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READING TEXT

FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

READING MATERIALS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS


DEONE

UNIT 1
1. READING

College Life in the United States


Instructors at American colleges and universities have many different teaching
methods. Some instructors give assignments every day. They grade homework. Students in
their classes have to take many quizzes, a midterm exam, and a final exam. Other instructors
give only assignments. Some teachers always follow a course outline and usually use
textbook. Others send students to the library for assignments.
The atmosphere in some classrooms is very formal. Students call their instructor
Professor Smith, Mrs. Jones, and so on. Some teachers wear business clothes and give
lectures. Other classrooms have an informal atmosphere. Students and lectures discuss their
ideas. Instructors dress informally, and students call them by they first name. American
teachers are not alike in their teaching styles.
At American colleges and universities, libraries and learning centers are available to
the students. They can often use typewriter, tape recorders, video machines, and computers.
They can buy books, notebooks, and other thing at campus stores. There are also services
available to the students. They can get advice on their problems from counselors and
individual help with their classes from tutors. In addition to facilities and services for study,
colleges and universities usually offer facilities for recreation. Some schools have swimming
pools and tennis courts. Most have snack bars or cafetarias. (Taken from INTERACTIONS,
Kirn, 1985)

2. SPEAKING
Activity 1
As a student you have to schedule your routine activities. Fill in the form below. Now ask in
turn about routine activities. Follow this model:
A : Where are you at 6 oclock in the morning?
B : I am at home.

A : What do you usually do at home at 6 oclock?


B : I usually read a book.
Schedule of my daily activities
No Time
1
2
3

6
6
6.10

4
20

Place

Activities

at home.
at
contract house

read a book
Wake up,
pray, cook

Activity 2
Work in pairs with another partner telling him/her your partners routine activities you have
talked about. Begin like this:
A : Please tell me your friends routine activities?
B : Well, Ani/Anto is at home at 6 oclock. S(he) usually reads a book. Etc.
3. WRITING
Write down a paragraph about your own routine activities. See the example below.I am
usually at home at 6 oclock in the morning. At the time I often read a book,etc.

UNIT 2
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

How can I get to the Post office?


I have a special rule for travel: never carry a map. I prefer to ask for directions. Sometimes I
get lost, but I usually have a good time. I can practice a new language, meet new people, and
learn new customs. And I find out about different styles of directions every time I ask,
How can I get to the post office?
Foreign tourist often confused in Japan because most streets there dont have names; in
Japan, people use landmarks in their directions instead of their street names. For example,
the Japanese will say to travelers, Go straight down to the corner. Turn left at the big hotel
and go past a fruit market. The post office is across from the bus stop.
In the countryside of the American Midwest, there are not usually many landmarks. There
are no mountains, so the land is very flat; in many places there is no town or buildings within
miles. Instead of landmark, people will tell you directions and distances. In Kansas or Iowa,
for instance, people will say, Go north two miles. Turn east, and then go another mile.
People in Los Angles, California, have no idea of distance on the map: they measure distance
in Los Angles in time, not miles. How far away is the post office? you ask. Oh, they
answer, its about five minutes from here. You say, Yes, but how many miles away is it?
They dont know.
1
We
Girls
2

Will be parents in the future.


Will be mothers.

Boys

Will be fathers.

All of us

Will not be unemployed.

Some of us

Will not be in Lampung.

(+) Noun or pronoun

Will + be

(-) Noun or pronoun

Will not + be

2. SPEAKING
Activity 1
Arrange your planning of the next semester semester. When finished, do the practice again
and now change roles. Fill in the form below. Start like this:
A : Where will you be in the first week of the next semester?
B : Well, I will be at campus.
A : What will you do there?
B : I will of course meet with my academic guidance. Etc.
Planning for the next semester
No

Time

Place

Activities

12

week 1

at campus

meet with my
academic guidance

..

10

Activity 2

Tell your friends planning you have talked about to another classmate. Begin like this:
A : Please tell me his/her planning for the next semester?
B
: Well, I would like to tell you Tonis planning for the next semester. At the
first
week, he will be at campus. He will meet with his academic guidance. Etc.
3. WRITING
Write down a paragraph of ten to fifteen sentences about your planning for next semester.

UNIT 3
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

Women in the Nuclear Family


The family is changing. In the past, grandparents, parents, and children used to live together;
in other words, they had an extended family. Sometimes two or more brothers with their
wives and children were part of this large family group. But family structure is changing
throughout the world. The nuclear family consists of only one father, one mother and
children; it is becoming the main family structure everywhere.
The nuclear family offers married women some advantages: they have freedom from their
relatives, and husband does not have all the power of the family. Family structure in most
part of the world is still patriarchal; that is the father is the head of the family and makes
most of the important decisions. Studies show, however, that in nuclear families, men and
women usually make an equal number of decisions about family life. Also, well-educated
husbands and wives often prefer to share the power.
But wives usually have to pay for the benefits of freedom and power. When women lived in
extended families, sisters, grandmothers, and aunts helped one another with housework and
childcare. In addition, older women in a large family group had important positions. Wives
in nuclear families do not often enjoy this benefit, and they have another disadvantage, too;
women generally live longer than their husbands, so older women from nuclear families
often have to live alone.
B. Sentences with non verbal predicates
No Subject

Verbal Predicate

My father

Was very active in students activities.

He

Was the captain in this class.

My mother

Was not active.

She

Was one of the beautiful girl in her class.

They

Were not lazy students.

(+) Noun or pronoun


(-)

Noun or pronoun

Was/were
Was/were not

2. SPEAKING
Activity 1
Work in pairs talking in turn about your past activities. Fill in the form below. Follow the
model:
A : Where were you at 6 a.m. yesterday?
B : I was at home.
A : What did you do at home?
B : I did jogging. Etc
Schedule of Yesterdays activities
No Time

Place

Activities

6 a.m.

at home.

do jogging

..

10

Activity 2
Now ask another friend what your friend did yesterday. Begin like this:
A : Where was he at 6 a.m. yesterday?
B : He was at home?
A : What did he do at home at 6 a.m. yesterday?
B : He said that he did jogging. Etc.
3. WRITING
Write a paragraph about your own yesterdays activities.

UNIT 4
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

Untitled
Most children have achieved remarkably sophisticated language capabilities by the age of
three. Their vocabularies have reached about 1000 words, and they can use as many as five of
those words in a single sentence. They make up new words, too. They can speak about the
past and future as well as the present. They understand that some words have more than one
meaning. They can duck when a ball is coming or see a duck on lake. They have began to use
negatives (Thats not mine) and helping verbs (I can do it myself).
Over the next two years, their vocabulary will more than double. They will begin to play with
words, to repeat silly sounds, to try out toilet words or even swear words, just to elicit an
adults reaction. Newly aware of the power of words, they will begin to argue, and they will
start to tell jokes.
This language play carries on a process of experimentation that began when child was an
infant, first encountering language. At one time, experts thought children learned language
simply by imitating adults. Nowadays, most linguists agree that children learn primarily by
experimenting-by listening and thinking about what they hear, by making their own sounds,
and then by observing the way others react.
2. SPEAKING
Language comes first as a great garble of sound. Slowly, children learn to hear individual
sound patterns, or words. They try out sounds. For example babies
A : Hi, how have you been for a week?
B : I have (Ive) been fine.
A : What have you done then?
B : I have finished my homework and visited my friends in Jakarta.
A : Sounds good. And how has you sister been?

B : She has (Shes) been fine too.


A : What has she done for a week?
B : As I know, she has just returned home after a vacation in Bali.
Summary of my family condition and activities for a week
Members
Condition Activities
of the
family
You
fine
finish homework, visit friend
father

..

..

mother

..

..

brother

..

..

sister

..

..

nieces

..

..

nephews

..

..

etc.
Activity 2
Now change roles. Practice the activity 1 again.
Activity 3
Now tell another friend about the condition and activities of your friends family for a
week you have talked about. See the example below.
A : Please tell me the condition and activities of his/her family for one week.
B : Well, he has been fine and he has finished .etc
3. WRITING
Write down condition and activities of your own family for a week.

UNIT 5
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

Advertising: The Selling of a Product


A consumer walks into a store. He stands in front of hundreds of foxes of laundry detergent.
He chooses one brand, pays for it, and leaves. Why does he pick that specific kind of soap? Is
it truly better than the others? Probably not. These days, many products are nearly identical
to each other in quality and price. If products are almost the same, what makes consumers
buy one brand instead of another? Although we might not like to admit it, commercials on
television and advertisements in magazines probably influence us much more than we think
they do.
Advertising informs consumers about new products available on the market. It gives us
information about everything from shampoo to toothpaste to computers and cars. But there
is one serious problem with this. The information is actually very often misinformation.
It tells us the products benefits but hides their disadvantages. Advertisings not only lead us
to buy things that we dont need and cant afford, but it also confuses our sense of reality.
Zoom toothpaste prevents cavities and give you white teeth! the advertisement tells us. But
it does not tell us the complete truth: that a healthy diet and a good toothbrush will have the
same effect.
Advertisers use many methods to get us to buy their products. One of their most successful
methods is to make us feel dissatisfied with ourselves and our imperfect
No Tenses
Examples
1

Simple Present Tense We like Information Technology.

2
3

Simple Future Tense


Simple Past Tense

We will learn English for two semesters.

Simple Past Tense

We have learned English for 6 years.

We did not learn English seriously at


SMU.

B. Sentences with non verbal predicates

No

Tenses

Examples

Simple Present Tense We are students of STMIK Darmajaya.

Simple Future Tense

We will not be bad English learners.

3
4

Simple Past Tense


Simple Past Tense

We were not very serious students at SMU.


We have been university students for a
year.

2. SPEAKING
Activity 1
Please interview your friend about his/her routine activities, future planning, past activities,
and activities for one week you have talked about. Use only yes-no questions. Follow this
model:
Reporter

: Excuse me, are you usually at home at 6 oclock in the morning?

Badu

: yes I am.

Reporter

: Do you read a book at that time?

Badu

: No I dont. I usually take a bath.

Reporter

: Will you be at home tomorrow?

Badu

: yes

Reporter

: Will you study at home?

Badu
Reporter

: yes I will.
: what about yesterday, were you at home yesterday?

: Yes they do

: Is it small?

: yes it is.

C
B

: it is a pen?
: yes.

3. WRITING
Write down ten to fifteen sentences about the characteristics of your friends or things you
have guessed. See the example below.
His name is He always wears glasses. He looks rather thin. He always brings a bag. His
hair is curly and his skin is rather black, etc.

UNIT 6
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

Television: How it Affects Us


How does television affect our lives? It can be very helpful to people who carefully choose the
shows that they watch. Television can increase our knowledge of the outside world; there are
high-quality programs that help us understand many fields of study: science, medicine, the
arts, and so on. Moreover, television benefits very old people who cant often leave the house,
as well as patient in the hospitals. It also offers non-native speakers the advantage of daily
informal language practice; they can increase their vocabulary and practice listening.
On the other hand there are several serious disadvantages to television. Of course, it provides
us with a pleasant way to relax and spend our free time, but in some countries, people watch
the boob tube for an average of six hours of more a day. Many children stare at a t.v. screen
for more hours each day than they do anything else, including studying and sleeping. Its
clear that the tube has a powerful influence on their lives and that its influence is often
negative.
Recent studies show that after only thirty seconds of t.v., a persons brain relaxes the same
that it does just before the person falls asleep. Another effect of television on the human
brain is that it seems to cause poor concentration. Chidden who view a lot t.v. can often
concentrate on a subject for only fifteen to twenty minutes; they can pay attention only for
amount of time between commercials.
To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!
1
2
3
4
5

What is the main idea of the text?


What does the word stare in line 11most nearly mean?
What does it in paragraph 3 line 2 refer to?
What does it in paragraph 3 line 3 refer to?
What are the effects of television on human brain?

2a. ORAL REPRODUCTION


Discuss with you friends about the following questions:
1
2
3
4

How many hours do you watch television every day?


Which show do you like most? Why?
Which shows/ programs dont you like? Why?
Does t.v. help you in any way? If so, how?

3a. GRAMMAR FOCUS


How does television affect our lives?The sentence taken from the text is a question or
interrogative in Simple PresentTense.
Interrogatives in Simple Present Tense
A. For subjects
Purpose

Question word

Predicate

Person

Who

does not like accounting?

Thing

What
What class

makes you happy?


is not interesting?

Choice

Which (house)

is yours?

Possesive

Whose class

is the most difficult one?

Number

How many people

study in this university?

Specific
thing

1
2

to assist =
populace =

4. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper!
1
2
3
4
5

What does the passage talk about?


What are the benefits of the computer in the near future?
The word transparent in line 6 nearly means
The word unobtrusive in line 7 means
The word prevalent in the last line most nearly means.

2b. ORAL REPRODUCTION


With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the text you
have read.
1
How is the development of the current computer different from computers in the near

future?
2
Ask your friends the benefits of computers in the near future especially for students
who are physically handicapped, blind, and at risk.
3b. GRAMMAR FOCUS
What will we expect from computers in the near future?The sentence taken from the text is a
question or interrogative in Simple FutureTense.
Interrogatives in Simple Future Tense
To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper! 1.What is

the name of Steven Jobs often associated with?


What did Steven Jobs experiment and make money from it?
What was the practical use of his work?
Where did he begin his business?
How was his business after six years he began his business?

1
2
3
4

3. ORAL REPRODUCTION
With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the text you
have read Discuss with your partner
1.the type of computer that most students use
the advantages and disadvantages of using computers
the computer programs that university students should use

1
2

4. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Who named the Apple computer?The sentence taken from the text is a question or
interrogative in Simple PastTense.
Interrogatives in Simple Past Tense
A. For subjects
Purpose

Question word

Predicate

Person

Who

did not join our party?

Thing

What

made you happy?

What class

was not interesting?

Choice

Which (house)

was your parents house?

Possesive

Whose car

was here yesterday?

Number

How many people

came to the meeting?

Specific thing

UNIT 9
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

How has a computer application influenced our attitudes?


Attitudes are associated with almost every learning activity. An attitude is an internal state
that affects our tendency to respond in a certain way. People generally have a positive or
negative emotional reaction to any learning situation. That emotional reaction influences our
attitudes about what we have learned. Our attitudes influence how we respond with respect
to our knowledge and skills. Attitudes are involved in choices made about smoking
cigarettes, attendening an opera, studying, following safety procedures, and obeying traffic
laws. Attitudes can be influenced and changed through the use of classical condition,
reinforcement, and human modeling.
Any computer application will have some influence on student attitudes. If the program is
designed to adapt to individual needs, then the student will experience success and have a
positive emotional reaction. If the program is too easy or too difficult, the student will
become bored or frustrated, which leads to negative attitudes. If appropriate gaming
elements are incorporated into the application, then the students will be motivated to
continue to interact with the program. When students have a choice, they will engage in
those learning activities that are enjoyable and relevant to their interests. Computer-based
videodisc applications can be used to demonstrate or model appropriate choice behaviors.
(Taken from Computers in Education by Merrill, et al.)

UNIT 10
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

Food Personalities
People express their personalities in their clothes, their cars, and their homes. Astudy shows
that our diets are also an expression of our personalities. Perhaps wedont choose foods only
for taste and nutrition. We might choose them becausethey tell people something about us.
For example, some people mainly eatgourmet foods, such as caviar and lobster, and they eat
only in expensiverestaurants (never in cafeterias or snack bars). They might want to tell the
worldthat they know about the the better things in life.
Human beings can eat many different kinds of foods, but some people choose notto eat meat.
These vegetarians often have more in common than just their diet.Their personalities might
be similar, too. For example, vegetarians in the UnitedStates may be creative people, and
they might not enjoy competitive sports or jobs.They worry about their health of the world,
and they probably dont believe in war.
Some people eat mostly fast food. One study shows that many fast food-eatershave a lot in
common with each other, but they are very much different fromvegetarians. They are
competitive and good at business. They are also in hurry.Many fast food eaters might not
agree with this description of their personalities,but it is a common picture of them.Some
people also believe that people of the same astrological sign have similar foodpersonalities.
Arians (born under the sign of Aries, between March 21 and April 19)
1
Do you know gourmet eaters? Vegetarians? Fast-food eaters? In your opinion, what
kind of people are they?
2
Do you believe the information in this reading? Why or why not?
4. GRAMMAR FOCUS
People with the sign of Taurus (April 20 to may 20) prefer healthful fruits andvegetables to
other foodThe sentence above is expressed by using a preference.There are some types of

preference.
Subject
University
students

Predicate in preference forms


like computers better than typewriters

We

prefer computer books to accounting books

The students

would rather study than play


The forms are as follows:

Subject

Predicate
like noun better than noun
prefer noun to noun
would rather verb 1st than verb 1st

Note:Instead of would rather, we may use would sooner


We may also use gerund instead of noun, e.g. I like swimming better than hiking.

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1

Please list a number of the subjects provided in this semester. Put a tick (V) on the subjects
you like and a cross (x) on the subjects you dislike. Ask your friends likes and dislikes as
given in the example below.
A

: Do you like all the subjects you are studying in this semester?

: No, I dont.

: What subjects do you like then?

: management, history, etc.

: How do you like them?

: I think I like them very much (I am crazy about them).

: Which one do you like better, management or .?

: I like management better.

: And which subjects you dislike?

: I dislike (cant stand of) mathematics

: Why do you dislike mathematics?

Subjects

like very much/


be crazy about
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..

..
..
.
.
.
.
..
..

OK

dislike/hate/cant
stand
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..
.. ..

Activity 2
Tell another friend your friends likes and dislikes you have talked about.
6. WRITING
Write a paragraph about your friends like and dislikes.Start like this:S(he) likes some
subjects s(he) is studying this semester such as, . But s(he)
Commands are expressed by the imperative. In the second person imperative, the subject
you is rarely used.
Subject
(You)

Command

(You)

select Bold Italic from the Font Style list

(You)

bring your own diskettes

click on the Browse button in the Create Shortcut dialog


box

The formula is as follows:


verb 1st
Note:
For negative commands, we put do not (dont) before the verb. For example:
-Dont bring the bad diskettes.
For non verbal predicates, we use be. For example:
-Be quiet.
-Dont be lazy.

5. SPEAKING

Activity 1
Ask a friend of you the procedure for making or doing something for example, the procedure
for making the ice cream. Firs list the ingredients and tools as shown in Table below. Start
like this:
A : Excuse me, tell me how the ice cream is made?
B : Well, first two eggs are broken into the bowl. Then one cup of sugar is added
and everything is blended together, etc.Example of Ingredients and tools for making
ice cream
No

Ingredients

Tools

123
etc

two eggs one cup of


sugar

bowel blender

Activity 2
Now change roles and practice activity 1 again.
6. WRITING
Now write up a description for making or doing something.

UNIT 12
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

Are Men More Creative Than Women?


Through out history it has been men, for the most part, who have engaged in public life. Men
have sought for public achievement and recognition, while women obtained their main
satisfactions by bearing and rearing children. In womens eyes, public achievement makes a
man more attractive as a marriage partner. But for men the situation is reversed. The more a
woman achieves publicly, the less desirable she seems as a wife.
There are three possible positions one can tackle about male and female creativity. The first
is that males are inherently more creative in all fields. The second is that if it were not for the
greater appeal of crating and cherishing young human beings, females would be as creative
as males. If this were the case, then if men were permitted the enjoyment women have
always had in rearing young children, male creativity might be reduced also. (There is some
indication in the United States today that this is so.) The third possible position is that
certain forms of creativity are more congenial to one sex than to the other and that the great
creative acts will therefore come from only one sex in a given field. (Taken from Mozaic,
Wegmann & Kenezevic, 1985)
if it were not for the greater appeal of crating and cherishing young human beings,females
would be as creative as malesThe sentence above is called a conditional sentence.
Conditional sentences have two parts: the if clause and the main clause. There are three types
of conditional sentences: Type 1: the action at present or future = probable to happen Type 2:
contrary to the facts at present = impossible to happen Type 3: contrary to the facts in the
past = impossible to happen

Type
Type 1

If clause
If you do not study hard, (it
is probable that you do not
study hard)

Main clause
you will not pass the exam. (it is
probable that you do not pass
the exam)

You would see the earth above


you. (impossible that you see the
earth above you)

Type 2

If you lived in the moon,


(impossible that you live in
the moon)

Type 3

If we had got independence


in 1940, (we did not get
independence in 1940)

Japanese would not have


colonialized our country.
(Japanese colonialized our
country)

If subject verb 1st

Subject will verb 1st

If subject verb 2snd


If subject had verb 3rd

Subject would verb 1st


Subject would have verb 3rd

Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Note:

Possible variations of the basic forms:Conditional sentences may take negative forms.In
type 1 instead of will, we may use can, may, might, must, or should.In type 2 instead of
would, we may use might or could.In type 3 instead of would have, we may use might
have, or could have.

5. SPEAKING
Activity 1
Please imagine that your friend is the one in the list below. Ask him/ her that s(he) would or
could do if s(he) were the one in the list. Change roles and practice the activity again. Start
like this:
A : If you were the President what would you do?
B : If I were the president, I would raise the fund for education.
Here are the lists:President, an artist, a bird, a rector,
Activity 2
Now imagine that your friend has something that s(he) doesnt really have, or can do some
thing that s(he) really cant do. Ask your friend, starting like this:
A

: What would you do if you had Rp. 100.000.000?

: If I had Rp. 1000.000.000, I would go around the world.

A
B

: and what would you do if you could fly planes.


: If I could fly planes I would

No Imagination have Rp.1.000.000.000,fly planes . .

etc .

Activity 3
Tell another friend about your friends imagination you have already asked in activity 1
and 2.
6. WRITING
Write down your friends imagination. You have talked about.

UNIT 13
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

Charlie Chaplin, Creator of Comedy


Charlie Chaplin has broken all records in making people laugh. No one has so set a whole
world laughing as the little man with the bowler hat, the cane, and the overlarge shoes.
Much has been written about Chaplins art and his legendary career, and opinions have
varied widely. But perhaps the commentator who called him the most universal human
being of our time comes closest to the truth. Those who have called him a genius stress the
timeless and universal qualities in his work. It is an art filled with tragic undertones and deep
human feeling, with which an audience cannot help but become involved and identified. It is
for these reasons, I believe, that the figure of Charlie has kept its grip on generation after
generation.
All his biographers agree that Chaplins miserable childhood in the London slums was the
decisive influence in his development and in the type of films he made. Chaplin himself
emphasizes it in his memories. The more one reads about his earliest period, the more one is
inclined to agree. For Chaplin, his suffering youth has a lingering fascination: it gave him a
world that he could transform with his imagination onto the movie screen.
Chaplin was never afraid of tackle controversial subjects in his films. He released a parody on
war (Shoulder Arms) only a few weeks before the American troops came home from the hell
of the trenches in World War I (1918). This was regarded as
1
What our comedian program do you dislike? Why?
2
What is your pinion about the comedian groups in our country? Why or why not?
3
How is program of comedy in our country different from that of comedy in other
countries?
4. GRAMMAR FOCUS
For instance, he refers to the Trobriand Islanders who differentiate between what he defines

as fairy tales, legends, and myths. (The underlined clause is called


relative clause).

Person

Noun

Pronoun

Relative clause

Main clause

Subject

The woman
The woman
The man
The man
The man
The girl

who
that
whom
who
that
whose

teaches you English


teaches you English
we met yesterday
we met yesterday
we met yesterday
hair is long

lives here.
lives here.
is his father.
is his father.
is his father.
will see you.

Thing

Noun

Pronoun

Relative clause

Main clause

Subject

The cat
The cat
The house
The house
The car

which
that
which
that
whose

bit you
bit you
you have painted
you have painted
color you like

will be killed.
will be killed.
is very good.
is very good.
is very old.

The car

of which

color you like

is very old.

Object

Possessiv
e

Object
Possessiv
e

Note:The formula is as follows:


B

: I think a good tv program is first, the program that deals with education,
second the program that doesnt show any violence, third, .

6. WRITING
Please write down the characteristics of person or someone you have talked about.

UNIT 14
1. READING
You have to read the following text at home

Thinking Skills
Many teachers today believe that they teach thinking skills. In most instances, however, what
they actually do involves putting students into situations where they are simply made to
think and expected to do is as best they can. Most methods teachers customarily use to
teach thinking are indirect, rather than direct. These methods are based on the
questionable assumption that by doing thinking, students automatically learn how to engage
in such thinking.
Educational researchers have pointed out time and again that learning to think is not an
automatic by-product of studying certain subjects, assimilating the products of someone
elses thinking, or simply being asked to think about a subject or topic. Nor do youngsters
learn how to engage in critical thinking effectively by themselves. There is little reason to
believe that competence in critical thinking can be an incidental outcome of instruction
directed, or that appears to be directed, at other ends. By concentrating on the detail of the
subject mater being studied, most common approaches to teaching critical thinking so
obscure the skills of how to engage in thinking that students fail to master them.
If we want to improve student proficiency in thinking, we must use more direct methods of
instruction than we now use. First, we must establish as explicit goals of instruction, the
attitude, skill, and knowledge components of critical thinking. Second, we must employ
direct, systematic instruction in these skills prior to,

5. SPEAKING
Activity 1
Ask a friend of you the procedure for making or doing something for example, the procedure
for making the ice cream. First list the ingredients and tools as shown in Table below. Start

like this:
A : Excuse me, tell me how the ice cream is made?
B : Well, first two eggs are broken into the bowl. Then one cup of sugar is
added and everything is blended together, etc.
Example of Ingredients and tools for making ice cream
No

Ingredients

Tools

two eggs

bowel

one cup of sugar

blender

etc

Activity 2
Now change roles and practice activity 1 again.
6. WRITING
Now write up a description for making or doing something.