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SALT-AFFECTED AND WATERLOGGED AREAS

OF INDIA

SoilandLandResourcesAssessmentDivision
LandResourcesUse&Monitoringgroup
NATIONALREMOTESENSINGCENTRE
BALANAGAR,HYDERABAD

SALT-AFFECTED AND WATERLOGGED AREAS OF INDIA

NationalRemoteSensingCentre
Balanagar,Hyderabad
IndianSpaceResearchOrganization

2014
ii

Document Control Sheet


Document Number
Title

NRSC-RSAA-LRUMG-SLRAD-Jan.,2014-TR/SAWL
SALT-AFFECTED AND WATERLOGEED AREAS OF INDIA

Type of Document

Technical Report

Number of pages

10

Author(s)

Soil and Land Resources Assessment Division

Reviewed by

Group Head, LRUMG

Approved by

DD (RSAA), NRSC

Abstract

Assessment of salt-affected and water logged areas is an important pre-requisite for planning
reclamation and improving land productivity. Mapping of Salt-affected and water logged areas on
1:50,000 scale for the entire country has been has been carried out using 3-seasons LiSS-III
satellite data of 2005-06, available soil and land use/cover information. Adequate field checks
were carried out and soil samples were analyzed for characterization of salt-affected areas with
respect to nature and degree of problem. The present document briefly discusses soil salt
affected and waterlogging processes and types, along with methodology adopted and results
obtained.

Controlled by

Head, Soil & Land Resources Assessment Division

Distribution

Unrestricted

Reproduction Rights

This report and its contents are the property of National Remote Sensing Centre

iii

SALT-AFFECTED AND WATERLOGGED MAP OF INDIA


1. INTRODUCTION
Land is facing serious threats of deterioration due to unrelenting human pressure and utilisation incompatible with its capacity. The
information on land degradation is needed for a variety of purposes like planning reclamation programs, rational land use planning,
for bringing additional areas into cultivation and also to improve productivity levels in degraded lands. Land degradation has
numerous environmental, economic, social and ecological consequences. There can be rather serious effects in terms of soil
erosion, loss of soil fertility and thus reduced plant growth or crop productivity, clogging up of rivers and drainage systems, extensive
floods and water shortages.
It is estimated that some forms of land degradation constituting 75% of the earths usable landmass affect 4 billion people in the
world. About 15% of the world population is effected by land degradation which is likely to worsen unless adequate and immediate
measures are taken to arrest the degradation processes. The largest category is land affected by water and wind erosion, which
account for 80 percent of degraded followed by salinization / alkalization and waterlogging. Reliable time series data are available
only for salt affected land, which has grown from 7.18 million hectares in 1987 to over 10 million in 1993 (Annon, 2002). According
to NRSA / DOS project on Mapping of salt affected soils of India on 1:250,000 scale, the area under salt affected soils in the
country is 6.727 million hectares.
An estimated area of 2.46 million ha land is suffering from water logging in irrigation commands in India (Anonymous, 1991). An
area is said to be waterlogged when the water table rises to an extent that soil pores in the root zone of a crop become saturated,
resulting in restriction of normal circulation of the air, decline in the level of oxygen and increase in the level of carbon dioxide. It

may result in various types of soil degradation like physical degradation or chemical degradation or salinity. Satellite data are being
used regularly for mapping and monitoring of waterlogged areas.
2.SALT-AFFECTED AND WATERLOGGED AREAS CLASSIFICATION SCHEME
A. SALT AFFECTED AREAS
Salt affected areas are one of the most important degraded areas where soil productivity is reduced due to either salinization( EC > 4
dS/m) or sodicity (ESP > 15) or both. The soils with EC more than 2 dS/m in black soils and >4 dS/m in non-black soils was
considered as saline in the present project. Soils with soil pH more than 8.5 results in increase of exchangeable sodium percentage
(ESP) in soils (> 15) and are termed as sodic. Based on the type of problem, it has been divided into saline, sodic and saline-sodic.
Under NR Cenus project three types of salt affected soils viz., saline, sodic and saline-sodic are mapped using three seasons
satellite data, field work and analysis of soil samples under three severity classes namely slight, moderate and strong.
A.1 Saline soils
These soils occurs in arid and semi-arid regions, coastal areas, irrigated commands and peripheries of streams in peninsular
regions. The soil pH is usually less than 8.5 and EC is more than 4 dS/m. On satellite data it is seen in light grey to white with
association of poor crop growth. In severe cases, there may not be any vegetal cover, even grass.
A.2 Sodic soils
Usually it occurs in the older alluvial plains. Because of high sodium content, soils will be moist during post-monsoon season which
can be seen easily in the post-monsoon image. It appears on satellite data as grayish white / dull white discrete patchy. It occurs as

contiguous patches with smooth texture on the image. Multi temporal data set will help in delineation of affected areas and to some
extent severity classes. The soil pH values will be more than > 8.5, and EC will be < 4 dS/m and ESP is greater than 15.
A.3 Saline Sodic Soils
The Saline-Sodic soils occur in arid and semiarid regions. It appears as grayish white with red and white mottle color on the image.
Bright white tone, dominantly in Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains. In coastal plain it is creamy white color with mottle tone. The soil pH is
greater than or equal to 8.5 and EC is greater than or equal to 4 dS/m.

Limits for Salinisation / Alkalisation : Criteria for assessing salinity / sodicity in Vertisols / Non-Vertisols
S.No

Salinity (dS / m)
Vertisols
NonVertisols
1.
Slight
2-4
4-8
2.
Moderate
4-8
8 - 16
3.
Severe
>8
> 16
S = Saline, N = Sodic, SN = Saline-sodic.
S.
No
1
2
3

Severity Class

Sodicity (ESP)
Vertisols
NonVertisols
5 - 10
15 - 40
10 - 20
40 - 60
> 20
> 60

Type

Classes included
Moderate
Severe
Saline
S1
S2
S3
Sodic
N1
N2
N3
Saline-sodic
S1N1
S1N2, S2N1,
S1N3, S2N3,
S2N2
S3N1, S3N2,
S3N3
Note: The sub-categorization of salt-affected soils is based on most limiting factor concept.
Slight

A.4. Rann
It is an extensive salt marsh of western India between the Gulf of Kutch and the Indus River delta. It is a seasonal salt marsh
located in the Thar Desert in the Kutch District of Gujarat. The dry season dries out the marshland, leaving isolated salt islands on a
vast plain. As the summer heat intensifies, the salt in the blistered earth is transformed into a radiant dazzling whiteness. With the
onset of the monsoon, the marshland floods and is transformed into a vast inland sea.
B. WATER LOGGING
Water logging is considered as physical deterioration of land. It is affected by excessive ponding / logging of water for quite some
period and affects the productivity of land or reduces the choice of taking crops. In the map, four waterlogged areas are depicted viz.,
seasonal waterlogging, seasonal waterlogging associated with salinity/sodicity, permanent waterlogging and sub-surface
waterlogging.
B.1 Seasonal water logging
These areas are surface pounded areas due to flooding by river water or submergence by rain water or human intervention in
natural drainage systems where the water stagnates for quite a long time. Seasonally waterlogged areas are those low lying or
depression areas that get saturated due to heavy rains. They are normal in post-monsoon season. Normally one crop season is
affected.
B.2 Seasonal water logging associated with salinity/sodicity
These are seasonally waterlooged areas but during rabi and summer the salts come on to surface and affect the crop growth.

B.3 Permanent water logging


These are the areas where there is a continuous surface pounding of water or soil profile is saturated for one or more seasons.
Permanent water bodies, jheels, tals, lakes, mangroves, etc. were not included in surface ponding class. More than one cropping
season is affected.
B.4 Sub-surface Water logging
If the water table is within 2 m from the surface it adversely affects crop by virtue of saturating the root zone due to capillary rise.
These areas are potential threat to get surface ponded in due course of time, if the water accumulation continues.

3.METHODOLOGY
The various steps in the methodology adopted are - geo-rectification of satellite data, design and development of geo-database with
uniform scheme, delineation of salt-affected and waterlogged categories through on-screen visual interpretation, ground truth
collection, soil chemical analysis, finalization of polygon boundaries, quality checking, area estimation and statistics compilation. Brief
details of methodology are as follows :

Georectified Resourcesat LISS-III data of 2005-06 covering Kharif (August November), Rabi (January - March), Zaid
(April - May) seasons was used to address spatial and temporal variability in salt-affected and waterlogged areas.

Methodology of the study is on-screen visual interpretation of different salt-affected and waterlogged classes on satellite
data FCC following standard visual interpretation techniques using the interpretation cues / classification scheme provided
in manual.

Sample points were identified for various land degradation classes as per sample scheme and data collection formats
provided in project manual.

Soil sample collection and analysis for chemical properties like pH, EC and ESP.

The preliminarily interpreted salt-affected and waterlogged areas were finalised in light of ground truth data and soil
analytical data (wherever done) to arrive at the final map. Existing legacy spatial data of on forest cover, wastelands, salt
affected soils, biodiversity, land use / land cover etc. were made use of.

The minimum mapping polygon size of 3 mm x 3 mm on 1:50,000 scale equivalent to 2.25 ha area were retained

Two tier quality checking (QC) mechanism was adopted in this project viz., Internal QC (IQC) and External QC (EQC).
The IQC team essentially comprised of experts available within the partner institute, while EQC team comprised of experts
dawn from NRSC / SAC / RRSC and other national thematic mapping organizations.

IQC team checked 100 percent

mapping process while EQC team checked 10 % of the area randomly

Entire data was organized as geodatabase for proper organization and retrieval along with appropriate metadata as per
NNRMS standards

District-wise salt-affected and waterlogged area statistics were generated.

The salt-affected and waterlogged area process matrix and visual interpretation cues are provided here under as table - 1 and 2 :

Table-1. Salt-affected and waterlogged areas process matrix

Land
degradation
type

Physiography

Land cover

Soil type

Climate

RS data

Remarks

Standing water during


post-monsoon season
in low-lying areas.

Lower elements of
slope/ local
depressions / areas
without adequate
drainage, coastal
backwater areas, flood
plains of river

Crop lands
excluding paddy
areas.

Heavy textured
soils like clay
loams and clays /
soils with subsurface
impervious layers
like lenses of
clay / kankar.

Humid, subhumid and


semi-arid
regions / canal
irrigated areas

Water signature
present in kharif
data set while they
are with crop
signature in rabi
season optical
remote sensing
data.

Natural wetland
ecosystems like
mangroves,
marshes, swamps
etc are to be
excluded.

Surface
ponding Permanent

Standing water for


more than two
cropping seasons in a
year in low-lying
areas.

Lower elements of
terrain like local
depressions those do
not have adequate
drainage, coastal
backwater areas, flood
plains of river

Crop lands
excluding paddy
areas.

Heavy textured
soils like clay
loams and clays.
Any soil with subsurface
impervious layer.

Humid, subhumid and


semi-arid
regions /
canal irrigated
areas

Water signature
present in kharif
data set as well as
in rabi season
optical remote
sensing data.

Natural wetland
ecosystems like
mangroves,
marshes, swamps
etc are to be
excluded.

Sub-surface
water logging

No manifestation of
surface ponding

Lower elements of
slope and local
depressions.

Crop lands
excluding paddy
areas.

Heavier textured
soils in subsurface horizons
/ soils with subsurface
impervious layer.

Humid, subhumid and


semi-arid
regions / canal
irrigated areas

SWIR and night


time thermal band
and microwave
data may be
helpful in certain
circumstances.

Use ground water


table / piezometric
observations.

Surface
ponding -

Field indicators

Seasonal

Relatively poor crop


growth.

Gleying/ mottling
in sub-surface
horizons.

Saline

Surface white /light


grey encrustations.

Coastal plains /
younger alluvial flood
plain / irrigated
commands

Wastelands, crop
lands, land with /
without scrubs &
fallows

Medium to heavy
textured soils
with ECe > 4.0

Arid / semi
arid / sub dry
humid

Explicitly
manifested

Needs to be
supported with soil
chemical analysis
data.

Older alluvial plains /


irrigated commands
/stream banks

Wastelands, crop
lands, land with /
without scrubs &
fallows

Medium to heavy
textured soils
with ESP > 15
and PH > 8.5

Arid / semi
arid / dry subhumid regions.

Explicitly
manifested

Needs to be
supported with soil
chemical analysis
data.

Poor in crop growth in


pockets.
Sodic

Grayish white / white


encrustations.

Generally harder soil


surface.
Needs very careful
delineation in black
soil and sandy
regions.

Poorly drained areas

Calcium carbonate
concretions at lower
depths / at time on
surface.
Saline
Sodic

Crystal white to
grayish white
encrustations at
surface

Younger alluvial plains


/ stream banks

Wastelands, crop
lands, land with /
without scrub &
fallows

Medium to Heavy
textured soils
with ESP > 15
and EC < 4

Arid / semi
arid / sub
humid dry
Canal irrigated
areas

Poorly drained areas


Poor crop growth

Conspicuously
manifested

Needs to be
supported with soil
chemical analysis
data.

Table-2. Visual interpretation cues for salt-affected and waterlogged areas using multi-temporal satellite data.
Land
degradation
type

Colour / Tone
(On standard FCC)

Texture

Pattern

Size

Shape

Association

Remarks

(on LISS-III data)

Surface
ponding

Light blue to Very dark


blue

Smooth

Discrete patches

Small to large

Regular /
Irregular

Depressions in inland
plains / coastal plains

Sub-surface
water logging

Medium to dark gray;


on FCC with SWIR
band
(R:G:B=SWIR:NIR:Red
) various shades of
blue.

Smooth

Discrete/
contiguous
patches

Medium to
large

Irregular

In irrigated areas /
plains with high water
table.

Saline

Light gray to white

Smooth

Discrete patches

Small to
medium

Irregular

Coastal plains / young


alluvial plains / stream
courses / irrigated canal
commands.

Needs very careful


delineation in black soils
and sandy regions.

Sodic

Grayish white / dull


white

Smooth

Discrete patches

Small to
medium

Irregular

Older alluvial plains /


stream courses /
irrigated canal
commands.

Needs very careful


delineation in black soils
and sandy regions.

Grayish white to White

Smooth

Discrete patches

Small to
medium

Irregular

Young to older alluvial


/ stream courses /
irrigated canal
commands.

Needs very careful


delineation in black soils
and sandy regions.

Saline
Sodic

2. DATASET
Resourcesat-1 Data from LISS-III sensor of 3 seasons pertaining to 2005-06 are used in this study.
3. SUGGESTED USE :
The salt-affected and waterlogged area maps should be used at broad level for the following purposes :

Soil reclamation planning.

Watershed management

Planning Agricultural productivity improvement

Scientific research involving carbon cycle, hydrologic cycle, energy budget studies, weather / climate prediction, etc.

4. LIMITATIONS
Database should be used at scales equal or smaller than 1:100,000
5. DISCLAIMER

Accuracy of salt-affected and waterlogged class are subjected to availability of suitable cloud-free satellite data.

Data cant be used for any legal purpose.

Maps should not be used for commercial purpose.

10

PROJECTTEAM

Chhattisgarh
RegionalRemoteSensingCentreCentral
Dr.SubrataN.Das
Dr.S.S.Rao
Dr.A.O.Varghese
Dr.G.Sreenivasan
Mr.A.Anand
Mr.D.S.PrakasaRao
Mr.K.HareefBabaSaheb
Gujarat
BhaskaracharyaInstituteforSpaceApplications&Geo
informatics,Gandhinagar
Dr.VijaySingh
Dr.MaheshB.Chodvadiya
Mr.ApurvaDalwadi
Goa
GoaStateRemoteSensingCentre
Dr.Joseph.S.R.DeSouza
Mr.MohanGirap
NRSC,Hyderabad
Mr.MilindWadodkar
Haryana
HaryanaRemoteSensingApplicationCentre,Hissar
Dr.R.S.Hooda
Dr.MothiKumar
Mr.SatbirSingh
Mr.AnilKumar
CentralSoilSalinityResearchCentre,Karnal
Dr.A.K.Mandal
Dr.GurbachanSingh
HimachalPradesh
HimachalPradeshRemoteSensingCentre,Shimla

AndhraPradesh
AndhraPradeshStateRemoteSensingApplicationCentre,
Hyderabad
Dr.K.MruthyunjayaReddy
Mr.A.NageswaraRao
Mr.G.Gowtam
Mrs.P.Lavanya
NationalRemoteSensingCentre(NRSC)
Mr.M.A.Fyzee
Mrs.G.Sujatha
Mr.MilindWadodkar
Mr.S.S.Thammappa
ArunachalPradesh
ArunachalPradeshSpaceApplicationsCentre,Itanagar
Dr.G.Ch.Chennaiah
Mr.S.DeSarkar
Mr.HarekrishnaDutta
Mr.ChaukenMonglong
Dr.SwapnaAcharjee
Mr.LiagiTajo
Assam
AssamRemoteSensingApplicationsCentre(Assam)
Miss.BharatiSarania
Mr.RamenSarma
NationalInstituteofRuralDevelopmentNER(Assam)
Dr.K.Haloi
Bihar
CentreforDevelopmentofAdvancedComputing
(CDAC),Pune
Dr.BenidharDeshmukh
Mr.SandeepK.Srivastava,
Mr.SunilLondhe
Ms.UpasanaDutta
Mr.SwapnilAwaghade

Dr.R.K.Sood
Dr.RajendraThapa
Ms.KalpanaNegi
Mr.S.S.Deol
Jammu&Kashmir
DirectorateofEnvironment,Ecology&RemoteSensing
Mr.S.A.R.Shah
Dr.TasneemKeng
Dr.ShakeelAhmed
Mr.OwasAhmed
Jharkhand
JharkhandSpaceapplicationsCentre,Ranchi
Dr.A.T.Jeyaseelan
Mr.NajmulHoda,
Mr.VinodKumarHonnavar,
Mr.NirajKumar
Karnataka
KarnatakaStateRemoteSensingApplicationsCentre,Bengaluru
Dr.D.K.Prabhuraj
Ms.B.L.Jyothi
Ms.R.Chaithra
Ms.R.Shilpa
Mr.K.Srinath
Mr.RushyaShrungeshwara
Ms.K.GeethaKumari
Ms.S.Sunitha
Ms.R.Rekha
Mr.K.T.Guruswamy
Mr.P.Manjunath
UniversityofAgriculturalSciences,Dharwad
Dr.G.S.Dasog
Dr.P.L.Patil
Mr.M.S.Korade
Kerala

SoilSurveyDept.,Thiruvananthapuram
Dr.P.N.Premachandran
Mr.ThomasCherian
Mr.P.Ramesh
Mr.C.S.Dathan
Mr.B.Saharsh
Mr.BineshAnthony
Mr.Anil.M.Joseph
Mr.P.V.Pradeep
MadhyaPradesh
RemoteSensingApplicationsCentre,Bhopal
Dr.R.Sharma,
Dr.G.D.Bairagi,
Mr.N.K.Sharma
Mr.G.S.Tagore
NRSC,Hyderabad
Dr.K.Sreenivas
Mr.S.S.Thammappa
Mr.MilindWadodkar

Maharashtra
MaharashtraRemoteSensingApplicationsCentre,Nagpur
Dr.VinodBhothale
Dr.A.K.Sinha
Mr.PrashantRajankar
Mr.I.K.Ramteke
Manipur
ManipurRemoteSensingApplicationsCentre
(Manipur)
Mr.Y.Nilkanta
Mr.N.Gagan
Meghalaya
NorthEasternSpaceApplicationsCentre
Mr.RanjitDas

Mrs.PratibhaT.Das
Dr.K.K.Sarma
Ms.H.SuchitraDevi
Ms.JenitaMerryNongkynrih
Mr.DiganataBarman
Mr.LiagiTazo
Mizoram
MIRSAC,Aizawl
Dr.R.K.Lallianthanga
Mr.RobertLalchhanhimaSailo
Mr.H.Lalhmachhuana
Ms.H.Mingthangpuii
Nagaland
NagalandScience&TechnologyCouncil,Kohima
Dr.NesaHiese
Mr.DithoKatiry

Odisha
OdishaSpaceApplicationsCentre,Bhubaneswar
Mr.A.K.Mohapatra
Mr.P.Mishra
Ms.BinithaTripathy
Mr.S.K.Das
Mr.K.S.Pattanaik
Mr.ArunK.Mohapatra
Mr.P.K.Pagoda
Mr.A.Das
Punjab
PunjabRemotesensingApplicationsCentre,Ludhiana
Dr.P.K.Sharma
Dr.V.K.Verma
Dr.AnilSood
Dr.D.C.Loshali
Dr.Minakshi

Mr.DeepakMehra
Mr.Narinder
Rajasthan
RRSCWest,Jodhpur
Dr.J.R.Sharma
Dr.A.K.Bera
Dr.S.RamaSubramoniam
RajasthanStateRemoteSensingApplicationsCentre,
Jodhpur
Dr.N.K.Kalra,
Dr.Joshi,
Dr.N.L.Purohit,
Dr.F.K.Joshi,
Dr.RakeshKachwwaha
CentralAridZoneResearchInstitute,Jodhpur
Dr.AmalKar
Dr.P.C.Moharana
Dr.MaheshKumar
BirlaInstituteofTechnology,Jaipur
Dr.M.P.Punia
Mr.PeeyushGaurav
Sikkim
StateCouncilofScience&Technology,Gangtok
Dr.M.L.Arawatia
Mr.D.G.Shrestha
RegionalRemoteSensingCentreEast,Kolkata
Dr.A.Jeyaram
Dr.V.M.Chowdary
Ms.Swati
TamilNadu
TamilNaduAgriculturalUniversity,Coimbatore
Dr.S.Natarajan
Dr.R.Sivasamy
Dr.KumaraPerumal

Dr.P.Kannan

Mr.BimleshSamanta
Ms.DebashreeMaitra
RegionalRemoteSensingCentreEast,Kharagpur
Dr.A.Jeyaram
Dr.D.Dutta
Delhi&UnionTerritories
NRSC,Hyderabad
Dr.K.Sreenivas
Mr.S.S.Thammappa
Mr.M.A.Fyzee
Mr.MilindWadodkar
PROJECTMANAGEMENT
ProjectDirectors
Dr.Y.V.N.KrishnaMurthy
Mr.G.Behera
Dr.P.S.Roy
Dr.V.Raghavswamy
Dr.P.G.Diwakar
Supervision&TechnicalGuidance
Dr.T.Ravisankar
Dr.K.Sreenivas
Dr.B.R.M.Rao
TechnicalLeadTeam
Mr.M.A.Fyzee
Mr.S.S.Thammappa
Mrs.G.Sujatha
Mr.MilindWadodkar
Softwaredevelopment
Mr.N.SeshadriSekhar
Mr.N.Srinivas
Mr.Lesslie
GeodatabaseOrganisation&Analysis
Mrs.G.Sujatha
Mr.MilindWadodkar

Tripura
TripuraSpaceApplicationCentre(Tripura)
Mr.SubrataPaul
Mr.SujitDas
UttarPradesh
RemoteSensingApplicationsCentreUP,Lucknow
Dr.AlokMathur
Mr.SajanA.Punnoose
Dr.KaushlendraSingh
Dr.ShahzadKhan
Mr.SushilChandra
Mr.VarunKumar
IndianInstituteofRemoteSensing,Dehradun
Dr.S.K.Saha
Dr.K.P.Sharma
Dr.M.Kudrat
Dr.SureshKumar
Dr.D.Mitra,
Dr.A.Velumurgan
Uttarakhand
UttarakhandSpaceApplicationsCentre,Dehradun
Dr.M.M.Kimothi
Mr.SunilChandra
Ms.AshaRawat
Ms.AshaThapliyal
Ms.SushmaGairola
WestBengal
RemoteSensingCell,Dept.ofScience&Technology,
Govt.ofW.B.,Kolkata
Dr.P.Chakrabarti
Ms.SubrataB.Dutta,
Ms.SusmitaDasgupta

Mr.V.B.Sastry
Mr.A.AshokKumar
Mr.BikyaNaik
EnrichmentoflandDegradationdatasets
NBSS&LUP/ICAR
Dr.DipakSarkar
Dr.C.P.ObiReddy
Dr.RajeevSrivastava
Dr.G.S.Sidhu
Dr.A.K.Sahoo
Dr.K.S.AnilKumar
Dr.SiladityaBandopadhyay
Mr.NirmalKumar
Mr.RavindraNaitam
NRSC/ISRO
Dr.P.S.Roy
Mr.G.Behera
Dr.T.Ravisankar
Dr.K.Sreenivas
Smt.G.Sujatha
Mr.M.A.Fyzee

QualityAssuranceTeam
Dr.B.R.M.Rao
Dr.L.Venkataratnam
Dr.L.M.Pande
Dr.JitendraPrasad
Dr.R.L.Mehta
Dr.A.K.Barman
Dr.T.Ravisankar
Dr.K.Sreenivas
Mr.M.A.Fyzee
Mr.S.S.Thammappa
Mrs.G.Sujatha
Mr.MilindWadodkar
CoordinationforNortheasternstates
NorthEasternSpaceApplicationsCentre,Umiam
Dr.S.Sudhakar
Dr.P.P.NageswaraRao
CartographicSupport
Ms.D.V.Ramani
Mr.B.S.S.Prasad
OperationsSupport
Mr.S.Thirunavukkarasu
Mr.D.JanardhanRao
Mr.A.V.Raju
Mr.P.G.VijayaKumar
Mr.P.Venugopal
Mr.D.N.Rao
Mr.K.Sanathanan
Mr.K.Anjaneyulu
SecretarialSupport
Mr.E.Shankaraiah
Ms.MaliniRajKumar
Ms.P.Yamuna
Mr.M.N.RameshBabu