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Harvard

Referencing
System
TunkuAbdulRahmanCollege

Compiledby

DrChookKaJoo
QualityAssuranceDepartment
TunkuAbdulRahmanCollege

and

MrJohnnyChinFuiChung
SchoolofSocialScienceandHumanities
TunkuAbdulRahmanCollege

2010
ForInternalCirculationOnly

CONTENTS

Page

1.0

INTRODUCTION

THEIMPORTANCEOFCITINGREFERENCES

REFERENCINGSYSTEM

THEHARVARDREFERENCINGSYSTEM

CITATIONINTHETEXT

THEREFERENCELIST

EXAMPLESOFREFERENCING

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

REFERENCES

ForInternalCirculationOnly

TUNKUABDULRAHMANCOLLEGE

HARVARDREFERENCINGSYSTEM

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Referencingorcitingmeansacknowledgingthesourceofinformationandideas
you have used in your assignments (e.g. essay, report, project, research paper,
etc.). This is a standard practice at all institutions of higher learning including
TunkuAbdulRahman(TAR)College.

ThislearningguideonHarvardreferencingsystemwasdevelopedbasedonthe
followingreferences:

CurtinUniversityLibrary2007,HarvardReferencing.
Fisher,D&Hanstock,T1998,CitingReferences.
Saunders, M, Lewis, P & Thornhill, A 2005, Research Methods for Business
Students.
UniversityofBournemouth2005,CitingReferences.
UniversityofSouthAustralia2006,ReferencingusingtheHarvardauthordate
system.

2.0 THEIMPORTANCEOFCITINGREFERENCES

Thefollowingarereasonswhyreferencingisneeded:

toacknowledgedebtstootherwriters
to demonstrate the body/scope of knowledge upon which your research is
basedon
toenableallthosewhoreadyourworktolocatethesourceseasily

More importantly, by using appropriate references, you will show the breadth
and quality of your assignments and avoid plagiarism. For further details on
plagiarism,pleaserefertotheTARCollegeguideonAvoidingPlagiarism.

3.0 REFERENCINGSYSTEM

Thetwomostcommontypesofreferencingsystemsusedare:

i. Authordate system such as the Harvard referencing system, American


Psychological Association (APA) referencing system and Modern Language
Association(MLA)referencingsystem
ii. NumericalsystemsuchastheChicagoorTurabian,Vancouverandfootnote.
TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

The referencing system used in TAR College is the Harvard referencing system
foralloftheSchoolsexcepttheSchoolofSocialScienceandHumanities,whichis
usingtheAPAreferencingsystem.

4.0 THEHARVARDREFERENCINGSYSTEM

IntheHarvardreferencingsystem,citedpublicationsarereferredtoascitation
inthetextbygivingtheauthorsfamilynameandtheyearofpublication,andthe
detailsarelistedinthereferencelistattheendofthetext/work(seepage9for
examples).

Theprocessofcitingreferencesconsistsoftwointerrelatedparts:

i. Citing the way a writer refers from the text to the sources used in the
assignment.
ii. Referencingtheprocessofcreatingareferencelistofeachsourceawriter
hasusedinwritingtheassignment.

All statements, opinions, conclusion, etc. taken from another writers work
should be cited, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or
summarised.

5.0 CITATIONINTHETEXT

When writing a piece of work, you will need to refer to materials written or
produced by others. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. The
systemthatyouhaveusedtocitethesourcesmustbeconsistentandaccurateto
enablereaderstoidentifyandlocatethematerialstowhichyouhavereferredto.
Thesamesetofrulesshouldbefollowedeverytimeyouciteareference.

Whenyoucitereferencesinthetextofyourassignmentinclude:

the author or editors family name (or organisation responsible) do NOT


includegivennamesorinitials
theyearofpublication
page(s)ofpublication(ifappropriateandwhereavailable)

5.1 Inmanycases,youjustneedtousetheauthorsfamilynameanddate.

Forexample:

Many factors are known to affect the success of students at the tertiary
educationlevel(Saunders2005).

OR
TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

5.2

5.3

Saunders(2003,p.21)claimsthattherearemanyfactorsthatareknownto
affectthesuccessofstudentsatthetertiaryeducationlevel.

Inthesetwoexamples,thesentencessummarisethemainviewexpressed
in an article written by Saunders. Also note that the first example
highlights the information but the second example highlights or gives
prominencetotheauthorofthearticle.

i. Iftheauthorsnameoccursnaturallyinthesentence,theyearisgiven
inparentheses:

In a popular study, Harvey (2005) argued that we have to teach good
practices

AsHarvey(1992,p.21)said,goodpracticesmustbetaughtandsowe

ii. If the name does not occur naturally in the sentence, both name and
yeararegiveninparentheses:

A more recent study (Stevens 2002) has shown the way theory and
practicalworkinteract

Theory rises out of practice, and once validated, returns to direct or


explainthepractice(Stevens2002).
There are cases when you need to include a page number in the
parentheses.
Forexample:

Ramli (2006, p. 7) showed that 63 percent of workers was found to be


affectedbyworkrelatedstress.

Youneedtoincludethepagenumberwhenyou:
i. useadirectquotefromanoriginalsource
ii. summariseanideafromaparticularpage
iii. include tables, figures, charts or illustrations from other sources in
yourwork
Use p. when you are citing the information from a single page and pp.
whentheinformationiscitedfrommorethanonepage.
Whentherearefourormoreauthorsforareference,youneedtoinclude
alltheirnamesinyourfirstintextcitationoftheirwork.Whenthesame
sourceiscitedagain,useetal.(whichisLatinforandtheothers).
TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

5.4

5.5

Saunders,Jones,CooperandSteinmark(2006,p.7)postulatethat54percent
of the students do not use proper referencing system As a result of this,
Saunders et al. (2006) listed a few major problems that students face in
doingprojectwork.
The names of all the authors are listed in the reference list in the same
ordertheyarelistedintheoriginalreference.

Personal communication such as interviews, telephone calls, video


conferencingandinternetchatdonotproviderecoverabledata;therefore,
theyarenotincludedinthereferencelist.Citepersonalcommunicationin
thetextcitationonly.Provideinitialsaswellasthefamilyname(fullname
forAsians)ofthecommunicatorandprovidetheexactdate.

Manydesignersdonotunderstandtheneedsoftheyoungpeopleaccording
toToi(2007,pers.comm.19April)because...

AdditionalInformation

QuotationsAsarule,ifthequoteislessthanaline,itmaybeincludedin
thebodyofthetextinquotationmarks.

SummariesorparaphrasesGivethecitationwhereitoccursnaturallyor
attheendoftherelevantpieceofwriting.

Tables, charts, diagrams or illustrations These should be referenced as


though they were a quotation if they have been taken from a published
work.

Ifdetailsofparticularpartsofadocumentarerequired,e.g.pagenumbers,
theyshouldbegivenaftertheyearwithintheparentheses.

Rules for citation in text for printed documents also apply to electronic
documents except where pagination is absent. If an electronic document
doesnotincludepaginationoranequivalentinternalreferencingsystem,
theextentoftheitemmaybeindicatedintermssuchasthetotalnumber
oflines,screens,etc.,e.g.[21lines]or[approx8screens].

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

5.6

Writingconvention

Thefollowingconventionsarenotprescribedbynationalorinternational
standardsbuthavebeenincludedbecausetheyareusuallyadheredtoby
theacademiccommunity.
Ifyouarequotingafewwords,theusualpracticeisasfollows:

ExampleA:

Saunders,LewisandThornhill(2003,p.93)arguedthatgroundedtheoryis
best defined as theory building compared to the assertion of Glaser and
Strauss(1967)ofinductiveapproachtoresearch.

ExampleB:

Robson (2002, p. 178) defines case study as a strategy for doing research
which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary
phenomenon[currentissues]usingmultiplesourcesofevidence.
Thequotationformspartofyourtextandisindicatedbyenclosingitusing
eithersingleapostropheordoubleapostrophe.

Theindicateswordorwordsfromtheoriginalsourcehavebeenleft
out.
Squarebrackets[]tellyourreaderyouhaveaddedyourownwordsto
thequotation.
If you are quoting a longer quotation, it is a common practice for the
wholequotationtobeindented:

ThereisnodoubtthatInternettechnologyhaschangedandis
changing the way organizations do business. Using the
Internet, companies have, for instance, (1) created knowledge
bases that employees can tap into anytime, anywhere; (2)
turned customers into collaborated partners who design, test
and launch new products; (3) become virtually paperless in
specific tasks such as purchasing and filling expense reports;
(4)managedlogisticsinrealtime;and(5)changedthenature
of numerous work tasks throughout the organization
(Robbins&Coulter2005,p.197)

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

6.0 THEREFERENCELIST

6.1 ThereferencelistintheHarvardreferencingsystem:

istitledReferences
isarrangedalphabeticallybyauthorsfamilyname
isasinglelistbooks,journalarticlesandelectronicsourcesarelisted
togetherandnotarrangedinaseparatelist
includesthefulldetailsofyourcitationinthetext
isNOTabibliographyyoudonotneedtoproduceabibliographyfor
yourassignmentsunlessspecificallyaskedtodosobyyourlecturer.A
bibliographylistseverythingyoumayhavereadbutdidNOTuseitin
the course of doing the assignment while a reference list is limited to
thecitationinthetextreferencesusedinyourassignment.

6.2 Stepsinvolvedinreferencing

a. Note down the full details of the source including page number from
whichtheinformationistaken.

In the case of a book, the detailsincluded are author(s) of the book,


year, title, edition, publisher and place of publication as found on the
frontandbackofthetitlepage.

In the case of a journal article, the detailsincluded are author(s) of


the article, date of publication, title of article, title of journal, volume
andissuenumberofjournalandpagenumbers.

For all electronic information, in addition to the above, you should


note the date you accessed the information and database or website
address(URL).

b. Insert the citation at the appropriate place within the text of the
document.

c. Provideareferencelistattheendofyourassignment.

6.3 Wheneverpossible,elementsneededforthereferencelistshouldbetaken
fromthetitlepageofthepublication.

Forplaceofpublication,providethecity.
Ifmorethanonetown/cityislisted,listthefirstoneorthelocationof
thepublishersheadoffice.
If the town is not well known, you may add a county, region or state.
NotethatintheUnitedStatesofAmerica,statesaredenotedbyatwo
lettercode,forexampleHillsdale,NJ.
TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

Forthepublishersname,omitsuperfluoustermssuchasPublishers,
Co.orInc.butalwaysretainthewordBooksorPress.
Wherethepublisherisauniversityandtheplaceorthelocationisnot
included in the name of the university, do not repeat the place of
publication.

6.4 Each reference should use the elements and punctuation given in the
following examples for the different types of work you may have cited.
Underlining is an acceptable alternative to italics when references are
handwritten.

6.5 The reference list is arranged alphabetically by authors family names.


When an item has no author (e.g. newspaper report, annual company
report,brochure),itiscitedbyitstitleandsequencedinthereferencelist
bythefirstsignificantwordofthetitle.

6.6 The Harvard referencing system does not require the second and
subsequentlinesofthereferencetobeindented.

6.7 Setting out the items in a Reference List using the Harvard referencing
system

Themainelementsrequiredforareferencearesetoutinthisorder:

6.7.1 Exampleofabook

The main elements required for referencing a book are set out in this
order:

Authors family name, Initial(s) year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of


publication.

Authors family name


Year of publication
Title of the book in italics

followed by a comma,
followed by a comma
followedbyacommaupper

theninitial(s)
nobrackets
case used only for the first
word

Cameron, SK 2002, Business students handbook: Learning skills for study


andemployment,PrenticeHall,Harlow.

Place of publication
Publisher followed

followedbyafullstop
byacomma

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

6.7.2 Exampleofanacademicjournal
Themainelementsrequiredforreferencingajournalarticlearesetoutin
thisorder:

Authors family name, Initial(s) year, Title of article, Title of journal,


volumenumber,issuenumber,pagenumber.
Authors family name
followed by a comma,
theninitial(s)

Year of publication
followed by a comma
nobrackets

Title of the article in single


inverted comma upper case for
thefirstwordonly,acommaafter
thesecondinvertedcomma

Bilosvalavo, RL & Lynn, M 2006, Mission statements in Slovene


enterprises: Institutional pressures and contextual adaptation,
ManagementDecision,vol.45,no.4,pp.773788.

Title of the

Volume number
Issue number
Page number (pp.) of
journal in italics
followed by a
comma

followed by a
comma

followed by a
comma

the article followed by


afullstopattheend

6.7.3 Exampleofanelectronicpublication
Themainelementsrequiredforreferencinganelectronicpublicationare
setoutinthisorder:

Authors family name, Initial(s) year, Title of document or website, date


viewed,<URLaddressinfull>.
Authors family name
followed by a comma,
theninitial(s)

Year of publication
followed by a comma
nobrackets

Title of the article in italics,


followedbyacommaupper
caseusedforfirstword

Potter, JB 2005, The big five personality test, viewed 11 July 2007,
<http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive>.
The internet address (URL) is enclosed in <
and > with the full address and followed by a
fullstop

Date the document is


accessed followed by a
comma

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

7.0 EXAMPLESOFREFERENCING

7.1 Books

Basicformatforbooks:
Authorsfamilyname,Initial(s)year,Titleofbook,Publisher,Placeofpublication.

Books
Singleauthor

Twoorthree
authors

Anexampleofcitationinthetext

An important factor is (Cameron Cameron, SS 2002, Business students handbook: Learning skills for
studyandemployment,PrenticeHall,Harlow.
2002,p.158)

Khoo(1977,p.45)arguesthat

Khoo, KK 1977, The western Malay states, Oxford University Press,


KualaLumpur.

According to Kim and Mauborgne Kim, WC & Mauborgne, R 2005, Blue ocean strategy: How to create
(2005),
uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant,
HarvardBusinessSchool,Boston.

Guelich, S, Gundavaram, S & Birznieks, G 2000, CGI programming


withpel,OReilly,Cambridge.

Fourormore
authors

Theentryinthereferencelist

As suggested by Sandler et al. (1995, Sandler, MP, Patton, JA, Coleman, RE, Gottschalk, A, Wackers, FJ &
Hoffere, PB 1995, Diagnostic nuclear medicine, Williams & Wilkins,
p.14)
Baltimore.

Theindustry(Leedersetal.1996)

Leeders, SR, Dobson, AJ, Gibbers, RW, Patel, NK, Mathews, PS,
Williams, A & Marriot, DL 1996, The Australian film industry,
Dominion,Adelaide.

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

Books

Anexampleofcitationinthetext

Theentryinthereferencelist

Bookwithno
author

As shown in Networking Essential Networkingessentialplus,2000,3rdedn,MicrosoftPress,Redmond.


Plus(2000),

Bookwithno
date

This has been emphasized by Seah Seah,Rn.d.,Microcomputerapplications,MicrosoftPress,Redmond.


(n.d.)when.

Electronic
book

Gottshalk and Sollisather (2006) Gottschalk, P & Sollisaether, H 2006, Managing successful IT
contendthat
outsourcing
relationship,
viewed
30
July
2007,
<http://site.elibrary.com/lib/tarc/document/display.jsp?docID=100

8436&page=1>.

Translated
book

Popularity of the novel Les Enfants Cocteau, J 1961, Les enfantrs terribles, trans. R Lehmann, Penguin,
Terribles increased after translation London.
(Cocteau1961).

Secondedition ...Jeremy(ed.2001)statesthat...
orlateredition
ofabook

Jeremy,H(ed.)2001,Managementtoday,2ndedn,CenturyLearning,
London.

Walpole and Evans (eds 2001) Walpole, M & Evans, C (eds) 2001, Tax administration in the 21st
questionwhether
century,3rdedn,ProspectMedia,StLeonards,NewSouthWales.
Onevolumeof It has been implied (Einax 1995) Einax,J1995,Chemometricsinenvironmentalchemistry:Application,
amultivolume that
vol.2,Handbookofenvironmentalchemistry.Springer,Berlin.
setofbooks
Chapterinan
editedbook

Ezhar(2001)notesthat

Ezhar, T 2001, Working with foreigners, in Understanding


Malaysian workforce, eds Asma Abdullah & A Low, Malaysian
InstituteofManagement,KualaLumpur,pp.179196.

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

10

Books

Anexampleofcitationinthetext

Theentryinthereferencelist

Encyclopaedia Collins Cobuild English Dictionary Noentryisrequiredinthereferencelistbecauseyouhavethename


ordictionary (1995)definesethicsas
anddateofthedictionaryasanintextcitation.
withnoauthor
Encyclopaedia Hawkins(1997,p.128)definesethics Hawkins, JG 1995, Kamus dwibahasa Oxford Fajar, 2nd edn, Fajar
ordictionary as
Bakti,KualaLumpur,p.128.
withauthor

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

11

7.2

Journalarticles
Basicformatforjournalarticles:
Authorsfamilyname,Initial(s)year,Titleofarticle,Titleofjournal,volumenumber,issuenumber,pageno.

Journal

Theentryinthereferencelist

Anexampleofcitationinthetext

Singleauthor

Ho(2007,p.2)arguestha

Ho, S 2007. Knowledge sharing a fear factor, Malaysian


ManagementReview,vol.42,no.2,pp.122.

Twoorthree
authors

Bilosvalavo and Lynn (2006, p. Bilosvalavo, R & Lynn, M 2006, Mission statements in Slovene
774)acknowledge
enterprises: Institutional pressures and contextual adaptation,
ManagementDecision,vol.45,no.4,pp.773788.

The impact of IT (Li & Clifford Li,G&Clifford,N2007,Whenatalkingcomputeragentishalfhuman


and half humanoid, Human Communication Research, vol. 33, no. 2,
2007,p.163).
pp.163193.
Morethanfour
authors

2ndcitationonwards
Georgeetal.(2007)claimthat

George, B, Sims, P, Mclean, AN & Mayer, D 2007, Discovering your


authenticleadership,HarvardBusinessReview,vol.85,no.2,pp.129
138.

Journalarticlewith It is a growing problem in the UK Anorexia nervosa 1969, British Medical Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, pp.
noauthor
(AnorexiaNervosap.530)
529536.
Journalarticlefrom and this has been established by
anelectronic
EisendandSchucherta(2006).
journalusing
electronicdatabase

Eisend,M&Schucherta,P2006,Explainingcounterfeitpurchases:A
review and preview, Academy of Marketing Service, vol. 2006, no. 2,
viewed
31
July
2007,
<http://www.amsreview.org/articles/eisend122006pdf>.

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

12

7.3

Electronicpublications
Basicformatforelectronicpublications:
Authorsfamilyname,Initial(s)yeardate,Titleofdocumentorwebsite,dateviewed,<URLaddressinfull>.

Electronic
publications

Anexampleofcitationinthetext

Theentryinthereferencelist

AWorldWideWeb The result of the test can (Potter Potter, J 2005, The big five personality test, viewed 11 July 2007,
site
2005).
<http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive>.
Documenton
WorldWideWeb
withnoauthor

Harvard referencing is a format of Wikipedia 2007, Harvard referencing, viewed 23 July 2007,
(Wikipedia2007).
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/harvard_referencing>.

Electronicbook

Holland(2004)maintainsthat

Holland, M 2004, Guide to citing internet sources, 2nd edn, updated 2


November
2005,
viewed
10
July
2007,
<http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/using/guide_to_citing_inter
net_source.html>.

Electronicthesis

Crain(2000)postulatesthat

Crain,J2000,Theeffectsofaformalinductionprogramonnewlyhired
teachers perceptions on selfefficacy, Department of Teaching and
Leadership,PhDthesis,UniversityofKansas,viewed30July2007,UMI
Proquest
Dissertation
ATT990068,
<http://proquest.umi.com.newdc.oum.edu.my/pqdweb?index=1&did=
728423791&TS=1185859215&clientId=56581>.

Mediareleaseson
theWorldWide
Web

Ong (2007) notes that sustainable Ong,KT(MinisterofHousingandLocalGovernment)2007,Sustainable


living
livinginMalaysia,mediarelease,16June,MinistryofHousingandLocal
Government,
Kuala
Lumpur,
viewed
30
July
2007,
<http://aplikasi.kpkt.gov.my/ucapan.nsf>.
TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

13

Electronic
publications

Anexampleofcitationinthetext

Theentryinthereferencelist

Discussionlistsor
newsgroups

Marsh(2007)postulatesthat

Email

Amir confirmed this by email on 1 Personal communications such as conversations, letters and personal
July2007
emailmessagesarenotincludedinareferencelist.

Computer
programme

A programme was developed MathWorks 2001, MATLAB, ver. 6, computer programme, The
(MathWorks2001).
MathWorksInc.,Natick,MA.

Marsh, A <marsha@gmail.com> 2007, Time management, list server,


28 March, Google Recreational Gardens, viewed 30 July 2007,
<http://groups.google.com/group/rec.gardens/browse_thread/thread
/e0ec899/2956944565b8e75c#2956944565b8e75c>.

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

14

7.4

Specialpublicationsandmaterials
Basicformat:
Authorsfamilyname,Initial(s)year,Titleofitem,descriptionofitem,Publisher,Placeofpublication.

Specialpublications
Anexampleofcitationinthetext
andmaterials

Theentryinthereferencelist

Conferencepaper

It has been shown (Chang 2003) Chang, CC 2003, Malaysias outline perspective plan towards
that
prosperityinthetrendofglobalisation,inProceedingsoftheSeventh
World
Chinese Entrepreneurs Convention, 2126 July 2003, Sunway

Resort, Petaling Jaya, The Associated Chinese Chambers of


Chang(2003)contendsthat
Commerce and Industry of Malaysia, ACCIM, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 28
38.

Newspaperarticle
withauthor

As Fernandez (2007) notes in his Fernandez,T2007,Ididntmakeanythreats:Kayveas,Sun31July,


articles,
p.2.
Note:TheintheEnglishlanguagenewspapertitlesisomitted.

Newspaperarticle
withnoauthor

intheSun(31July2007,p.3).

Sun2007,Masterplanboostfornortherncorridor,31July,p.3.

Publicationfroma
corporatebody

Theplansinclude(UNESCO
1995).

UNESCO 1995, General information programme and UNISIST,


UNESCO,Paris.

Genting Berhad 2007, Genting Berhad annual report 2006, Genting


Berhad,KualaLumpur.
Governmentarticle

Thestrategicapproachesinclude
(MinistryofAgriculture1998).

Ministry of Agriculture 1998, The third national agriculture policy,


MinistryofAgriculture,KualaLumpur.

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

15

Specialpublications
Anexampleofcitationinthetext
andmaterials

Theentryinthereferencelist

Patent

Tadayuki, Kazuhsia and Atushi Tadayuki,O,Kazuhsia,Y&Atsushi,N1999,Hardbuttercomposition


(1999)showthat
anditsproduction,JapanesePatent9978710.

Videoortelevision
recording

Theprocessinvolvesthreestages Mild steel with low current 1987, video recording, MIG Welding
(Mildsteelwithlowcurren,1987).
Institute,Cambridge,5January.

Pamphletor
brochure

TAR Colleges philosophy is (TAR TAR College Prospectus 2007/2008 2007, Tunku Abdul Rahman
College Prospectus 2007/2008 College,KualaLumpur.
2007).

Audiocassette

The original broadcast (War of the Waroftheworlds1999,MercuryTheatreontheair,audioCD,Radio


Worlds 1999) in 1938 is said to Spirits,ASIN:B00002R145.
have caused mass panic amongst
listeners.

CDROMsandDVDs

Hawkings(1994)statesthat

Standard

ThestandardssetbySIRIM(2003) SIRIM 2003, Code of practices for access of disabled persons outside
statesthat
buildings(MS13311:2003),SIRIMBerhad,ShahAlam:

Personal
communication

It has been confirmed by Seow Personalcommunicationssuchasconversations,lettersandpersonal


(2007, pers. comm. 10 July) that emailmessagesarenotincludedinareferencelist.
thispractice.

Thesis

Lee(1995)recommendsthat

Hawking, SW 1994, A brief history of time: An interactive adventure,


CDROM,London,CrunchMedia.

Lee, CW 1995, Characteristics of rubber products for mining


applications, Unpublished final year advanced diploma project,
TunkuAbdulRahmanCollege.

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

16

Specialpublications
Anexampleofcitationinthetext
andmaterials

Theentryinthereferencelist

Documenton
microfiche

Ball, Lee, Phan and Ra (2001) Ball,K,Lee,YH,Phan,O&Ra,YS2001,Adultretrainingandreskilling


suggestthat
in Australia and South Korea, microfiche, National Centre for
VocationalEducationResearch,Leabrook,Australia,KoreaResearch
InstituteforVocationalEducationandTraining,Seoul,ED451368.

ActsofParliament

The Service Tax (Amendments) ServiceTax(Amendments)2002.


(2000)statesthat

IndustrialRelationsAct1967.

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

17

7.5

FrequentlyAskedQuestions(FAQs)
HerearesomeoftheFAQsonreferencing.

Question1
IfIreadabookorajournalarticlebyoneauthor(Author1)andhe
mentionsanideabyanotherauthor(Author2),whoseideadoIrefer
to?HowdoIreferencethat?

You must mention both authors (Author 1 and Author 2) in your intext
citations;andinyourreferencelist,youonlyneedtolisttheitemyouhave
read,thatisAuthor1.

For example, if you read about an idea by Lim (Author 2) in a book by


Saunders(Author1),youneedtomentionboththeauthorsinyourintext
citations.Yourintextcitationswouldappearas:
or
Lim(Saunders2003,p.71)statesthat
Limsstudy(citedinSaunders2003,p.71)indicatesthat or
Saunders(2003,p.71),inreportingLimsstudy,emphasizedtheaspect
Inthereferencelist,youlistonlySaunders(thesourceyouread)andnot
Lims(whoseideayouonlyreadaboutinSaunders).
Question2
HowdoIcitetheauthorsnamesiftheyhavethesamefamilynamein
thereferencelist?HowdoIshowinmyintextreferencewhichidea
belongstowhichauthor?

You distinguish between the two authors in your assignment by adding


their initials to the intext reference (which usually only has the family
nameanddate).

Forexample:
Thetheorywasfirstsuggestedin1970(Johnson,HT1971)butsincethen,
manyresearchers,includingDEJohnson(2001),haverejectedtheidea.
Question3
HowdoIciteanauthorwhohaswrittenmorethanoneworkinthe
sameyear?HowdoIshowwhichideacomesfromwhichreference?

You put a lower case letter of the alphabet next to the year or date and
keeptheselettersinyourreferencelistaswell.

TARCollegeHarvardReferencingSystem

18

Forexample:
Inarecentpublication,Bart(2004b)arguedthatmissionstatementsof
most organizationareunderutilisedandmostorganizationhadjumped
on the bandwagon of creating mission statements without knowing the
truepurposeofthestatement(Bart2004a).

The order of sequence in which you attach the letters is based on the
alphabeticalorderofthetitleoftheworkbytheauthor.

Question4
HowdoIciteinformationfrommylectures,tutorialsorstudyguides?

YoudoNOTciteyourlectures,tutorialsorstudyguidesassourcesunless
your lecturer has particularly said this is acceptable. This is because
lectures, tutorials and study guides are intended to give you an
introductiontoatopic.Inassignmentswhereyouundertakeresearch,you
are expected to read widely and identify for yourself the main ideas that
arerelevantfromvarioussources.Inaddition,oralcommunicationisnot
generally referenced. Your lecturers and tutors do not reference their
comments. If you cite them as your source of an idea, it could be
inaccurate, possibly even plagiarism, because the lecturers might be
referringtosomeoneelsesidea,notoneoftheirown.

Question5
WhatifIcannotfindtheauthororadateinawebsite?

Whenthereisnonameonawebpage,lookforasponsoringbodylike
an organisation or a government department responsible for the
information.
Where there is no sponsoring body, use the title of the article or
documentonthescreenastheauthor.
Wherethereisnodate,usen.d.(nodate).

Ifaresourcehasnoauthorandnodate,youneedtoconsiderwhetheritis
asuitablesourceforacademicwork,asyourworkwillsufferfromlackof
credibility.

Question6
HowdoIreferenceagraphorafigurethatIcopyoradapt?

AbasicprincipleofHarvardreferencingisprovidingtheauthoranddate
as an intext reference. This also applies when you use other peoples

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pictures, graphs or figures. You also need to make it clear if you have
adaptedthepictureorgraphforyourownpurposes.

Forexample:

The Process

(AACSB2006,p.6)

Question7
HowdoIciteMalaysianorAsiannames?

You will need to be aware of the various ways to cite Asian names. For
ChineseandJapanesenames,usethewritersfamilynameswhenyouare
citingtheminyourtext.Asforyourreferencelist,putthewritersfamily
namesfirstfollowedbytheirinitials.

Forexample:
Fullname

Intext
ReferenceList
citation
ChineseName Sheng(2003) Sheng, YL 2003, The Chinese
ShengYeLin
dilemma,EastWestLtd,NewSouth

Wales.
Japanese
Kimbara
Kimbara, T 2007, The digital
Name
(2007)
collapse,Penguin,London.
Tatsyo

Kimbara

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However,forMalayandIndiannames,usethewritersfullnamesinboth
theintextcitationandreferencelist.
Forexample:
Fullname
MalayName
Mahathir
Mohammad
IndianName
Bala
Ramasamy

Intext
citation
Mahathir
Mohammad
(1982)

Bala
Ramasamy
(2004)

ReferenceList
Mahathir Mohammad 1982, The
Malay
dilemma,
Federal
Publications,PetalingJaya.
Bala Ramasamy 2003, FDI and
uncertainty: The Malaysian case
study, Journal of Asia Pacific
Economy,vol.20,no.2,pp.7579.

FornamesofotherAsianwriterssuchasThainames,Cambodiannames,
etc., you need to find out how other writers within your academic world
cite these names. Always refer to current journals or publications to see
how theseAsiannamesarecited.Ifyouarestillunsureaboutthis,refer
tovariousreferencingguideswhichareavailableonline.

Question8
In the reference list, do I separatethevarious sources ofreferences
thatIhaveusedinmyintextcitations?

All references that you have referred to in your assignment or project


shouldbearrangedinalphabeticalorderinonelistwithNOseparationof
thesourcesintocategorieslikebooks,journals,etc.

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REFERENCES

Curtin University Library 2007, Harvard referencing, viewed 4 July 2007,


<http://library.curtin.edu.au/referencing/harvard.pdf>.

Fisher, D & Hanstock, T 1998, Citing references, Balckwells Bookshops,


Nottingham.

Saunders, M, Lewis, P & Thornhill, A 2005, Research methods for business


students,3rdedn,PrenticeHall,Harlow.

University of Bournemouth 2005, Citing references, viewed 4 July 2007,


<http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/
docs/Citing_Refs.pdf>.

University of South Australia 2006, Referencing using the Harvard authordate


system, viewed 4 July 2007, <http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/
learningconnection/student/learningAdvisors/documents/harvardreferencing.p
df>.

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