Anda di halaman 1dari 3


Layer 1 (Physical)
responsible for transmitting a bit stream
media include coaxial cable, unshielded twisted pair (UTP), fiber optic cable, and
wireless (including satellites and cellular radio)
repeaters are layer 1 devices
Layer 2 (Data Link)
provides services to the network layer (typical services are unacknowledged
connectionless service, acknowledged connectionless service and acknowledged
connection-oriented service)
the data link layer is so complicated that it is broken up into two sublayers: logical link
control and medium access control
bridges are layer 2 devices, which means they can connect different LANs (at least
in theory)
Logical Link Control Sublayer (IEEE 802.2)
this sublayer must detect (and if possible, correct) errors; usual approach is to break
up the bit stream up into discrete frames and compute checksum data for the frames
another important issue is flow control (how to keep a fast sender from overwhelming
a slow receiver)
Medium Access Control Sublayer
this sublayers protocols deal with which machine is allowed to use a broadcast
channel (included are LANs and MANs)
IEEE 802.1 -> higher layer LAN protocols, includes 802.1D (MAC bridges), 802.1Q
(Virtual LANs), 802.1AE (MAC security), 802.1af (KeySec), 802.1ag (Connectivity
Fault Management), 802.1X (Port-Based Network Access Control)
IEEE 802.3 (commonly called Ethernet which is not quite correct)
10Base5, 10Base2, 10Base-T, 10Base-F (all are 10Mbps) , fast Ethernet
(802.3u) at 100Mbps, gigabit Ethernet (802.3y, 802.3z, 802.3ab), 802.3ak,
802.3an, 802.3aq, 802.3av (various forms of 10Gbps), 802.3ar (Congestion
Management), 802.3ap (Backplane Ethernet over printed circuit boards)
IEEE 802.5 (Token Ring) -> dying
IEEE 802.11 (Wireless LAN) -> includes 802.11, 802.11b, 802.11a, 802.11g,
802.11nand several emerging protocols, including 802.11i (data security), 802.11w
(security for management and broadcast frames), 802.11e (quality of service) and
802.11s (wireless mesh networking)
IEEE 802.15 (Wireless PAN) -> includes 802.15.1 (Bluetooth), 802.15.3.a (UWB) and
802.15.4 (ZigBee)
IEEE 802.16 Broadband wireless (WiMAX), 802.16e (mobile WiMAX)
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
Fibre Channel

Layer 3 (Network)
must get packets from the source to the destination (may require many hops to do
services may be connection-oriented (virtual circuits) or connectionless (datagrams)
routers are layer 3 devices which can store and forward packets (must be able to
read internet addresses and execute algorithms to determine routing)
congestion control is critical issue
key protocol is Internet Protocol (IP currently ver. 4; ver. 6 will be new standard)
firewalls are often developed using routers
gateways interface between dissimilar networks
Layer 4 (Transport)
ultimate goal is efficient, reliable, and cost-effective service to users (typically,
processes in the application layer)
services can be connection-oriented or connectionless
must be able to deal with unreliable network services (including lost packets, delayed
packets, garbled packets, routers crashing, etc.)
quality of service often is negotiated with provider
key protocols are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP designed to provide a
reliable end-to-end byte stream over an unreliable network) and User Datagram
Protocol (UDP basically, IP with another header to provide connectionless service)
Layer 5 (Session)
primarily the users interface to the network; usually provide connections between a
user (terminal or LAN workstation) and a host (server, mainframe, minicomputer,
etc.) referred to commonly as dialogues
Layer 6 (Presentation)
concerned with syntax and semantics, including data encryption
Novells NCP (NetWare Core Protocols) spans layers 4 through 6
Layer 7 (Application)
refers to the applications using the network, including e-mail, file transfer, etc.
Novells SAP (Service Advertising Protocol) actually spans layers 4 through 7
Internet protocols include SMTP, FTP, Telnet, SNMP, HTTP, X.500 directory