong
demand in China and Other Asia (excluding Japan), world consumption of oxo chemicals
grew at an average annual rate of just over 4% during 20082012.

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INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.

INTRODUCTION
The Oxo process, more formally known as hydroformylation, is the common name for a reaction of an
olefin with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to give an aldehyde. Subsequent hydrogenation of the
aldehyde leads to an oxo alcohol .
The chronological development of oxo alcohol process technology is illustrated below:

1938 - Oxo process discovered by Otto Roelen of Ruhrchemie using a cobalt catalyst.

1940s/1950s - Various companies develop their own versions of the oxo process (e.g., ICI,
BASF, PCUK, Eastman).

1960s - Shell develops a modified cobalt process, using ligands such as phosphines or
phosphites. ICI improved its High Pressure Oxo Process with an unliganded rhodium catalyst.

1970s - Union Carbide Corporation, Davy Process Technology, and Johnson Matthey developed
the LP Oxo (modified rhodium) process, using triphenylphosphine ligand (PPh3). Key features
are much lower operating pressure and good normal to iso ratio. Aldehyde is separated as
vapor in the original gas recycle version of the flowsheet.

1980s - Rhne Poulenc/Ruhrchemie develops a two-phase process using a water-soluble


modified rhodium catalyst with TPP sulfonate ligand.

UCC and Davy developed a liquid recycle variation of the LP Oxo process offering
advantages over gas recycle for some situations.

BASF starts up an LP Oxo process.

Early 1990s - UCC and Davy, (see note below) improves the LP Oxo process capable of taking
both propylene and raffinate-2 feeds, including commercially available mixed butene streams,
for the production of butanols, 2 EH and 2-PH. The process uses a highly active modified
rhodium catalyst system and has a single-pass flow scheme, which is simpler than the earlier
gas or liquid recycle LP Oxo variants.

Late 1990s - BASF patents butadiene route to n-butanol/n-butyraldehyde.

Early 2000s - Davy and Johnson Matthey license their Johnson Matthey Oxo Alcohols Process
(formerly the ICI High Pressure Oxo Process) for the production of higher oxo alcohols (INA and
IDA) from iso-octene and iso-nonene. Key features are minimum byproduct formation.