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Volume 24

Managing Editor
Mahabir Singh
Editor
Anil Ahlawat
(BE, MBA)

No. 10

October 2016

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CONTENTS

Class 11
NEET | JEE Essentials

Ace Your Way CBSE

25

MPP-4

36

Brain Map

46

Class 12
NEET | JEE Essentials

40

Brain Map

47

Ace Your Way CBSE

56

Exam Prep

65

Core Concept

72

MPP-4

76

Competition Edge
Physics Musing Problem Set 39

80

You Ask, We Answer

82

Physics Musing Solution Set 38

83

Crossword

85

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PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

CENTRE OF MASS OF A RIGID BODY

Ideally a rigid body is a body with a perfectly


definite and unchanged shape. The distances
between all pairs of particles of such a body do not
change. e.g., fan, pen, stone etc.
For a system of particles, centre of mass is an
imaginary point at which its total mass is supposed
to be concentrated.
If co-ordinates of particles of masses m1, m2, ...... are
(x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2), ...... then position vector of their
center of mass is RCM = xCM i + yCM j + zCM k

m1 (x1 i + y1 j + z1 k) + m2 (x2 i + y2 j + z2 k)
=

+ m3 (x3 i + y3 j + z3 k) + ......
m1 + m2 + m3 + ......

(m1x1 + m2 x2 + ......)i + (m1 y1 + m2 y2 .....) j

+ (m1z1 + m2 z2 + .....)k
m1 + m2 + m3 + ......

m x + m2 x2 + ............ 1
= mi xi
xCM = 1 1
m1 + m2 + .......... M
m y + m2 y2 + ............ 1
yCM = 1 1
= mi yi
m1 + m2 + .................... M
m z + m2 z2 + ............ 1
zCM = 1 1
= mi zi
m1 + m2 + .................... M
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

If the system has continuous distribution of mass,


treating the mass element dm at position r as a
point mass and replacing summation by integration.
1
RCM = r dm
M
1
1
1
and xCM = xdm, yCM = ydm, zCM = zdm
M
M
M
It may be inside or outside of the body.
Its position depends on the shape of the body.
For a given shape it depends on the distribution of
mass within the body and is closer to massive part.
For symmetrical bodies having homogeneous
distribution of mass it coincides with centre of
symmetry of geometrical centre.
If we know the centre of mass of parts of the system
and their masses, we can get the combined centre of
mass by treating the parts as point particles placed
at their respective centre of masses.

It is independent of the co-ordinate system, e.g., the


centre of mass of a ring is at its centre whatever be
the co-ordinate system.
If the origin of co-ordinate system is at centre of
mass, i.e., RCM = 0
1
Then by definition
mi ri = 0 mi ri = 0
M
The sum of the moments of the masses of a
system about its centre of mass is always zero.

Hemispherical shell
R
yc = , xc = 0
2

Solid hemisphere
yc =

For a system of two point masses m1r1 = m2r2

3R
, xc = 0
8


Circular cone (solid)

yc =

h
, x =0
4 c









The centre of mass lies closer to the heavier mass.

yc =

Centre of mass of symmetric body

Rectangular plate (By symmetry)


b
xc = ,
2
L
yc =
2

Semi-circular ring
2R
yc =
, xc = 0

Semi-circular disc
yc =

4R
, xc = 0
3

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16




MOTION OF CENTRE OF MASS

For a system of particles, position of centre of mass


m r + m2r2 + m3r3 + .......
is RCM = 1 1
m1 + m2 + m3 + ......

Velocity of CM
m v + m2v2 + ......
vCM = 1 1
m1 + m2 + ......

dr

=v

dt

Acceleration of CM
m a + m2a2 + ....
aCM = 1 1
m1 + m2 + ....

dv

a =
dt

Linear momentum of a system of particles is equal


to the product of mass of the system with the
velocity of its centre of mass.
If no external force acts on a system the velocity of
its centre of mass remains constant, i.e., velocity of
centre of mass is unaffected by internal forces.
d(MvCM )
From Newtons second law Fext =
dt
If Fext = 0 then vCM = constant.

PROBLEM SOLVING TRICKS

10

h
, x =0
3 c


Triangular plate (By qualitative argument)


At the centroid,
h
yc =
3
xc = 0

Circular cone (hollow)

(For centre of mass problems)


Make full use of the symmetry of the object, be it
point, line, or plane.

If the object can be divided into several parts, treat


each of these parts as a particle, located at its own
center of mass.
Choose the axis wisely : If given system is a group
of particles, choose one of the particles as origin. If
system is a body with a line of symmetry, consider
it as x-axis. The choice of origin is completely
arbitrary ; the location of the centre of mass is same
regardless of the origin from which it is measured.

PURE ROTATIONAL MOTION

A body is said to be in pure rotational motion if


the perpendicular distance of each particle remains
constant from a fixed line or point and do not move
parallel to the line, and that line is known as axis of
rotation.
s
Angular displacement =
r
Where s = length of arc traced by the particle.
r = distance of particle from the axis of rotation.
Angular velocity =

I = mi ri 2
i =1

d
dt

d
dt
All the parameters , and are same for all the
particles. Axis of rotation is perpendicular to the
plane of rotation of particles.
If = constant, then
where 0 = initial angular speed
= 0 + t

The moment of inertia of a rigid body about a


given axis is the sum of the product of the masses
of its constituent particles and the square of their
respective distances from the axis of rotation.

Moment of inertia of a body about an axis not only


depend upon the mass of the body but also upon the
distribution of its mass about the axis of rotation.
Greater is the part of the mass of the body away
from the axis of rotation, greater is the moment of
inertia of the body about that axis.
The radius of gyration


K of a body about


an axis of rotation is


defined as the root

mean square distances


of the particles from the
axis of rotation and its 
square when multiplied with the mass of the body
gives moment of inertia of the body about the axis.

Angular acceleration =

= 0t +

1 2
t
2

t = time interval

K=

= root mean square distance of a particles from


axis OZ.
Two Important Theorems on Moment of
Inertia :

2 = 20 + 2
These equations are known as equations of rotational
motion.
1
1
Total kinetic energy = m1v21 + m2v22 + ..........
2
2
1
= (m1r12 + m2r22 + ........) 2
2
1
= I2; where I = Moment of inertia = m1r 12 + m2r 22 + ....
2
= angular speed of body.

12

The property of a body by virtue of which it opposes


any change in its state of rotation about an axis is
known as moment of inertia.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

Perpendicular axes theorem (Only applicable


to plane lamina (that means for 2-D objects
only)):
Iz = Ix + Iy

(Object is in x-y plane)


Where Iz = moment of

inertia of the body about
z-axis.

Ix = moment of inertia of
the body about x-axis.
Iy = moment of inertia of
  

the body about y-axis.
Iy = Ix + Iz
(Object is in x-z plane)
Ix = Iy + Iz
(Object is in y-z plane)

MOMENT OF INERTIA

r12 + r22 + ..... + rn2


n

Parallel axes theorem (Applicable to any type


of object) :

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

13

IAB = Icm + Md2


Where
Icm = Moment of inertia of the
object about an axis passing
through centre of mass and
parallel to axis AB






IAB = Moment of inertia of the object about


axis AB
M = Total mass of object
d = Perpendicular distance between axis
about which moment of inertia is to be
calculated and the one passing through
the centre of mass.

Moment of inertia and radius of gyration of some regular bodies about specific axis
Body

Axis of rotation

Moment of
inertia (I)

Radius of
gyration (K)

about an axis passing through centre and perpendicular


to its plane

MR2

1
MR2
2

3
MR2
2

3
R
2

about a tangent perpendicular to its plane

2MR2

R 2

about an axis passing through centre and perpendicular


to its plane

1
MR2
2

Uniform circular ring about a diameter


of mass M and radius R
about a tangent in its own plane

Uniform circular disc


of mass M and radius R

Solid sphere of radius R


and mass M

about a diameter
about a tangent in its own plane

1
MR2
4
5
MR2
4

R/2
5

R
2

about a tangent perpendicular to its own plane

3
MR2
2

3
R
2

about its diameter

2
MR2
5

2
R
5

about a tangential axis

7
MR2
5

7
R
5

about its diameter

2
MR2
3

2
R
3

about a tangential axis

5
MR2
3

5
R
3

about its own axis

1
MR2
2

Hollow sphere of radius


R and mass M

l 2 R2
about an axis passing through centre of mass and
+
M

Solid cylinder of length perpendicular to its own axis


12 4
l, radius R and mass M

l 2 R2
+
12 4

l 2 R2
M +
4
3

l 2 R2
+
3
4

about the diameter of one of the faces of cylinder

14

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

MR2

about its own axis

Hollow cylinder of
R2 l 2
about an axis passing through its centre of mass and
mass M and radius R
+
M
perpendicular to its own axis
2 12

R
R2 l 2
+
2 12

about an axis through centre of mass and perpendicular


to the rod

ML2
12

about an axis through one end and perpendicular to rod

ML2
3

Thin rod of length L

12

l 2 + b2
Rectangular lamina of about an axis passing through its centre of mass and
M

length l and breadth b perpendicular to plane


12

l 2 + b2
12

Uniform cone of radius about an axis passing through its centre of mass and
R and height h
joining its vertex to centre of base

Parallelopiped of length
l, breadth b, height h about its central axis
and mass M

l 2 + b2
M

12

TORQUE

point = r F ,
where F = force applied
P = point of application
of force
Q = point about which we
want to calculate the torque.
r = position vector of the point of application
of force from the point about which we want to
determine the torque.

3
10

l 2 + b2
12

F = force applied on the body


If forces F1 and F2 are applied on the body to
rotate it in anti-clockwise direction and F3
makes body to rotate in clockwise direction.
Then,
resultant = F1r1 + F2r2 F3r3 (in anti-clockwise
direction)

It represents the capability of a force to


produce change in the rotational motion of the body.
Torque of force F about a

= rF sin = rF = rF
Where = angle between the direction of force
and the position vector of P with respect to Q.
r = perpendicular distance of line of action of
force from point Q.
F = force arm
Torque acting on the body about the axis of
rotation, = r F
r = position vector of the point of application of
force about the axis of rotation

3
MR2
10

net = 1 + 2 + 3 + .........
Torque produced by a force about an axis can
be zero if force vector
(i) is parallel to the axis of rotation.
(ii) passes through the axis of rotation.

If net external torque acting on the body is zero,


then the body is said to be in rotational equilibrium.
i.e., ext = 0.

Relation between and (angular acceleration):


=I
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

15

Torque is also change in angular momentum


dL
=
dt

Work done by a torque and power of a torque : If


a torque applied on a body rotates it through an
angle , the work done by the torque is
W =
or work done = torque angular displacement
Power of a torque is given as
W
P=
=
=
t
t

axis, then angular momentum of rigid body


about this axis will be given by L = I
Angular momentum of a rigid body in rotation plus
translation about a general axis





i.e., Power of a torque = torque angular velocity

ANGULAR MOMENTUM

Angular momentum of a particle in motion about


a fixed point (O)
Suppose a particle A has a linear momentum
p = mv as shown in the figure.






  
  

Angular momentum of particle A about point


O will be, L = r p = r (mv ) = m(r v )
Magnitude of L is L = mvr sin = mvr where
is the angle between r and p .

Direction of L will be given by right hand


screw rule. As shown in figure, direction of L
is perpendicular to paper inwards.
If the particle passes through point O, r = 0.
Therefore, angular momentum is zero.
Angular momentum of a rigid body in pure rotation
about axis of rotation

ROTATIONAL PLUS TRANSLATIONAL


MOTION OF A RIGID BODY

There will be two terms


(a) Ic
(b) mvcr = mvr
From right hand screw rule, we can see that
Ic and mvr both terms are perpendicular to
the paper in inward direction. Hence, they are
added.
or LTotal = Ic + mvr
In a problem, if these two terms are in opposite
directions then they will be subtracted.
Law of conservation of angular momentum : If
no external torque acts on a system, total angular
momentum of the system remains unchanged.
In the absence of any external torque,
L = I = constant
2
2
or I11 = I22 or I1
= I2
T1
T2

A complex motion of rotation plus translation can


be simplified by considering
The translational motion of centre of mass of
the rigid body.
Rotational motion about the centre of mass.
Now, velocity of point
(90 )
P is the vector sum of


two terms v and r.

 =  

Here v is common for


all points, while r is

different for different
points, as r is different.
vp = v 2 + (r)2 + 2(v )(r)cos(90 )



16



If a rigid body is in pure rotation about a fixed

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

= v 2 + r 2 2 + 2vr sin

Acceleration of point P is the vector sum of three terms.

a
an = r2

(acceleration of CM)
(acting towards centre O)

d
dt
Again, here a is
common for all
points, while
an and at are
different.
at = r = r

(acting tangentially)






MOTION OF A SPHERICAL BODY ON


ROUGH INCLINED SURFACE








tan

mR2

I
If = 0, body will slip downwards (only translational
motion) with an acceleration,
a1 = g sin
If > min , body will roll down without slipping
with an acceleration, (rotation + translation both)
1+

Minimum
value
of
coefficient of friction
required for pure rolling,
min =

Accelerated pure rolling : If v and are not constant


then, a = R is an additional condition for pure
rolling on horizontal ground, which takes place in
the presence of some external forces.
Here friction plays very
important role. Magnitude
and direction of friction is

so adjusted that equation

a = R is satisfied. If friction
is insufficient for satisfying the equation a = R,
slipping (either forward or backward) will occur
and kinetic friction will act.

 

Uniform pure rolling : In which v and remain


constant.
Condition of pure rolling is
v = R. In this case


bottommost point of

the spherical body is at

rest. It has no slipping
with its contact point on


ground. Because ground

point is also at rest.
If v > R, then net velocity of point P is in the
direction of v. This is called forward slipping.
If v < R, then net velocity of point P is in
opposite direction of v. This is called backward
slipping.



If a spherical body is rolling over a plank,


condition for no slipping between spherical
body and plank is, v R = v0

a2 =

g sin
I
1+
mR2

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

17

When > min force of friction will act upwards.


Magnitude of this force is,
mg sin
f =
mR2
1+
I
If < min , body will roll downwards with
forward slipping. Maximum friction will act in
this case. The acceleration of body is
a3 = g sin g cos
Comparison of pure rolling and pure sliding on a
inclined plane

Angular velocity of rigid body is,


p r
=
I
(p r) = angular impulse = change in angular
momentum = I.

Physical
quantities

Pure
rolling
g sin

Acceleration

1+
Velocity

gsin

K2
r2

2 gh
1+

Time taken to
cover the distance
s, where K is the
radius of gyration.

Pure
sliding

2gh

2s
g sin

ANGULAR IMPULSE

Linear impulse when multiplied by perpendicular


distance gives angular impulse. Angular impulse is
also equal to change in angular momentum.








Translational
motion

Rotational motion
about a fixed axis

Displacement x

Angular displacement

Velocity v = dx/dt

Angular velocity
= d/dt

Acceleration
a = dv/dt

Angular acceleration
= d/dt

Mass M

Moment of inertia I

Force F = Ma

Torque = I

Work dW = Fds

Work dW = d

Kinetic energy of a Kinetic energy of a rotational


translational motion motion
KR = I2/2
KT = Mv2/2

r2

K2
2s 1 +

r2
g sin

ANALOGY BETWEEN TRANSLATIONAL


MOTION AND ROTATIONAL MOTION

Power P = Fv

Power P =

Linear momentum
p = Mv

Angular
momentum L = I

Equations of
translational motion
(i) v = u + at

Equations of
rotational motion
= 0 + t
1
= 0t + t 2
2

1 2
(ii) s = ut + at
2
(iii) v2 u2 = 2as
a
(iv) snth = u + (2n 1)
2

2 02 = 2
nth = 0 +

(2n 1)
2

18

A rigid body is kept over a smooth table. It is hit


at a point by a linear impulse p at a perpendicular
distance r from C as shown. Since it is hit at
some perpendicular distance from C its motion is
rotational plus translational. Velocity of centre of
p
mass will be given by, v =
m
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

ANSWER KEY

MPP-4 CLASS XII


1.
6.
11.
16.
21.
26.

(a)
(b)
(b)
(d)
(b,c)
(5)

2.
7.
12.
17.
22.
27.

(c)
(d)
(a)
(a)
(a,b,d)
(a)

3.
8.
13.
18.
23.
28.

(c)
(a)
(c)
(b)
(a,d )
(a)

4.
9.
14.
19.
24.
29.

(d)
(a)
(d)
(d)
(1)
(c)

5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.

(c)
(c)
(c)
(a,b,c)
(6)
(b)

1. The centre of mass of a non-uniform rod of length

(a) 6 mv 02

(b) 12 mv 02

Kx 2
, where K is a
L
constant and x is the distance from one end is

(c) 4 mv 02

(d) 8 mv 02

L whose mass per unit length =

3L
L
K
3K
(b)
(c)
(d)
4
8
L
L
2. A uniform rod AB of mass m and length 2a is
falling freely without rotation under gravity with
AB horizontal. Suddenly the end A is fixed when
the speed of the rod is v. The angular speed with
which the rod begins to rotate is
4v
v
v
3v
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3a
2a
3a
4a
3. A semicircular lamina of mass m, radius r and
centre at C is shown in the figure. Its centre of mass
is at a distance x from C. Its
moment of inertia about an axis
through its centre of mass and
perpendicular to its plane is
1 2
1 2
(a)
mr
(b)
mr
2
4
1 2
1 2
(c)
mr + mx 2
(d)
mr mx 2
2
2
4. Three identical rings, each of mass M and radius
R are arranged as shown in figure. The moment of
inertia of the arrangement about YY is
(a) 1 MR2
2
(b) MR2
(c) 5 MR2
2
7
(d)
MR2
2
(a)

5. A ring of mass m and radius R has three particles


attached to the ring as

shown in the figure. The


centre of the ring has a
speed v0. If the system is
in pure rolling then the
kinetic energy of the
system is

6. A solid sphere and a solid cylinder of same mass


are rolled down on two inclined planes of heights
h1 and h2 respectively. If at the bottom of the plane
the two objects have same linear velocities, then the
ratio of h1 : h2 is
(a) 2 : 3
(b) 7 : 5
(c) 14 : 15 (d) 15 : 14
7. A horizontal turn table in the form
of a disc of radius r carries a gun at

G and rotates with angular velocity


0 about a vertical axis passing
through the centre O. The increase
in angular velocity of the system if
the gun fires a bullet of mass m with a tangential
velocity v with respect to the gun is
(moment of inertia of gun + table about O is I0)
2 mvr
mvr
(b)
(a)
I0
I + mr 2
0

mvr
v
(d)
2I 0
2r
8. Three identical rods, each of length l, are joined to
form an equilateral triangle. Its radius of gyration
about an axis passing through a corner and
perpendicular to the plane of the triangle is
(c)

(a)

l
2

(b)

3
l
2

(c)

l
2

(d)

l
3

9. A uniform disc of radius R lies in x-y plane with its


centre at origin. Its moment of inertia about the axis
x = 2R and y = 0 is equal to the moment of inertia
about the axis y = d and z = 0. Where d is equal to
15
4
17
R
R
R (c) 3R
(b)
(d)
2
3
2
10. A constant power is supplied to a rotating disc.
Angular velocity () of disc varies with number of
rotations (n) made by the disc as
(a)

(a) n1/3
(c) n2/3

(b) n3/2
(d) n2
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

19

11. A disc is rolling on the inclined plane. What is the


ratio of its rotational KE to the total KE?
(a) 1 : 3
(b) 3 : 1
(c) 1 : 2
(d) 2 : 1
12. A boat of 90 kg is floating in still water. A boy of
mass 30 kg walks from the stern to the bow. The
length of the boat is 3 m. Find the distance through
which the boat will move.
(a) 0.75 m (b) 0.90 m (c) 1.0 m (d) 1.5 m
13. A disk and a sphere of same radius but different
masses roll off on two inclined planes of the same
altitude and length. Which one of the two objects
gets to the bottom of the plane first?
(a) Both reach at the same time
(b) Depends on their masses
(c) Disk
(d) Sphere
[NEET Phase I 2016]
14. From a disc of radius R and mass M, a circular
hole of diameter R, whose rim passes through the
centre is cut. What is the moment of inertia of the
remaining part of the disc about a perpendicular
axis, passing through the centre?
(a) 11 MR2/32
(b) 9 MR2/32
2
(c) 15 MR /32
(d) 13 MR2/32
[NEET Phase I 2016]
15. A uniform circular disc of radius 50 cm at rest is free
to turn about an axis which is perpendicular to its
plane and passes through its centre. It is subjected
to a torque which produces a constant angular
acceleration of 2.0 rad s2. Its net acceleration in
m s2 at the end of 2.0 s is approximately
(a) 6.0
(b) 3.0
(c) 8.0
(d) 7.0
[NEET Phase I 2016]
16. An automobile moves on a road with a speed of
54 km h1. The radius of its wheels is 0.45 m and
the moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis of
rotation is 3 kg m2. If the vehicle is brought to rest
in 15 s, the magnitude of average torque transmitted
by its brakes to the wheel is
(a) 10.86 kg m2 s2 (b) 2.86 kg m2 s2
(c) 6.66 kg m2 s2 (d) 8.58 kg m2 s2
[AIPMT 2015]

17. In the figure shown ABC is
a uniform wire. If centre of
mass of wire lies vertically



BC
below point A, then
is
AB
close to
(a) 1.85
(b) 1.5
(c) 1.37
(d) 3
[JEE Main Online 2016]
20

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

18. A roller is made by joining


together two cones at their
vertices O. It is kept on two
rails AB and CD which are
placed
asymmetrically
(see figure), with its axis
perpendicular to CD and its centre O at the centre
of line joining AB and CD (see figure). It is given a
light push so that it starts rolling with its centre O
moving parallel to CD in the direction shown. As it
moves, the roller will tend to
(a) turn left
(b) turn right
(c) go straight
(d) turn left and right alternately
[JEE Main Offline 2016]
19. A cubical block of side 30 cm is
moving with velocity 2 m s1 on
a smooth horizontal surface.
The surface has a bump at a point O as shown in
figure. The angular velocity (in rad/s) of the block
immediately after it hits the bump, is
(a) 13.3
(b) 5.0
(c) 9.4
(d) 6.7
[JEE Main Online 2016]
20. Concrete mixture is made by mixing cement, stone
and sand in a rotating cylindrical drum. If the drum
rotates too fast, the ingredients remain stuck to the
wall of the drum and proper mixing of ingredients
does not take place. The maximum rotational speed
of the drum in revolutions per minute (rpm) to
ensure proper mixing is close to
(Take the radius of the drum to be 1.25 m and its
axle to be horizontal)
(a) 27.0
(b) 0.4
(c) 1.3
(d) 8.0
[JEE Main Online 2016]
SOLUTIONS
1. (a) :

Mass of the element PQ is dm = dx = Kx . dx


L
4
L
3
L Kx
L
4
dx
3L
0 x dm = 0 L
x
=
=
=
CM
L
2

3
0 dm L Kx dx L 4
0 L
3

2. (d) :







Angular momentum about A will be conserved,


i.e., Li = Lf
m(2a)2
or mva = I or mva =

3
3v
=
4a
3. (d) : We know, IC = mr2/2
Using parallel axes theorem,
IC = ICM + mx2
ICM = IC mx2 = mr2/2 mx2
4. (d) : Moment of inertia of ring I about YY =

3
MR2
2

3
2
Moment of inertia of ring II about YY = MR
2
1
Moment of inertia of ring III about YY = MR2
2
Moment of inertia of the system about YY
3
3
1
7
= MR2 + MR2 + MR2 = MR2
2
2
2
2
5. (a) : As we know, KE = KEtran. + KErot.
2

1
1
v
KE = m(v02 ) + (mR2 ) 0
R
2
2
1
1
+ (3m)( 2v0 )2 + (m)(2v0 )2 = 6mv2
0
2
2
6. (c) : In case of pure rolling of a solid sphere,
KR 2
=
KT 5

Where KR = Rotational kinetic energy,


KT = Translational kinetic energy.
Then at the bottom of the plane, KR + KT = mgh1
or

5
KT = mgh1
7

For solid cylinder,

KR
KT

KR 2
as K = 5

T
1
=
2

As, KR + KT = mgh2
2
KT = mgh2
3
At the bottom, both have the same linear velocities,
i.e., they have the same translational kinetic
energies

h1 14
5
2
mgh1 = mgh2
=
h2 15
7
3
7. (a) : Given, I0 is the moment of inertia of table and
gun and m is the mass of bullet.
Initial angular momentum of system about centre
Li = (I0 + mr2) 0
...(i)
Let be the angular velocity of table after the bullet
is fired. Final angular momentum
Lf = I0 + mr2 mvr
or Lf = I0 m (v r) r
...(ii)
where (v r) is absolute velocity of bullet to the
right.
From eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
mvr
( 0 ) =
I0 + mr 2
This is the increase in angular velocity.
8. (c) : Moment of inertia of all the three rods is

3l 3 2
Ml 2 Ml 2 Ml 2
I=
+
+
+ M
= Ml
2 2
3
3
12
As I = MK2
3
l
So, 3MK 2 = Ml 2 K =
2
2
9. (b) : An axis passing
through x = 2R, y = 0 is
in direction as shown
in figure. Moment of
inertia about this axis
will be
1
9
I1 = mR2 + m(2R)2 = mR2
...(i)
2
2
Axis passing through y = d, z = 0 is shown by dotted
line in figure. Moment of inertia about this axis will
be
1
I2 = mR2 + md 2
...(ii)
4
By equations (i) and (ii), we get

1
9
17
mR2 + md 2 = mR2 or d =
R
4
2
2
10. (a) : We have P = .
P
d
or I = P or 2d = d
I
d
On integration, we find that ()1/3
or (n)1/3
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

21

1
1
11. (a) : Etot = Etran + Erot = mv 2 + I 2
2
2
1
1 1
v2
= mv 2 + mr 2
2
2 2
r2
1
1
3
= mv 2 + mv 2 = mv 2
2
4
4
1 2
Erot 4 mv
1
=
= = 1: 3
Etot 3 mv 2 3
4
12. (a) : As shown in figure, let C1, C2 and C be the
centres of mass of the boy, boat and the system (boy
and boat) respectively. Let x1 and x2 be the distances
of C1 and C2 from the shore. Then the centre of mass
will be at a distance,
30 x1 + 90 x2
xCM =
30 + 90

Since g is constant and l, R and sin are same for


both
td

ts

3 5
15
td > ts
=
2 7
14
Hence, the sphere gets to the bottom first.
M
14. (d) : Mass per unit area of disc =
2
Mass of removed portion of disc, R
=

30[x1 (3 d )] + 90(x2 + d )
30 + 90
As xCM = xCM
=
xCM

30(x1 3 + d ) + 90(x2 + d ) 30 x1 + 90 x2
=
120
120
or 90 + 30 d + 90 d = 0
or d = 0.75 m
13. (d) : Time taken by the body to reach the bottom
when it rolls down on an inclined plane without
slipping is given by

t=

22

2l 1 + k
R2
g sin

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

M
R
=
2
4
2
R
Moment of inertia of removed
portion about an axis passing
through centre of disc O and
perpendicular to the plane of
disc,
2
IO
= IO + Md
M =

As the boy moves from the stern to the bow, the


boat moves backward through a distance d so that
position of the centre of mass of the system remains
unchanged.

k2
R2
1 + d2
1+
R =
2R2 k = R , k = 2 R
=
d

s
5
2R2
2
ks2
1+
1+ 2
5R 2
R

1 M R 2 M R 2
+
2 4 2
4 2

2
2
2
= MR + MR = 3MR
32
16
32
When portion of disc would not have been removed,
the moment of inertia of complete disc about centre
O is
1
IO = MR2
2
So, moment of inertia of the disc with removed
portion is

I = IO IO
=

1
3MR2 13MR2
MR2
=
2
32
32

15. (c) : Given, r = 50 cm = 0.5 m, = 2.0 rad s2, 0 = 0


At the end of 2 s,
Tangential acceleration, at = r = 0.5 2 = 1 m s2
Radial acceleration, ar = 2r = (0 + t)2r
= (0 + 2 2)2 0.5 = 8 m s2
Net acceleration,
a=

at2 + ar2 = 12 + 82 = 65 8 m s 2

16. (c) : Here,


Speed of the automobile,
5
v = 54 km h 1 = 54 m s 1 = 15 m s 1
18

Radius of the wheel of the automobile, R = 0.45 m


Moment of inertia of the wheel about its axis of
rotation, I = 3 kg m2
Time in which the vehicle brought to rest, t = 15 s
The initial angular speed of the wheel is
1

1500
100
v 15 m s
rad s 1 =
rad s 1
=
=
45
3
R 0.45 m
and its final angular speed is
f = 0 (as the vehicle comes to rest)
The angular retardation of the wheel is
100
f i 0 3
100
=
=
=
rad s 2
t
15
45
The magnitude of required torque is
i =

q 2 p2
+
2
p 2
4 p2 + pq = q2 + p
=
2 ( p + q)
2
1+

q
=
p

q
=
p

18. (a)

q2

q 1
1 q
+ =0
2 2
p 2
p
p

1
(1) (1)2 4(1)
2
2 1

Possible value of

1 3
2

q 1+ 3
=
= 1.366 1.37
p
2

19. (b) : Since no external torque acts on the system,


therefore total angular momentum of the system
about point O remains constant.
24

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

After hitting , Lf = I
mva
a
mv = I or =
2I
2
Here, I = moment of inertia of cube about its edge
2

2a
2
2
2
a2
= m + m
= ma + ma = 2ma

6
6
2
3
2
mva 3 3v
32
=
=
=
= 5 rad s 1
2 4 a 4 0 .3
2 2ma
20. (a) : Radius of the drum, R = 1.25 m
For just one complete rotation, speed of the drum
at top position,
Angular velocity of the drum, =

17. (c) : Let AB = p



BC = q

= linear mass density



of the rod

According to question,
centre of mass of the rod lies vertically below point A.
q
p
(q) + (p) cos 60
2
2

XCM = p cos 60 =
( p + q)

a
2

v = Rg

100

= I | | = (3 kg m2 )
rad s 2
45

20
=
kg m2s 2 = 6.66 kg m2s 2
3

Before hitting, Li = mv

v
g
=
R
R

10
60 10
rad s 1 =
rpm = 27 rpm
1.25
2 1.25

CLASS XI Series 4


Gravitation and Mechanical
Properties of Solids

Time Allowed : 3 hours


Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i)

All questions are compulsory.

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.
(v)

Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

SECTION-A
1. What is the Youngs modulus for a perfect rigid
body?
2. Why are space rockets usually launched from west
to east in the equatorial plane?
3. Why do spring balances show wrong readings after
they have been used for a long time?
4. The shear modulus of a material is always
considerably smaller than the Young modulus for
it. What does it signify?
5. If the earth were hollow, but still had the same mass
and radius, would your weight be different?
SECTION-B
6. A particle is projected upward from the surface of
the earth (radius R) with kinetic energy equal to half
the minimum value needed for it to escape. To which
height does it rise above the surface of the earth?
7. Discuss the variation of acceleration due to gravity
with the altitude.

8. Define Poisson's ratio. Write an expression for it.


What is the significance of negative sign in this
expression?
9. The breaking stress for aluminium is 7.5 107 N m2.
Find the greatest length of aluminium wire that
can hang vertically without breaking. Density of
aluminium is 2.7 103 kg m3.
OR
How is the knowledge of elasticity useful in selecting
metal ropes used in cranes for lifting heavy loads?
10. How will you weigh the sun, that is estimate its
mass? The mean orbital radius of the earth around
the sun is 1.5 108 km.
SECTION-C
11. A rocket is fired from the earth towards the
sun. At what distance from the earths centre
is the gravitational force on the rocket zero?
Mass of the sun = 2 1030 kg, mass of the earth
= 6 1024 kg. Neglect the effect of other planets etc.
(orbital radius = 1.5 1011 m).
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

25

12. State and explain Kepler's laws of planetary motion.


Name the physical quantities which remain constant
during the planetary motion.
13. Compute the bulk modulus of water from the
following data : Initial volume = 100.0 litre, pressure
increase = 100.0 atm (1 atm = 1.013 105 Pa), final
volume = 100.5 litre. Compare the bulk modulus
of water with that of air (at constant temperature).
Explain in simple terms why the ratio is so large.
14. Four identical hollow cylindrical columns of mild
steel support a big structure of mass 50,000 kg. The
inner and outer radii of each column are 30 cm and
60 cm respectively. Assuming the load distribution to
be uniform, calculate the compressional strain of each
column. The Youngs modulus of steel is 2.0 1011 Pa.
15. A structural steel rod has a radius of 10 mm and a
length of 1 m. A 100 kN force F stretches it along its
length. Calculate (a) the stress, (b) elongation, and (c)
strain on the rod. Given that the Young's modulus, Y,
of the structural steel is 2.0 1011 N m2.
16. Define the term stress. Give its units and dimensions.
Describe the different types of stress.
17. Two identical heavy spheres are separated by a
distance 10 times their radius. Will an object placed
at the mid point of the line joining their centres be
in stable equilibrium or unstable equilibrium? Give
reason for your answer.
18. A mass m is placed at P a distance

h along the normal through the

 
centre O of a thin circular ring of

mass M and radius r as shown in

the figure. If the mass is removed
further away such that OP becomes 2h, by what
factor the force of gravitation will decrease, if h = r ?
19. Frictional force increases the velocity of a satellite.
Discuss.
OR
A star like the sun has several bodies moving around
it at different distances. Consider that all of them are
moving in circular orbits. Let r be the distance of
the body from the centre of the star and let its linear
velocity be v, angular velocity , kinetic energy K,
gravitational potential energy U, total energy E and
angular momentum L. As the radius r of the orbit
increases, determine which of the above quantities
increase and which ones decrease.
20. If the normal density of sea water is 1.00 g cm3,
what will be its density at a depth of 3 km? Given
26

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

compressibility of water = 0.0005 per atmosphere,


1 atmospheric pressure = 106 dyne cm2, g = 980 cm s2.
21. How will the value of g be affected if (i) the rotation
of the earth stops (ii) the rotational speed of the
earth is doubled (iii) the rotational speed of the
earth is increased to seventeen times its present
value?
22. The planet mars has two moons, phobos and deimos.
(i) phobos has a period of 7 h, 39 min and an orbital
radius of 9.4 103 km. Calculate the mass of mars.
(ii) Assume that earth and mars move in circular
orbits around the sun, with the martian orbit being
1.52 times the orbital radius of the earth, what is the
length of the martian year in days?
SECTION-D
23. Sohan is a student of class XI and reads an article
on astronomy in a magazine. Astronauts spend
weeks and months in orbiting spacecrafts and
space stations. Although gravity acts on them,
the astronauts experience long durations of zero
gravity due to centripetal motion. On earth, gravity
provides the force that causes our muscles and
bones to develop to the proper strength so that we
may function in our environment. After reading the
article some questions arise in his mind. He goes to
his physics teacher to know the answer. Answer the
following questions based on the information.
(a) What happens to muscles and bones in a zero
gravity environment?
(b) How is our circulatory system affected?
(c) Do astronauts lose blood in zero gravity
environment.
(d) What inference do you draw from the above
discussion?
SECTION-E
24. What is escape velocity? Obtain an expression for
the escape velocity on the earth in different form.
Why is it that there is no atmosphere on the moon?
Explain.
OR

Define orbital velocity of a satellite. Derive


expressions for the orbital velocity of a satellite.
Show that the escape velocity of a body from the
earth's surface is 2 times its velocity in a circular
orbit just above the earth's surface.
25. What is meant by gravitational potential energy of
a body? What is the zero level of potential energy?
Derive an expression for the gravitational potential

energy of a body of mass m located at distance r


from the centre of the earth.
OR
Explain what happens when the load on a metal
wire suspended from a rigid support is gradually
increased. Illustrate your answer with a suitable
stress-strain graph.
26. (a) A steel wire with a circular cross section has
a radius of 0.1 cm. The wire is 10 m long when
measured lying horizontal, and hangs from a
hook on the wall. A mass of 25 kg is hung from
the free end of the wire. Assuming the wire to be
uniform and lateral strains << longitudinal strains,
find the extension in the length of the wire. The
density of steel is 7860 kg m3 (Youngs modulus
Y = 2 1011 N m2).

(b) If the yield strength of steel is 2.5108 N m2,


what is the maximum weight that can be hung at
the lower end of the wire?
OR
Consider a long steel bar under a tensile stress due
to forces F acting at the edges along the length of
the bar (see figure). Consider a plane making an
angle with the length. What are the tensile and
shearing stresses on this plane?







(a) For what angle is the tensile stress a maximum?

recover their original configurations. Thus, the


readings shown by such balances will be wrong.
4.

This shows that it is easier to slide layers of atoms of


solids over one another than to pull them apart or
to squeeze them close together.

No, because g on the surface of the earth remains


GM
same, i.e., g = 2 .
R
6. For the particle to escape, kinetic energy = potential
energy
1 2 GMm
mve =
R
2
GMm
1 1
But supplied kinetic energy = mve2 =
2 2
2R
Suppose the particle rises to a height h, then
1 1 2 GMm
mve =
R+h
2 2
GMm GMm
or
=
2R
R+h
h=R
5.

7.

Consider the earth to be a sphere of mass M, radius


R and centre O. Then the acceleration due to gravity
at a point A on the surface of the earth will be
GM
g= 2
(i)
R
If gh is the acceleration due to gravity at a point B at
a height h from the earth's surface, then
GM
gh =
(ii)
(R + h)2
Dividing equation (ii) by (i), we get

(b) For what angle is the shearing stress a maximum?

gh
GM
R2
=

g (R + h)2 GM

SOLUTIONS
1.

We know, Y =

stress
longitudinal strain

Longitudinal strain is zero for a perfect rigid body.


Hence, Youngs modulus for such a body is infinite.
2.

3.

We know that the earth rotates from west to east and


as such all points on the earth have velocity from
west to east. Moreover, this velocity is maximum in
the equatorial plane as v = R. This maximum linear
velocity is added to the launching velocity of the
rocket and consequently launching becomes easier.
When spring balances have been used for a long
time, they develop elastic fatigue in them. The
springs of such balances will take more time to

or

gh
R2
=
g (R + h)2

or

gh
=
g

 

 

R2


2

h
R2 1 +
R

h
= 1 +
R

 

=1

2h
R



(using binomial theorem)


or

2h
g h = g 1
R

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

27

8.

9.

Within the elastic limit, the ratio of lateral strain to


the longitudinal strain is called Poisson's ratio.
Suppose the length of the loaded wire increases
from l to l + l and its diameter decreases from D to
D D.

l
Longitudinal strain =
l

D
Lateral strain =
D
Poisson's ratio is
D / D
Lateral strain
=
=

l / l
Longitudinal strain
l D
or = .
D l
 
The negative sign indicates that longitudinal and
lateral strains are in opposite sense.
Let L be the greatest length of aluminium wire that
can hang without breaking.
Mass of the wire, M = AL
Mg ( AL) g
Stress =
= Lg
=
A
A
As breaking stress = 7.5 107 N m2,
7

or

Lg = 7.5 10 N m
7.5 107
7.5 107
L=
=
g
2.7 103 9.8
= 2.8 103 m = 2.8 km

10. The gravitational force acting on the earth due to

the sun is F =

, r mean orbital radius


r2
of the earth around the sun.
Now, the centripetal force acting on the earth due
to the sun is
4 2
Fc = ME r2 = ME r 2 , angular velocity
T
Since, this centripetal force is provided by the
gravitational pull of the sun on the earth, so,
4 2r 2
4 (3.14)2 (1.5 1011 )3
MS =
=
GT 2 (6.67 1011 ) (365 24 60 60)2
2 1030 kg

11. Let d be the distance of a point from the earth

where gravitational forces on the rocket due to the


sun and the earth become equal and opposite. Then
distance of rocket from the sun = (r d). If m is the
mass of rocket then
GMS m GME m
(r d )2 MS
or
=
=
ME
(r d )2
d2
d2
MS
r d
=
d
ME
Given, MS = 2 1030 kg; ME = 6 1024 kg;
r = 1.5 1011 m

or

OR

The thickness of metallic ropes used in cranes to lift


heavy loads is decided from the knowledge of the
elastic limit of the material and the factor of safety.
Suppose a crane having steel ropes is required to
lift load of 10 ton i.e., 104 kg. The rope is usually
designed for a safety factor of 10 i.e., it should not
break even when a load of 104 10 =105 kg is applied
to it. If r is the radius of the rope, then
F Mg 105 9.8
Ultimate stress = = 2 =
A r
r 2
The ultimate stress should not exceed the elastic
limit (= 30 107 N m2) for steel.
105 9.8
= 30 107

2
r
or r = 0.032 m = 3.2 cm
A single wire of this much radius would be a rigid
rod. For the ease in manufacture and to impart
flexibility and strength to the rope, it is always made
of a large number of thin wires braided together.
28

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

GMS ME

r d
2 1030 103
=
=
d
3
6 1024

or

r
10 3
1=
d
3

or

d=

or

r 3
3 + 10

r
10 3
3 + 10 3
= 1+
=
d
3
3

1.5 1011 3
3 + 10 3

= 2.6 108 m

12. To explain the motion of the planets, Kepler

formulated the following three laws.


Law of orbits (first law) : Each planet revolves
around the sun in an elliptical orbit with the sun
situated at one of the two foci.
The planets move around the sun in an elliptical
orbit. An ellipse has two foci S and S', the sun
remains at one focus S.











PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

29

PA = 2a = major axis, BC = 2b = minor axis


The points P and A on the orbit are called the
perihelion and the aphelion and represent the closest
and farthest distances from the sun respectively.
Law of areas (second law) : The radius vector drawn
from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in
equal intervals of time i.e., the areal velocity (area
covered per unit time) of a planet around the sun
is constant.
Suppose a planet takes same time to go from position
A to B as in going from C to D. From Kepler's
second law, the areas ASB and CSD must be equal.
Clearly, the planet covers a larger distance CD when
it is near the sun than AB when it is farther away in
the same interval of time. Hence the linear velocity
of a planet is more when it is closer to the sun than
its linear velocity when away from the sun.





Laws of periods (Third law) : The square of the


period of revolution of a planet around the sun is
proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of
its elliptical orbit.
If T is the period of revolution of a planet and R is
the length of semimajor axis of its elliptical orbit,
then
T2 R3
or T2 = KR3
where K is a proportionality constant.
For two different planets, we can write
T12 R13
=
T22 R23
Thus larger the distance of a planet from the sun,
the larger will be its period of revolution around the
sun.
5

13. P = 100 atmosphere = 100 1.013 10 Pa


3

Initial volume, V = 100 litre = 100 10 m3


Final volume, V1 = 100.5 litre = 100.5 103 m3
V = change in volume = V1 V
= (100.5 100) 103 m3 = 0.5 103 m3
P
As we know, Bw =
V
V
100 1.013 105 100 103
Bw =
0.5 103
or Bw = 2.026 109 Pa

30

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

Also we know that the bulk modulus of air at S.T.P.


is given by
Bair = 105 Pa
Bw 2.026 109
=

= 2.026 104 = 20260


Bair
105
The ratio is too large. It means gases are highly
compressible whereas liquids are almost
incompressible.
11

14. Here, Y = 2.0 10

Pa,
Inner radius of each column, r1 = 30 cm = 0.3 m;
Outer radius of each column, r2 = 60 cm = 0.6 m
Therefore, area of cross-section of the each column,

A = (r22 r12 ) = (0.62 0.32 ) = 0.27 m2


The mass supported on the four columns,
M = 50,000 kg
The whole weight of the structure will be shared by
the four columns. Therefore, compressional force
on one column,
Mg 50, 000 9.8
F=
=
N
4
4
F/A
Now, Y =
l/L
Therefore, compression strain,
l
F
50, 000 9.8
=
=
= 7.22 107
L AY 4 0.27 2.0 1011
15. Here, r = 10 mm = 0.01 m, l = 1 m,
F = 100 kN = 105 N, Y = 2.0 1011 N m2
F
F
105
(a) Stress = = 2 =
A r
(3.14) (0.01)2
8
= 3.18 10 N m2
F l
(b) As Y = .
A l
Elongation,
F l 3.18 108 1
l = . =
A Y
2.0 1011
3
= 1.59 10 m = 1.59 mm
l 1.59 103 m
(c) Strain =
=
1m
l
= 1.59 103 = 0.16%
16. The internal restoring force developed per unit area

of a deformed body is called stress.


If F is the deforming force applied to an area A of a
body and if the body is within elastic limit, then by
definition
restoring force deforming force F
=
=
Stress =
A
area
area

The stress is of two types


(a) Normal stress : When the elastic force
developed is perpendicular to the surface, the stress
is called the normal stress. Such type of stress is
developed when there is either longitudinal or
volume strain. Normal stress is of two types
(i) Tensile stress : when there is an increase in
length or volume
(ii) Compressive stress : when there is a
decrease in length or volume.
(b) Tangential stress or Shearing stress : When the
elastic force developed is parallel (tangential) to the
surface, the stress is called the tangential or shearing
stress. Such type of stress is developed when there is
shearing strain.
In figures (a) and (b), different types of normal
stresses: (i) longitudinal stress (tensile and
compressive), and, (ii) volume stress have been
shown, where F is normal to the surface.



 


 






18. Consider a small element of the ring of mass dM.

Distance between dM and m = x







  

 
 

  









Due to it, the resultant force is zero. To check


stability, if mass m is displaced towards right by
small distance r, then the force on the mass m, due
to object B is
GMm
FB =
(5R r )2
Force on mass m due to object A is
GMm
FA =
(5R + r )2
At new point, FB > FA and the object starts moving
towards sphere B. So, object of mass m will be in
unstable equilibrium.






In figure (c), shear stress has been depicted, where


the force is parallel to the surface.
The SI unit of stress is N m2 or pascal (Pa).
The dimensional formula for stress is [ML1 T 2] as
force [MLT2 ]
= [ML1T 2].
=
Stress =
2
area
[L ]
17.

P is the mid point of AB. Magnitude of force applied


by each sphere on the mass m, is given by
GMm
F=
(5R)2

 

Also x2 = r2 + h2
Gravitational force between dM and m
G(dM )m
dF =
x2
Now, dF has two components as shown in figure.
dF cos along PO and dF sin perpendicular to PO.
Due to symmetry of ring, dF sin = 0
So, net force on mass m due to ring is given by
G(dM )m h

F = dF cos =
x
x2

F=

F=

Gm
x

h dM =

GMm h
x3

GMmh

(r + h2 )3/2
Now, when h = r,
GMmr
GMm
F = 2 2 3/ 2 =
(r + r )
2 2r 2
When, h = 2r,
2GMm
GMm(2r )
F = 2
=
2 3/ 2
5 5r 2
(r + 4r )
2
F 5 5 4 2
=
=

1
F
5 5
2

2 2
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

31

19. Imagine a satellite of mass m moving with a velocity

v in an orbit of radius r around a planet of mass M.


GMm
Potential energy of the satellite, U =
r
1 2 GMm
Kinetic energy of the satellite, K = mv =
2
2r
(as v = GM / r )
Total energy of the satellite, i.e.,
GMm GMm
GMm
E=K+U=

=
2r
r
2r
GMm
For the sake of clarity, take
=x
2r
Clearly U = 2x, K = x, E = x
The orbiting satellite loses energy due to frictional
force acting on it due to atmosphere and as such it
loses height. Let the new orbital radius be r/2 (say).
Clearly,
U' = 4x, K' = 2x, E' = 2x
Clearly, E' < E, U' < U and K' > K. Since kinetic
energy has increased, the velocity of the satellite
increases.
OR

A body is moving around a star like sun of orbital


radius r. Orbit is circular.
Then, linear velocity of the body orbiting a star is,
GM
v=
r
When r increases, v decreases.
v
GM
Angular velocity = =
r
r3
When r increases, decreases.
1
GMm
Kinetic energy, K = mv 2 =
2
2r
When r increases, K decreases.
Potential energy, U = GMm
r
When r increases, U increases (U becomes less negative).
GMm GMm
Total energy, E = K + U =
+

2
r
r
GMm
E=
2r
When r increases, E increases (E becomes less negative).
GM
r
Angular momentum, L = mvr = m
r
2
or L = GMm r
When r increases, L increases.
1
1
20. B =
=
Compressibility 0.0005
32

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

= 2 103 atm = 2 103 106 dyne cm2


= 2 109 dyne cm2
P = hg = 3 105 1 980
= 294 106 dyne cm2
[ h = 3 km = 3 105 cm, (water) = 1 g cm3]
PV
As B =
V

V =

PV 294 106 1
=
B
2 109

[ V = 1 cm3]

= 0.147 cm3
Volume of 1 g of water at a depth of 3 km,
V' = V V = 1 0.147 = 0.853 cm3
mass
1
=
Density =
= 1.1723 g cm3
volume 0.853
21. (i) If the rotation of the earth stops, no centrifugal

force will act on the bodies lying on it. The value of


g increases to maximum value at the equator. As no
centrifugal force acts on the body at poles, so the
value of g is not affected.
(ii) If the rotational speed of the earth is doubled,
the centrifugal force on the bodies increases. The
value of g decreases maximum at the equator and is
not affected at poles.
(iii) If the rotational speed of the earth is increased
to seventeen times its present value, the value of g at
the equator will become zero.
geq = g (17 )2R
= 9.80 (17)2

4 (3.14)2
2

64 105 0

(24 3600)
At the poles, the value of g remains unchanged.
6

22. (i) Here, r = 9.4 10 m

T = 7 h 39 min = 459 min = 459 60 s


Mass of mars,
4 2 r 3
4 9.87 (9.4)3 1018
MM =
=
GT 2 6.67 1011 (459 60)2
= 6.48 1023 kg
(ii) Here, RM = 1.52 RE, TE = 365 days
According to Kepler's law of periods,
2
TM

TE2

3
RM

RE3

R
TM = M
RE

3/ 2

TE

= (1.52)3/2 365 = 684 days

23. (a) Because the body perceives no need for muscles

in zero gravity environment, muscle atrophy occurs


quickly, i.e., muscles lose mass at the rate of 5%
per week. Bone loss also occurs at a rate of 1% per
month.
(b) When we stand, the blood pressure in our feet
(about 200 mm Hg) is much greater than in our
heads (60-80 mm Hg) because of the downward
pull of gravity. In zero gravity environment, blood
pressure equalizes at above 100 mm Hg throughout
the body.
(c) Above normal blood pressure in the head is
interpreted by the brain as indicating that there
is too much blood in the body and the blood
production is signalled to slow down. Astronaut can
lose some amount of blood as a result of equalized
blood pressure in zero gravity.
(d) Astronauts have to undergo rigorous physical
fitness programmes before going into space.
24. Escape velocity is the minimum velocity with which

a body must be projected vertically upwards in


order that it may just escape the gravitational field
of the earth.
Consider the earth to be a
sphere of mass M and radius
R with centre O. Suppose a
body of mass m lies at point
P at distance x from its centre,
as shown in the figure. The
gravitational force of attraction
GMm
on the body at P is F =
x2
The small work done in moving
the body through small distance
PQ = dx against the gravitational
force is given by
GMm
dW = Fdx =
dx
x2
The total work done in moving the body from the
surface of the earth (x = R) to a region beyond the
gravitational field of the earth (x = ) will be

GMm
W = dW = 2 dx
R x

1
= GMm x dx = GMm
x R
R
2

1 1 GMm
= GMm + =
R
R

If ve is the escape velocity of the body, then the


1
kinetic energy mve2 imparted to the body at the
2
surface of the earth will be just sufficient to perform
work W.
1 2 GMm
2GM
mve =
or ve2 =

R
2
R
2GM
Escape velocity, ve =
(i)
R
GM
or GM = gR2
As g = 2
R
2 gR2 or v = 2 gR
e
R
If is the mean density of the earth, then
4
M = R3
3

ve =

(ii)

8 G R2
2G 4 3
ve =
R =
(iii)
R 3
3
Equations (i), (ii) and (iii) give different expressions
for the escape velocity of a body. Clearly, the escape
velocity does not depend on the mass of the body
projected.
Due to the small value of g, the escape velocity on
the moon surface is small (2.38 km s1). The air
molecules have thermal velocities greater than the
escape velocity. Therefore, the air molecules escape
away and cannot form atmosphere on the moon.
OR



Orbital velocity is the




velocity required to put

the satellite into its orbit
around the earth.
In figure, let


M = mass of the earth,

R = radius of the earth,
m = mass of the satellite
v0 = orbital velocity of the
satellite
h = height of the satellite above the earth's surface
R + h = orbital radius of the satellite
According to the law of gravitation, the force of
gravity on the satellite is
GMm
F=
(R + h)2
Required centripetal force is provided by the
gravitational pull of the earth, so
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

33

mv02
GMm
=
R + h (R + h)2

F=

v02 =

Orbital velocity, v0 =

GM
R+h

(i)

If g is the acceleration due to gravity on the earth's


surface, then
GM
2
g = 2 or GM =gR
R
Hence v0 =

gR 2
g
=R
R+h
R+h

When the satellite revolves close to the surface of


the earth, h = 0
The orbital velocity will become
(ii)
v0 = gR
The escape velocity of a body from the earth's
(iii)
surface is, ve = 2gR
From eqns (ii) and (iii), we get
ve
2 gR
=
= 2 or ve = 2 v0
v0
gR
Hence the escape velocity of a body from the earth's
surface is 2 times its velocity in a circular orbit
just above the earth's surface.

x2


The small work done in

moving the body through

small distance AB (= dx) is
given by

GMm
dW = Fdx =
dx
2
x

The total work done in

bringing the body from
infinity (x = ) to the point

P(x = r) will be
r
r
GMm
W = dW = 2 dx = GMm x 2 dx
x

By definition, this work done is the gravitational


potential energy U of the body of mass m located at
distance r from the centre of the earth.
GMm
U =
r
OR

Figure shows a stress-strain curve for a metal wire


which is gradually being loaded.


 


 



25. The gravitational potential energy of a body is the

34

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16





 


 




 
  


energy associated with it due to its position in the


gravitational field of another body and is measured
by the amount of work done in bringing a body
from infinity to a given point in the gravitational
field of the other.
When one body lies at infinity from another body,
the gravitational force on it is zero. Consequently its
potential energy is zero. This is called zero level of
potential energy.
As shown in figure, suppose the earth is a uniform
sphere of mass M and radius R. We wish to calculate
the potential energy of a body of mass m located at
point P such that OP = r and r > R.
Suppose at any instant the body is at point A, such
that
OA = x
The gravitational force of attraction on the body at
A is

GMm
1
1 1
= GMm = GMm =
r
x
r



GM
R+h

or

GMm




  

(i) The initial part OA of the graph is a straight


line indicating that stress is proportional to strain.
Upto the point A, Hooke's law is obeyed. The point
A is called the proportional limit. In this region, the
wire is perfectly elastic.
(ii) After the point A, the stress is not proportional
to strain and a curved portion AB is obtained.
However, if the load is removed at any point
between O and B, the curve is retraced along BAO
and the wire attains its original length. The portion

OB of the graph is called elastic region and the


point B is called elastic limit or yield point. The
stress corresponding to the yield point is called
yield strength (Sy).
(iii) Beyond the point B, the strain increases more
rapidly than stress. If the load is removed at any
point C, the wire does not come back to its original
length but traces dashed line CE. Even on reducing
the stress to zero, a residual strain equal to OE is left
in the wire. The material is said to have acquired a
permanent set. The fact that the stress-strain curve
is not retraced on reversing the strain is called
elastic hysteresis.
(iv) If the load is increased beyond the point C,
there is large increase in the strain or the length of the
wire. In this region, the constrictions (called necks
and waists) develop at few points along the length of
the wire and the wire ultimately breaks at the point
D, called the fracture point. In the region between
B and D, the length of wire goes on increasing even
without any addition of load. This region is called
plastic region and the material is said to undergo
plastic deformation. The stress corresponding to
the breaking point is called ultimate strength or
tensile strength of the material.
26. (a) Let AB = L, Mass of wire = m,

mg = weight of wire
Wire is fixed at point A and a mass M
is hanged at point B.

(i) Suppose L1 is the extension in


the wire of length L due to its mass.
(mg )(L / 2) mgL
=
... (i)
YA
2YA
(ii) Suppose L2 is the extension in the wire due to
hanged mass M.
(Mg )L MgL
L2 =
=
... (ii)
YA
YA
Hence, total extension in the wire,
mgL MgL
+
L = L1 + L2 =
2YA YA
gL m

+M
L =
... (iii)
YA 2

Given, r = 0.1 cm = 103 m, L = 10 m


M = 25 kg, Y = 2 1011 N m2, = 7860 kg m3
A = r2 = 3.14 106 m2
m = (r2L) = 3.14 106 10 7860
0.25 kg
Put these values in eqn. (iii),

Then, L1 =

L =

10 10

(0.125 + 25)
2 10 3.14 106
= 4 103 m
(b) Yield strength = 2.5 108 N m2
Yield force = Yield strength A
= 2.5 108 3.14 106 = 785 N
At the yield point, (m + Mmax)g = 785
Here, Mmaxg = maximum weight sustain by the wire
0.25 + Mmax = 78.5 Mmax = 78.25 kg
11

OR

Here, F = Fsin, F|| = Fcos


F produces tensile stress and F|| produces shear
stress, on the plane aa.
Let A = area of plane aa
A
A
sin =
A =
A
sin
Tensile stress on the plane aa is
F
F sin F 2
= =
= sin
A A / sin A
Shearing stress on the plane aa
F|| F cos F sin cos F (2 sin cos )
= =
=
=
A A / sin
A
2A
F sin 2
=
2A
(a) For maximum tensile stress,
sin2 = 1 = 90
(b) For maximum shearing stress,
sin2 = 1 2 = 90 = 45

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

35

Class XI

his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Rotational Motion | Gravitation


Total Marks : 120

NEET / AIIMS / PMTs


Only One Option Correct Type

1. If R is the average radius of earth, is its angular


velocity about its axis and g is the gravitational
acceleration on the surface of earth then the cube of
the radius of orbit of a geostationary satellite will be
equal to
Rg
R 2 2
R2 g
R2 g
(a)
(b)
(c) 2
(d)
g

2. A man stands at one end of a boat which is


stationary in water. Neglect water resistance. The
man now moves to the other end of the boat and
again becomes stationary. The centre of mass of the
man plus boat system will remain stationary with
respect to water
(a) in all cases
(b) only when the man is stationary initially and
finally
(c) only if the man moves without acceleration on
the boat
(d) only if the man and the boat have equal masses
3. Weights of 1 g, 2 g, ...., 100 g are suspended from the
1 cm, 2 cm, ...., 100 cm marks respectively of a light
metre scale. Where should it be supported for the
system to be in equilibrium?
(a) 55 cm mark
(b) 60 cm mark
(c) 66 cm mark
(d) 72 cm mark
4. The gravitational force between two bodies is
1
1
directly proportional to
not
, where R is
R
R2
36

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

Time Taken : 60 min

the distance between the bodies. Then the orbital


speed for this force in circular orbit is proportional
to
1
1
(a)
(b) R2
(c) R
(d)
2
R
R0
5. The imaginary angular velocity of the earth for
which the effective acceleration due to gravity at the
equator shall be zero is equal to
(Take g = 10 m s2 and Re = 6400 km)
(a) 1.25 103 rad s1 (b) 2.50 103 rad s1
(c) 3.75 103 rad s1 (d) 5.0 103 rad s1
6. A ball rolls without slipping. The radius of gyration
of the ball about an axis passing through its centre
of mass is K. If radius of the ball be R, then the
fraction of total energy associated with its rotation
will be
(a)

(c)

K 2 + R2
R2
K2
K 2 + R2

(b)

(d)

K2
R2
R2
K 2 + R2

7. A uniform rod of mass m and length l makes a


constant angle with an axis of rotation which
passes through one end of the rod. Its moment of
inertia about this axis is
(a)

ml 2
3

(c)

ml 2 2
sin
3

ml 2
sin
3
ml 2
cos2
(d)
3

(b)

8. A particle of mass m is placed at the centre of a


uniform spherical shell of mass 3m and radius R.
The gravitational potential on the surface of the
shell is
3Gm
Gm
(a)
(b)
R
R
4Gm
2Gm
(d)
(c)
R
R
9. A rope is wound round a hollow cylinder of mass
3 kg and radius 40 cm. If the rope is pulled with a
force of 30 N, angular acceleration of the cylinder
will be
(a) 10 rad s2
(b) 15 rad s2
2
(c) 20 rad s
(d) 25 rad s2

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not
the correct explanation of assertion
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

10. Two point masses A and B having masses in


the ratio 4 : 3 are separated by a distance of
1 m. When another point mass C of mass M is
placed in between A and B, the force between A and

15. Assertion : A wheel moving down a perfectly


frictionless inclined plane will undergo slipping
(not rolling motion).
Reason : For perfect rolling motion, work done
against friction is zero.

rd

1
C is of the force between B and C. Then the
3
distance of C from A is
1
2
1
2
m (d) m
m (b) m (c)
(a)
4
7
3
3
11. The diameter of a flywheel is 1 m. It has a mass of
20 kg. It is rotating about its axis with a speed of
120 rotations per minute. Its angular momentum in
kg m2 s1 is
(a) 13.4
(b) 31.4
(c) 41.4
(d) 43.4
12. Two bodies of masses m1 and m2 are initially at
rest and infinite distance apart from each other.
Now, they are allowed to move towards each other
under mutual gravitational attraction. Their relative
velocity of approach at a distance r between them is
(a)

2G(m1 + m2 )
r

(b)

(c)

G(m1 + m2 )
r

(d)

2G m1m2
(m1 + m2 )r
G m1m2
(m1 + m2 )r

Assertion & Reason Type

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of


assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the
correct choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the
correct explanation of assertion

13. Assertion : The time period of revolution of a


satellite close to surface of earth is smaller than that
revolving far from surface of earth.
Reason : The square of time period of revolution
of a satellite is directly proportional to cube of its
orbital radius.
14. Assertion : Position of centre of mass is independent
of the reference frame.
Reason : Centre of mass is same as centre of
gravity.

JEE MAIN / JEE ADVANCED / PETs


Only One Option Correct Type

16. A uniform hollow sphere has internal radius a and


external radius b. Taking the potential at infinity
be zero, the ratio of the gravitational potential at
a point on the outer surface to that on the inner
surface is
(a)
(c)

2(b3 a3 )
3b(b2 a2 )
3b (b2 a2 )
2 (b3 a3 )

(b)
(d)

(b3 a3 )
3b(b2 a2 )
a (b2 a2 )

(b3 a3 )
17. A carpet of mass M, made of inextensible, material
is rolled along its length in the form of a cylinder
of radius R and is kept on a rough floor. The carpet
starts unrolling without sliding on the floor when
a negligibly small push is given to it. Calculate the
horizontal velocity of the axis of the cylindrical part
of the carpet when its radius reduces to R/2.
3
14
21
Rg (b) 3Rg (c)
Rg
Rg (d)
2
3
2
18. A circular plate of uniform thickness has a diameter
of 56 cm. A circular portion of diameter 42 cm is
removed from one edge of the plate as shown in the
figure. Find the position of the centre of mass of the
remaining portion.
(a)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

37

(a) 9 cm to right of centre of


bigger circle
(b) 2.5 cm to left of centre of
bigger circle
(c) 9 cm to left of centre of
bigger circle
(d) 4.2 cm to right of centre
of bigger circle
19. A cockroach, mass m, runs counterclockwise
around the rim of a lazy Susan (a circular dish
mounted on a vertical axle) of radius R and rotational
inertia I with frictionless bearings. The cockroachs
speed (relative to the earth) is v, whereas the lazy
Susan turns clockwise with angular speed . The
cockroach finds a bread crumb on the rim and, of
course, stops. What will be the angular speed of the
lazy Susan after the cockroach stops?
mvR I
I mvR
(a)
(b)
2
I + mR
mR2
(2m + 1)
(c)
(d)
m
More than One Options Correct Type

20. A light thread with a body of mass


m tied to its end is wound on a
uniform solid cylinder of mass M
and radius R as shown in the figure.
At a moment t = 0 the system is set
in motion. Assuming the friction
in the axle of the cylinder to be
negligible, at any time t
(a) the angular velocity of the cylinder is
gt
M
1 +

R
2m
(b) the angular velocity of the cylinder is
gt
m
1 +

R
2M
(c) the kinetic energy of the whole system is
mg 2t 2
M
1 +

2
2m
(d) the kinetic energy of the whole system is
m2 g 2t 2
2

2m
1 +

21. A rocket is accelerated to speed of 2 gR near


earths surface and then coast upward. (R is radius
of the earth and g is acceleration due to gravity.)
38

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

(a) Rocket will orbit the earth.


(b) Rocket will escape from the earth.
(c) Speed of the rocket at very far from the earth is
2gR .
(d) Speed of the rocket in the orbit is gR / 2 .
22. A thin uniform rod of mass m and length l is free
to rotate about its upper end. When it is at rest, it
receives an impulse J at its lowest point, normal to
its length. Immediately after impact,
(a) the angular momentum of the rod is Jl
(b) the angular velocity of the rod is 3J/ml
(c) the kinetic energy of the rod is 3J2/2m
(d) the linear velocity of the midpoint of the rod is
3J/m.
23. A sphere of uniform density has within it a
spherical cavity whose centre is at distance a from
the centre of the sphere. Then
(a) The gravitational field within the cavity is nonuniform.
(b) The gravitational field within the cavity is
uniform.
(c) The magnitude of gravitational field within the
4Ga2
.
3r
(d) The magnitude of gravitational field within the
4Ga
cavity is
.
3
cavity is

Integer Answer Type

24. A bullet of mass m moving


with velocity v0 (k ) strikes
the bottom of a stationary
vertical uniform ring of
same mass m and radius R = 1 m. The ring lies
in xy plane with its topmost point hinged on the
ceiling. The ring can rotate about x-axis. There is
no friction between the hinge and the ring. The
bullet gets embedded in the ring immediately after

collision. Find the angular velocity of the system


(in rad s1) just after collision. (Take v0 = 11 m s1]

Column I
(A) Angular momentum (P)

25. The gravitational potential energy of a satellite


revolving around the earth in circular orbit is
4 MJ. Find the additional energy (in MJ) that
should be given to the satellite so that it escapes
from the gravitational field of earth. Assume earths
gravitational force to be the only gravitational force
on the satellite and no atmospheric resistance.
26. A solid disc is rolling with slipping on a level surface
at constant speed of 5 m s1. If the disc rolls up a 28
ramp, how far (in m) along the ramp will it move
before it stops? (Given sin 28 = 0.4695)
Comprehension Type

A rod of mass M and length L


is suspended by a frictionless
hinge at the point O as shown
in figure. A bullet of mass m
moving with velocity v in a
horizontal direction strikes
the end of the rod and gets
embedded in it.

Column II
Increases

(B) Area of earth covered (Q) Decreases


by satellite signal
(C) Potential energy
(R) Becomes double
(D) Kinetic energy
(S) Becomes half
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

A
S
P
P
Q

B
Q, S
P
S
P

C
Q
P, S
Q, S
P, S

D
S
Q, S
P
R

30. In case of pure rolling of a rigid body of radius R


on a stationary horizontal surface with an angular
velocity and with v0 as the velocity of its centre
of mass, match the entries in column I with those
given in column II.
Column I

27. The angular momentum of the system, about O


before collision is
(a) mvL
(b) MvL
1
1
(c) mvL
(d) MvL
2
2
28. The angular velocity acquired by the rod just after
the collision is
mv
2mv
(a)
(b)
(3m + M )L
ML
3mv
3mv
(c)
(d)
L
(3m + M )L
Matrix Match Type

29. A satellite is in a circular equatorial orbit of radius


7000 km around the earth. If it is transferred to a
circular orbit of double the radius then match the
entries of column I with those given in column II.

Column II

(A) Distance moved by the


CM of the body in one
full rotation while slipping
forward
(B) The speed of the bottommost point on its
circumference
(C) The speed of the topmost
point on its circumference
(D) The speed of a point on
the circumference at angle
90 with line joining the
bottom-most point and
the centre of the body
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

A
S
Q
R
P

B
Q
P
S
P

C
R
Q
Q
R

(P)

2 v0

(Q)

2v0

(R)

> 2R

(S)

zero

D
P
R
P
S

Keys are published in this issue. Search now!

Check your score! If your score is


> 90%

EXCELLENT WORK !

You are well prepared to take the challenge of nal exam.


You can score good in the nal exam.
You need to score more next time

No. of questions attempted

90-75%

GOOD WORK !

No. of questions correct

74-60%

SATISFACTORY !

Marks scored in percentage

< 60%

NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

39




 
  

Maximize your chance of success, and high rank in NEET, JEE (Main and Advanced) by reading this column.
This specially designed column is updated year after year by a panel of highly qualied teaching experts well-tuned
to the requirements of these EntranceTests.


   
    


Faradays Law of Induction


First law : Whenever there is change in magnetic
flux with respect to time for a coil or circuit, an emf
induced in it and remains in it till change in flux
takes place.
Second law : The magnitude of the induced emf is
directly proportional to the rate of change of flux
through the coil.
Mathematically, the induced emf is given by
d
= B
dt
The negative sign indicates the direction of and
hence the direction of current in the closed loop.
Induced emf does not depend on nature of the coil
i.e. resistance.
Magnitude of induced emf is directly proportional
to the relative speed of coil and magnet system.
Lenzs Law
This law states that the direction of induced current
in the coil is in such a way that it always opposes the
cause by which it is produced.

d
where negative sign indicates the Lenzs law.
dt
Direction of induced emf ()

= ()

Some basic induced parameters in a circuit

f
Average induced emf av =
t
f
Instantaneous induced emf

40

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16


= lim
= d
t 0 t
dt
Induced current flow at this instant in the
1 d
closed circuit I = =
R R dt

In time interval dt, induced charge dq = Idt =

Induced heat H = I 2 Rdt =

t 2

dt
R

d
R

If any two out of v , B and dl become parallel or


antiparallel, will become zero.
Some special cases for motional emf :
f

Induced electric field : A time varying magnetic


field (dB/dt) always produces induced electric
field in all space surrounding it. Induced emf
= Ein dl
As =

d
dt

so = Ein dl =

d
dt

If = 90 i.e. v , B and l
are perpendicular to
each other.
Induced emf = Blv

Rotating straight conductor :


emf induced in small element dx
d = (v B) dx = vBdx

1
Net emf = vBdx = B xdx = Bl 2
2

It is non conservative and non electrostatic


in nature.
Its field lines are concentric circular closed
curves.
Induced emf may exist in an open circuit, but there
is no induced current and induced charge in the
open circuit.

Motional Electromotive Force


When a conducting rod moves in an external
magnetic field in such a way it cuts the field. So all
the free electrons in the rod transfer from one end
to another end (C to D) and emf is induced in the
rod. This emf is known as motional emf.

emf induced within dl


d = (v B) dl
Net emf across the rod,
= (v B) dl = vBl sin
Induced electric field in the rod,
Ein = (v B) = (B v )

Negative sign indicates that end C will be at


higher potential.
A rotating conducting disc :
Induced emf between
centre C and circumference
D is
1
= BR2
2
A conductor of arbitrary shape :
Induced emf in this conductor
= Induced emf in straight
conductor connected between
C and D
= Blv sin

Effect of Motional emf Developed in a Circuit


For a given circuit, if the metal rod moves with
uniform velocity v by an external agent then all the
induced parameters are possible in the circuit.

Induced emf in the circuit = Bvl

Current flows through the circuit I =

Bvl
=
R R

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

41

Retarding opposing force exerted on metal rod by


action of induced current
Fm = I (l B) ; Fm = BIl where = 90

B 2l 2v
R
External mechanical force required for uniform
velocity of metal rod
For constant velocity resultant force on metal
f
rod must zero and for that Fext = Fm
B 2l 2v
f
Fext = Fm =
R
f
If (B, l, R) constant Fext v
For uniform motion of metal rod, mechanical power
delivered by external source is given as
Pmech = Pext = Fext v = Fext v

When current through a coil changes with respect


to time
dI dB d
f
electromagnetic induction link
dt
dt
dt
d
dI
= L ,
f
N = LI or, N
dt
dt
d
where N
called self induced emf of coil s.
dt
dI
s = L
dt

Self inductance always opposes the change of


current in a electric circuit so it is also called inertia
of the electric circuit.
For a real inductor

Fm =

Pext = Pmech =

B 2l 2v 2
R

If (B, l, R) constant Pmech v2


Thermal power developed across resistor

Bvl
B l v
Pth = I 2 R =
R=
R
R
f

22 2

It is clear that Pth = Pmech which is consistent


with the principle of conservation of energy.

Self Induction
When current through a coil changes with respect
to the time then magnetic flux linked with the coil
also changes with respect to time. Due to this an
emf and a current induced in the coil. According
to Lenzs law induced current opposes the change
in magnetic flux. This phenomenon is called self
induction and a factor by virtue the coil shows
opposition for change in magnetic flux called self
inductance of coil.
When current through a coil is constant,

I B constant
No electromagnetic induction
Total flux of coil (N) current through the coil
f
f

N I
N = LI
N NBA total
,
L=
=
=
I
I
I
where L is self inductance
of the coil.
42

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

N 

I
+  
V K

Rn

Role of L : To oppose the change in current. If


current becomes constant then there is no role of L.
Coefficient of self inductance of planar circular
coil
N 2 R
Lc = 0
2

Coefficient of self inductance of solenoid


N 2A
Ls = 0
= 0n2 Al = 0n2V
l
Here, V = volume of solenoid = Al
A = area of cross section of frame of solenoid

Mutual Induction
Whenever current passing through a primary coil or
circuit changes with respect to time then magnetic
flux in a neighbouring secondary coil or circuit
will also changes with respect to time. According
to Lenzs law for opposition of flux change an emf
and a current induced in the neighbouring coil
or circuit. This phenomenon is called as mutual
induction.

When current through primary coil is constant,


f
Total flux linked into secondary coil is directly
proportional to the current flowing through the
primary coil.
f

N2 2 I1, N2 2 = MI1

N 22 N 2 B1A2 (T )s
=
=
,
I1
I1
Ip
where M is mutual inductance of circuits.
When current through primary coil changes with
respect to time,

M=

dI1
dB
d
d
1 1 2
dt
dt
dt
dt
Electromagnetic induction link
N22 = MI1 or, N 2

d2
dI
= M 1 ,
dt
dt

Current growth in an LR circuit

Emf equation : V = IR + L

Current at any instant : When key is closed the


current in circuit increases exponentially with
respect to time. The current in circuit at any instant
t is given by
I = I0(1 et/)
Just after the closing of key, inductance behaves like
open circuit and current in circuit is zero.

dI
m = M 1
dt

Mutual inductance of two concentric


and coplanar coils
N N r 2
Mc c = 0 1 2 2
1 2
2r1

Mutual inductance of two co-axial solenoids

NN A
Ms s = 0 1 2
12
l
Combination of Inductances
Two inductors of inductances L1 and L2 are
connected in series and are kept apart so that their
mutual inductance is negligible, then the equivalent
inductance of the combination is given by
LS = L1 + L2

dI
dt

where N 2 2 called total mutual induced emf


dt

of secondary coil m.

Two inductors of inductances L1 and L2 are


connected in parallel and are kept far apart so that
mutual inductance between them is negligible, then
their equivalent inductance is given by
LL
1 1
1
= +
or L = 1 2
L L1 L2
L1 + L2

Two inductors of self-inductance L1 and L2


are connected in series and they have mutual
inductance M, then the equivalent inductance of
the combination is given by

Some time after closing of the key inductance


behaves like short circuit and current in circuit is
constant.

I0 =

V
(maximum or peak value of current)
R

Peak value of current in circuit does not depend


on self inductance of coil.
Time constant : It is a time in which current
increases up to 63% or 0.63 times of peak current
L
value. =
R

L = L1 + L2 2M
The plus sign occurs if windings in the two coils
are in the same sense, while minus sign occurs if
windings are in opposite sense.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

43

Current decay in an LR circuit


dI
Emf equation : IR + L = 0
dt

Average value or mean value


f
The mean value of ac over any half cycle is that
value of dc which would send same amount
of charge through a circuit as is sent by the ac
through same circuit in the same time.
Average value of current for half cycle
f
T /2

<I>=

Current at any instant : Once current acquires its


final maximum steady value, if suddenly required
switching positions (S1 and S2) are interchanged
then current starts decreasing exponentially with
respect to time. The current in the circuit at any
instant t is given by

44

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

dt

T /2

Iav

= 0

I0 sin t dt
T /2

dt

Irms =

2I0
2I
[ cos t ]T0 /2 = 0
T

T 2

Root mean square (rms) value


f
It is that value of dc which would produce same
heat in a given resistance in a given time as is
done by the alternating current when passed
through the same resistance for the same time.

0 I dt
T
0 dt

0 (I0 sin t )
T
0 dt

dt

I
1 T 1 cos 2t
dt = 0

0
2
T

rms value = virtual value = apparent value


Phase : I = I0 sin (t )
f
Initial phase = (it does not change with time)
f
Instantaneous phase = t (it changes with time)
Phase difference :
V = V0 sin (t + 1), I = I0 sin (t + 2)
f
Phase difference of I with respect to V
= 2 1
f
Phase difference of V with respect to I
= 1 2
V leads I or I lags V It means, V reaches maximum
before I.
Let if V = V0 sin t then
I = I0 sin (t )
and if V = V0 sin (t + )
then I = I0 sin t
f

Average value of I = I0 sin t over the positive


half cycle :

= I0

Fundamental of Alternating Current


Voltage or current is said to be alternating if it
changes continuously magnitude and periodic in
direction with the time. It can be represented by a
sine curve or cosine curve.
I = I0 sin t or I = I0 cos t
I = Instantaneous value of current at time t
I0 = Amplitude or peak value
2
= Angular frequency (rad s1) =
= 2
T
T = Time period, = Frequency

Idt

0
T /2
0

I = I0 et/

V
f
Just after opening of key t = 0 I = I0 =
R
f
Some time after opening of key t I0 0
Time constant () : It is a time in which current
decreases up to 37% or 0.37 times of peak current
L
value =
R

V lags I or I leads V It means, V reaches maximum after I


Let if V = V0 sin t then
I = I0 sin (t + )
and if V = V0 sin (t )
then I = I0 sin t
Components L, C and R in ac circuit separately

Term

Circuit

Supply voltage

V = V0 sin t

V = V0 sin t

V = V0 sin t

Current

I = I0 sin t

I = I0 sin t
2

I = I0 sin t +
2

Peak current

V
I0 = 0
R

V
I0 = 0
L

I0 =

Impedance ()

V0
=R
I0

V0
= L = X L
I0

V0
1
=
= XL
I 0 C

XL = Inductive reactance

+ (V leads I)
2

XC = Capacitive reactance

(V lags I)
2

1
XL
Inductive susceptance
L passes dc easily (because
XL = 0) while gives a high
impedance for the ac of high
frequency (XL )

1
XC
Capacitive susceptance

V V
Z = 0 = rms
I0 Irms

R = Resistance
Phase difference and zero
Phasor diagram
(V and I are in same phase)

Variation of Z with

V0
1 / C

R does not
depend on

G, SL, SC
(mho, seiman)

G=

1
= conductance
R

Behaviour of device Same in ac and dc


in dc and ac

Ohms law

VR = IR

SL =

VL = IXL

SC =

C blocks dc (because XC = )
while provides an easy path
for the ac of high frequency
1

XC

VC = IXC

Combination of R L, R C and L C in an ac circuit

Term

RL

RC

LC

I is same in R and L

I is same in R and C

I is same in L and C

Circuit

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

45



Phasor diagram


 

V
Phase difference
between V and I

= VR2

+ VL2

V leads I 0 to
2

V 2 = VR2 + VC2


V lags I to 0
2

V = VL VC

(VL > VC)

V = VC VL

(VC > VL)


V lags I , if XC > X L
2


V leads I + , if X L > XC
2

Impedance

Z = R2 + X L2

Z = R2 + XC2

Z = X L XC
Z

XC

XL

At very low

R ( X L 0)

XC

At very high

XL

Series LCR Circuit


Circuit diagram

I is same for R, L and C.


Phasor diagram

If VL > VC then

If VC > VL then

48

applied voltage. For resonance both L and C must


be present in circuit.
At resonance,
f
XL = XC , VL = VC
f
= 0 (V and I are in same phase)
V
f
Zmin = R, I max =
R
1
Resonance frequency : ... XL = XC L =
C
1
1
=
or, r =
LC
2 LC
Variation of Z with
If < r then XL < XC , circuit is capacitive,
f
(negative).
f
At = r , XL = XC, circuit is resistive, = zero.
If > r then XL > XC circuit is inductive,
f
(positive).
As increases, Z first decreases then increases,

V = VR2 + (VL VC )2 , Z = R2 + ( X L XC )2
Impedance triangle
X XC VL VC
tan = L
=
R
VR

( XC 0)

Variation of I with

V = IZ, VR = IR, VL = IXL , VC = IXC

Resonance in Series LCR Circuit


A circuit is said to be resonant when the natural
frequency of the circuit is equal to frequency of the
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

as increases, I first increases then decreases.

At resonance impedance of the series resonant


circuit is minimum so it is called acceptor circuit
as it most readily accepts that current out of many
currents whose frequency is equal to its natural
frequency. In radio or TV tuning we receive the
desired station by making the frequency of the
circuit equal to that of the desired station.

Band width = 2 1

Quality factor (Q) : Q-factor of ac circuit basically


gives an idea about stored energy and lost energy.
maximum energy stored per cycle
Q = 2
maximum energy lost per cycle
f
It represents the sharpness of resonance.
f
It is unitless and dimensionless quantity.

( XL )r

Q=

r
1 L r
=
=
R C band width
Sharpness quality factor
R decrease Q increases sharpness
increases

( XC )r 2r L
=
R
R

Power in ac circuit
Let V = V0 sin t and I = I0 sin (t )
Instantaneous power P = V0 sin t . I0 sin (t )
= V0 I0 sin t (sin t cos sin cos t)
Average power <P>

circuit = . This current is refered as wattless

2
current.
Power is dissipated only in resistor even circuit has
RL, RC or LCR combination.

Resistance of an ideal coil is zero.


LC Oscillation
The oscillation of energy between capacitor (electric
field energy) and inductor (magnetic field energy)
is called LC-oscillation.
1
Frequency of oscillation =
2 LC
If charge varies sinusoidally with time t as
q = q0 cos t then current varies periodically with t

dq

as I =
= q0 cos t +
2
dt

If initial charge on the capacitor is q0 then electrical

1 q02
2C
If the capacitor is fully discharged, then total
electrical energy is stored in the inductor in the
form of magnetic energy.
1
U B = LI02 where I0 = Maximum current
2
Transformer
A transformer is an electrical device which is used
for changing alternating voltages. It is based on the
phenomenon of mutual induction.
If it is assumed that there is no loss of energy in
the transformer then the power input = the power
output, and since P = I V then
IPVP = ISVS
Although some energy is always lost, this is a good
approximation, since a well designed transformer
may have an efficiency of more than 95%.
I P VS N S
=
=
I S VP N P
A transformer affects the voltage and current. We
have
energy stored in capacitor is U E =

1
(V I sin2 t cos V0 I0 sin t cos t sin )dt
T 0 0
0
V I cos
<P> = 0 0
< P > = Vrms Irms cos
2
rms power Prms = Vrms Irms
Average power
Power factor (cos ) =
rms power
R
cos =
Z
Power dissipation is maximum in resistive circuit
or at resonance in a LCR series circuit.
No power is dissipated in purely inductive or
capacitive circuit even a current is flowing in the

Choke Coil
Circuit with a choke coil is a series L R circuit. If
resistance of choke coil = r (very small). Current in
V
the circuit, I = with Z = (R + r )2 + (L)2
Z
It has a high inductance and negligible resistance
coil.
It is used to control current in ac circuit at negligible
power loss.
V
r
r

0
cos = =
2
2 2
Z

L
r + L

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

49

N
VS = S
NP

NP
VP and I S = N

IP

Now, if NS > NP, the voltage is stepped up


(VS > VP). This type of arrangement is called a stepup transformer.
If NS < NP, we have a step-down transformer. In
this case VS < VP and IS > IP. The voltage is stepped
down and the current is increased.
Displacement Current
Maxwell assumed that a current also flows in the
gap between the two plates of a capacitor, during
the process of charging, known as displacement
current ID. This displacement current originates
due to time varying electric field between the plates
of capacitor and is given by
d
I D = 0
dt
where is the electric flux linked with the space
between the two plates of the capacitor.
Using the concept of displacement current ID,
Amperes circuital law can be modified as

B dl = 0 (IC + I D )

f
f

50

B dA = 0 (Gausss law for magnetism)


d
E dl = dtB (Faradays law)

d E
dt
(Ampere-Maxwell law)

Velocity of electromagnetic waves in free space is


given by,
1
c=
= 3 108 m s 1
0 0
The instantaneous magnitude of the electric and
magnetic field vectors in electromagnetic wave are
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

0 0

The energy is equally shared between electric field


and magnetic field vectors of electromagnetic wave.
Therefore the energy density of the electric field,
1
uE = 0 E 2 and
2
1 B2
.
the energy density of magnetic field, uB =
2 0
Average energy density of the electric field,
1
< uE > = 0 E02 and average energy density of the
4
B2
1
magnetic field < uB > = 0 = 0 E02 .
4 0
4
Average energy density of electromagnetic wave is
<u> =

B dl = 0 IC + 00

Electromagnetic Waves
An electromagnetic wave is a wave radiated by an
accelerated charge which propagates through space
as coupled electric and magnetic fields, oscillating
perpendicular to each other and to the direction of
propagation of the wave.

In a medium of refractive index n, the velocity v of


an electromagnetic wave is given by
1
c 1
1
, Also v =
v= =
n n 0 0

So that n =

Maxwells equations:
q
f
E dA = 0 (Gausss law for electricity)
f

related as
|E|
= c or E = Bc
|B|

B2
1
0 E02 = 0 .
2
20

Intensity of electromagnetic wave is defined


as energy crossing per unit area per unit time
perpendicular to the directions of propagation of
electromagnetic wave. The intensity I is given by
the relation
1
I = < u > c = 0 E02c
2
The electromagnetic wave also carries linear
momentum with it. The linear momentum carried
by the portion of wave having energy U is given by
p = U/c.

If the electromagnetic wave incident on a material


surface is completely absorbed, it delivers energy U
and momentum p = U/c to the surface.

If the incident wave is totally reflected from


the surface, the momentum delivered to the
surface is U/c (U/c) = 2U/c. It follows that the
electromagnetic wave incident on a surface exerts a
force on the surface.

1. Two coils have a mutual inductance 0.005 H.


The current changes in the first coil according
to equation I = I0 sin t, where I0 = 10 A and
= 100 rad s1. The maximum value of emf in the
second coil is (in V)
(a) 2
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 12
2. An express train takes 16 hours to cover the
distance of 960 km between Patna and Gaziabad.
The rails are separated by 130 cm and the vertical
component of the earths magnetic field is
4.0 105 T. If the leakage resistance between the
rails is 100 , the retarding force on the train due to
the magnetic field will be
(a) 5 1010 N
(b) 8 1010 N
5
(c) 15 10 N
(d) 5 105 N
3. An inductor of inductance

L = 400 H and resistors of


resistances R1 = 2 and
R2 = 2 are connected to


a battery of emf 12 V as
shown in figure. The internal resistance of the
battery is negligible. The switch S is closed at t = 0.
The potential drop across L as a function of time is
12 3t
(a) 6e5t V
(b)
e V
t
(c) 6(1 et/0.2) V (d) 12e5t V
4. A uniform magnetic field B exists in a direction
perpendicular to the plane of a square frame made
of copper wire. The wire has a diameter of 2 mm
and a total length of 40 cm. The magnetic field
changes with time at a steady rate dB/dt = 0.02 T s1.
What will be the current induced in the frame?
(Resistivity of copper = 1.7 108 m)
(a) 0.1 A

(b) 0.2 A

(c) 0.3 A

(d) 0.4 A

5. In a uniform magnetic field of induction B, a wire


in the form of semicircle of radius r rotates about
the diameter of the circle with angular frequency
. The axis of rotation is perpendicular to the field.
If the total resistance of the circuit is R, then mean
power generated per period of rotation is

Br 2
(Br 2 )2
(b)
2R
8R
2
(Br )
(Br 2 )2
(c)
(d)
2R
8R
6. If a resistance of 100 , an inductance of 0.5 H and
a capacitance of 10 106 F are connected in series
through 50 Hz ac supply, the impedance will be
(a)

(a) 1.87
(c) 18.7

(b) 101.3
(d) 189.7

7. Two circular loops of equal radii are placed coaxially


at some separation. The first loop is cut and a battery
is inserted in between to drive a current in it. The
current changes slightly because of the variation in
resistance with temperature. During this period,
the two loops
(a) attract each other
(b) repel each other
(c) do not exert any force on each other
(d) attract or repel each other depending on the
sense of the current.
8. The instantaneous values of alternating current and
voltage in a circuit are given as
1
1
I=
sin (100t) A and =
sin (100t + /3) V
2
2
The average power in watts consumed in the circuit
is
1
3
1
1
(b)
(c)
(d)
4
4
2
8
9. An electromagnetic wave of frequency 3 MHz
passes from vacuum into a dielectric medium with
permittivity r = 4. Then
(a) the wavelength and frequency both remain
unchanged
(b) the wavelength is doubled and the frequency
remains unchanged
(c) the wavelength is doubled and the frequency
becomes half
(d) the wavelength is halved and the frequency
remains unchanged.
(a)

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

51

10. The r.m.s. value of the electric field of the light


coming from the sun is 720 N C1. The average total
energy density of the electromagnetic wave is
(a) 3.3 103 J m3 (b) 4.58 106 J m3
(c) 6.37 109 J m3 (d) 81.35 1012 J m3
11. The amplitude of the electric field in a parallel beam
of light of intensity 2.0 W m2 is
(a) 38.8 N C1
(b) 49.5 N C1
1
(c) 32.7 N C
(d) 35.5 N C1
12. A free electron is placed in the path of a plane
electromagnetic wave. The electron will start
moving
(a) along the electric field
(b) along the magnetic field
(c) along the direction of propagation of the wave
(d) in a plane containing the magnetic field and
the direction of propagation.
13. An inductor 20 mH, a capacitor 50 F and a resistor
40 are connected in series across a source of emf
V = 10 sin 340t. The power loss in ac circuit is
(a) 0.76 W (b) 0.89 W (c) 0.51 W (d) 0.67 W
[NEET Phase I 2016]
14. A small signal voltage V(t) = V0 sint is applied
across an ideal capacitor C
(a) Current I(t) is in phase with voltage V(t)
(b) Current I(t) leads voltage V(t) by 180
(c) Current I(t), lags voltage V(t) by 90
(d) Over a full cycle the capacitor C does not
consume any energy from the voltage source.
[NEET Phase I 2016]
15. A long solenoid has 1000 turns. When a current
of 4 A flows through it, the magnetic flux linked
with each turn of the solenoid is 4 103 Wb. The
self-inductance of the solenoid is
(a) 2 H
(b) 1 H
(c) 4 H
(d) 3 H
[NEET Phase I 2016]
16. Out of the following options which one can be used
to produce a propagating electromagnetic wave?
(a) A chargeless particle
(b) An accelerating charge
(c) A charge moving at constant velocity
(d) A stationary charge
[NEET Phase I 2016]
17. An arc lamp requires a direct current of 10 A at
80 V to function. If it is connected to a 220 V (r.m.s.),
52

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

50 Hz ac supply, the series inductor needed for it to


work is close to
(a) 80 H
(b) 0.08 H
(c) 0.044 H
(d) 0.065 H
[JEE Main Offline 2016]
18. A series LR circuit is connected to a voltage source
with V(t) = V0 sint. After very large time, current

I(t) behaves as t0 >>

L
R

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)
[JEE Main Online 2016]

19. A conducting metal circular-wire-loop of radius


r is placed perpendicular to a magnetic field which

varies with time as B = B0e , where B0 and are


constants, at time t = 0. If the resistance of the loop
is R then the heat generated in the loop after a long
time (t ) is
(a)

2r 4 B04
2 R

(b)

2r 4 B02
2 R

(c)

2r 4 B02 R

(d)

2r 4 B02
R

[JEE Main Online 2016]


20. Microwave oven acts on the principle of
(a) giving rotational energy to water molecules
(b) giving translational energy to water molecules
(c) giving vibrational energy to water molecules
(d) transferring electrons from lower to higher
energy levels in water molecule.
[JEE Main Online 2016]
SOLUTIONS
d
dI
1. (b) : As || = M = M (I0 sin t) = MI0 cos t,
dt
dt
max = MI0 = (0.005)(10)(100) V = 5 V
2. (a) : As the train moves in a magnetic field, a
motional emf = vBl is produced across its width.
Here B is the component of the magnetic field in a
direction perpendicular to the plane of the motion,
i.e., the vertical component.

960 km
= 16.67 m s 1
16 h
Thus, = (16.67 m s1) (4.0 105 T)(1.3 m)
= 8.6 104 V
The leakage current is I = /R and the retarding
force is
The speed of the train is v =

F = IlB =

8.6 104 V
1.3 m 4.0 105 T
100

= 4.47 1010 N 5 1010 N


3. (d) : If I1 is the current through R1 and I2 is the

current through L and R2, then I1 =


and
R1
I2 = I0(1 et/),
L 400 10 3
= 0.2 s
=
Where =
R2
2
12
=6A
and I0 =
=
R2 2
Thus, I2 = 6(1 et/0.2)
Potential drop across L, i.e.,
R2I2 = 12 V 2 6(1 et/0.2) V = (12e5t) V
4. (a) : Here, total length l = 40 cm = 40 102 m,
Resistivity = 1.7 108 m
The area A of the loop
40 cm 40 cm
2
=

= 0.01 m
4 4
If the magnetic field at an instant is B, the flux
through the frame at that instant will be = BA.
As the area remains constant, the magnitude of the
emf induced will be
d
dB
=
=A
dt
dt
= (0.01 m) (0.02 T s1) = 2 104 V
The resistance of the loop is
(1.7 108 m)(40 102 m)
3.14 1 106 m2

= 2.16 103

Hence, the current induced in the loop will be


I=

2 104 V
3

2.16 10

= 9.3 102 A 0.1 A

1 2
5. (b) : As B = BA cos t = B r cos t,
2

d B 1
=
= Br2 sin t
dt
2

Instantaneous power, P =
T

Pav =

Pdt
T

2 (Br 2 )2
=
sin2 t
R
4R

(Br 2 )2 (T / 2)
4R
T
T
(as 0 sin2 t = T / 2)

(Br 2 )2
8R
6. (d) : As XL = 2L = 2 (50)(0.5) = 157.1 ,
1
1
=
= 318.4
XC =
2C 2(50)(10 5 )
=

|XL XC| = 161.3


Z = R2 + ( X L XC )2 = (100)2 + (161.3)2
= 189.7
7. (a)
8. (d) : As rms =
I0

(1 / 2 )

2
(1 / 2 )

1
V,
2

1
A,
2
2
2
1
and cos = cos /3 =
2
1 1 1 1
Pav = rmsIrms cos = = W
2 2 2 8
Irms =

9. (d) : Frequency remains unchanged with change of


medium.
c 1 / 0 0
= r r
Refractive index, n = =
v
1 /
Since r is very close to 1, n = r = 4 = 2

Thus, medium = =
n 2
1
1
2
10. (b) : uav = 0 E02 = 0 ( 2 Erms )2 = 0 Erms
2
2
E
(as Erms = 0 )
2
= (8.85 1012)(720)2 = 4.58 106 J m3
11. (a) : The intensity of a plane electromagnetic wave
is
1
I = uav c = 0E02c
2
2I
2 2. 0
or E0 =
=
0 c
8.85 10 12 3 108
= 38.8 N C 1
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

53

12. (a)
13. (c) : Here, L = 20 mH = 20 103 H,
C = 50 F = 50 106 F
R = 40 , V = 10 sin 340t = V0 sint
= 340 rad s1, V0 = 10 V
XL = L = 340 20 103 = 6.8
1
1
104
XC =
=
=
= 58.82
C 340 50 106 34 5

Arc lamp will glow if I = 10 A,

15. (b) : Here, N = 1000 , I = 4 A , 0 = 4 103 Wb


Total flux linked with the solenoid, = N0
= 1000 4 103 Wb = 4 Wb
Since, = LI
Self-inductance of solenoid,
4 Wb
L= =
=1 H
I
4A
16. (b) : An accelerating charge is used to produce
oscillating electric and magnetic fields, hence the
electromagnetic wave.
17. (d) : For a dc source
I = 10 A, V = 80 V
Resistance of the arc lamp,
V 80
R= = =8
I 10
For an ac source,
rms = 220 V
= 50 Hz
= 2 50 = 100 rad s1

54

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

rms

or R2 + 2 L2 = rms
2
2 2

I
R + L

220
or 82 + (100 )2 L2 =
10
2

22 8
or L2 =
(100 )2

2
2
Z = R2 + (XC X L )2 = (40) + (58.82 6.8)

= (40)2 + (52.02)2 = 65.62


The peak current in the circuit is
V
10
40
R
I0 = 0 =
A , cos = =

Z 65.62
Z 65.62
Power loss in ac circuit,
1
= Vrms Irms cos = V0 I0 cos
2
1
10
40
= 10

= 0.46 W
2
65.62 65.62
14. (d) : When an ideal capacitor is connected with
an ac voltage source, current leads voltage by 90.
Since, energy stored in capacitor during charging
is spent in maintaining charge on the capacitor
during discharging. Hence over a full cycle, the
capacitor does not consume any energy from the
voltage source.

I=

L=

30 14
= 0.065 H
100

18. (d) : Current in LR circuit is


I=

sin t
2

R2 + 2 L2
V0

i.e., it is sinusoidal in nature.

19. (b) : Here, B = B0e


Area of the circular loop, A = r2
Flux linked with the loop at any time, t,

= BA = r 2 B0e
t

d
1
Emf induced in the loop, =
= r 2 B0 e
dt

Net heat generated in the loop


2

2t

2r 4 B02

= dt =
e dt
R
2 R
=

2r 4 B02

2r 4 B02

2 R

22 R

1
2t

2 e

(0 1) =

2r 4 B02
2R

20. (a)

ANSWER KEY

MPP-4 CLASS XI
1.
6.
11.
16.
21.
26.

(d)
(c)
(b)
(a)
(b,c)
(4)

2.
7.
12.
17.
22.
27.

(a)
(c)
(a)
(d)
(a,b,c)
(a)

3.
8.
13.
18.
23.
28.

(c)
(c)
(a)
(c)
(b,d)
(d)

4.
9.
14.
19.
24.
29.

(d)
(d)
(c)
(a)
(4)
(b)

5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.

(a)
(a)
(b)
(a,c)
(2)
(c)

CLASS XII Series 5


Optics

Time Allowed : 3 hours


Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
(i)

All questions are compulsory.

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.
(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks
each.
(v)

Q. no. 23 is a value based question and carries 4 marks.

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.
(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculators is not allowed.

SECTION-A
1. For what angle of incidence, the lateral shift
produced by a parallel sided glass slab is maximum?
2. Light of wavelength 6000 in air enters a medium
of refractive index 1.5. What will be its frequency in
the medium?
3. No interference pattern is detected when two
coherent sources are infinitely close to one another.
Why?
4. Differentiate a ray and a wavefront.
5. Why are mirrors used in searchlights (or car
headlights) parabolic in shape and not concave
spherical?
SECTION-B

6. A light ray travels from medium 1 of refractive


index 1 to medium 2 of refractive index 2, where
2 < 1. Write an expression for critical angle of
incidence.
7. A convex lens made of material of refractive index 2
56

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

Previous Years Analysis


2016
2015
2014
Delhi
AI
Delhi AI
Delhi AI
VSA
SA-I
SA-II
VBQ
LA

1
1

1
1

2
_

2
_

2
_

1
1

1
1

1
1

2
_

2
_

is held in a reference medium of refractive index l.


Trace the path of a parallel beam of light passing
through the lens when
(a) l = 2 , (b) 1 < 2 and (c) l > 2 .
8. What is the focal length of a combination of a
convex lens of focal length 30 cm and a concave lens
of focal length 20 cm ? Is the system a converging or
diverging lens? Ignore thickness of the lenses.
9. In a double-slit interference experiment, the two
coherent beams, have slightly different intensities I
and (I + I) where I << I. Show that the resultant
intensity at the maxima is nearly 4I, while at the
minima is nearly

| I |2
4I

OR
The ratio of the intensities at minima to the maxima
in the Young's double slit experiment is 9:25. Find
the ratio of the widths of the two slits.

10. A radar wave has frequency of 8.1 109 Hz. The


reflected wave from an aeroplane shows a frequency
difference of 2.7 103 Hz on the higher side. Deduce
the velocity of aeroplane in the line of sight.
SECTION-C

11. A card sheet divided into squares each of size


1 mm2 is being viewed at a distance of 9 cm through
a magnifying glass (a converging lens of focal length
10 cm) held close to the eye.
(a) What is the magnification produced by the
lens? How much is the area of each square in
the virtual image?
(b) What is the magnifying power of the lens?
(c) Is the magnification in (a) equal to the
magnifying power in (b)? Explain.
1 1 1
= for a concave
f v u
lens, using the necessary ray diagram.

12. Derive the lens formula,

13. Draw a graph to show the variation of the angle


of deviation with the angle of incidence i for
a monochromatic ray of light passing through a
glass prism of refracting angle A. Hence deduce the
relation
+ A
sin m
2
.
=
A
sin
2
14. Define angular dispersion and dispersive power.
Derive the expressions for these quantities in terms
of refractive index.
15. A convex lens, of focal length 20 cm, is placed
co-axially with a convex mirror of radius of
curvature 20 cm. The two are kept 15 cm apart from
each other. A point object is placed 60 cm in front
of the convex lens. Draw a ray diagram to show
the formation of the image by the combination.
Determined the nature and position of the image
formed.
16. A Cassegrain telescope uses two mirrors as shown
in figure. Such a telescope is built with the mirrors
20 mm apart. If the radius of curvature of the
large mirror is 220 mm and the small mirror is
140 mm, where will the final image of an object at
infinity be?

17. State the condition for diffraction of light to occur.


In a single slit diffraction pattern, how does the
angular width of central maximum change, when
(a) slit width is decreased, (b) distance between the
slit and screen is increased and (c) light of smaller
visible wavelength is used? Justify your answer in
each case.
18. Two wavelengths of sodium light, 590 nm and
596 nm, are used in turn, to study the diffraction
taking place at a single slit of aperture 2.0 104 m.
The distance between the slit and the screen is 1.5 m.
Calculate the separation between the positions of
first maximum of the diffraction pattern obtained
in the two cases.
19. Discuss the intensity of transmitted light when
a polaroid sheet is rotated between two crossed
polaroids ?
20. Figure shows a modified Young's double slit

experimental set up. Here SS2 SS1 = .


4

(a) State the condition for constructive and


destructive interference.
(b) Obtain an expression for the fringe width.
(c) Locate the position of the central fringe.
OR
What do you mean by coherent and incoherent
sources of light? Why are coherent sources required
to produce interference of light?
State the conditions, which must be satisfied for two
light sources to be coherent.
21. The absolute refractive index of air is 1.0003 and
wavelength of yellow light in vacuum is 6000 .
Find the thickness of air column which will contain
one more wavelength of yellow light than in the
same thickness of vacuum.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

57

22. Explain the phenomenon of total internal reflection.


Under what conditions does it take place?
How totally reflecting prism can be used to (a) deviate
a ray through 90 (b) deviate a ray through 180.
SECTION-D

23. Rama was watching a programme on moon on


the discovery channel. He came to know from the
observation recorded on the surface of the moon
that sunrise and sunset are abrupt there and the
sky appears dark from there. He was surprised
and determined to know the reason behind it. He
discussed it with his Physics teacher next day, who
explained him the reason behind it.
(a) What were the values being displayed by Rama?
(b) Why are sunrise and sunset abrupt on the
surface of the moon?
(c) Why does the sky appear dark from the moon?
SECTION-E

24. Trace the rays of light showing the formation of


an image due to a point object placed on the axis
of a spherical surface separating the two media of
refractive indices 1 and 2. Establish the relation
between the distances of the object, the image and
the radius of curvature from the central point of the
spherical surface. Hence derive the expression of
the lens makers formula.
OR
(a) How does one demonstrate, using a suitable
diagram, that unpolarised light when passed
through a polaroid gets polarised?
(b) A beam of unpolarised light is incident on a
glass-air interface. Show, using a suitable ray
diagram, that light reflected from the interface
is totally polarised, when = tan iB, where is
the refractive index of glass with respect to air
and iB is the Brewster's angle.
25. Draw a ray diagram for a compound microscope.
Derive an expression for the magnifying power
when the final image is formed at the least distance
of distinct vision. State the expression for the
magnifying power when the image is formed at
infinity. Why is the focal length of the objective lens
of a compound microscope kept quite small?
OR
Draw a ray diagram for the formation of image of a
distant object at least distance of distinct vision by
58

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

an astronomical telescope. Deduce the expression


for its magnifying power. Write two basic features
which can distinguish between a telescope and a
compound microscope.
26. (a) Use Huygen's geometrical construction to show
how a plane wavefront at t = 0 propagates and
produces a wavefront at a later time.
(b) Verify, using Huygen's principle, Snell's law of
refraction of a plane wave propagating from a
rarer to a denser medium.
(c) Illustrate with the help of diagrams the action
of (i) convex lens and (ii) concave mirror, on a
plane wavefront incident on it.
OR
In Youngs experiment, deduce the conditions for
the constructive and destructive interference pattern
observed on the screen by drawing the necessary
diagram. Hence establish the relation between the
fringe width, the wavelength of the monochromatic
source, separation between the two slits and the
distance between the screen and the plane of the
slits. If the set-up were to be put up in a medium
optically denser than air, what effect would there be
on the observed fringe width? Give reason for your
answer.
SOLUTIONS

1. For i = 90, lateral shift is maximum and is equal to


the thickness of the slab.
t sin(i r )
d=
cos r
dmax =

t sin(90 r )
cos r

t cos r
cos r

=t

2. Frequency in air,
=

c
3 108
=
= 5 1014 Hz
6000 1010

The frequency of light remains same as it travels


from air to the given medium.
Frequency in medium = 5 1014 Hz
D
d
1
i.e., , when d 0,
d
Fringe width is very large. Even a single fringe may
occupy the entire screen. The interference pattern
cannot be observed.

3. Fringe width, =

4. A wavefront is surface of constant phase but a ray is


a line drawn normal to the wavefront and pointing
in the direction of propagation of the wave or
wavefront.
5. A spherical mirror of large aperture suffers with the
spherical aberration. However, a parabolic reflector
is free from spherical aberration. Therefore, when
a source of light is placed at the focus point of a
parabolic mirror, it produces a perfect parallel beam
of light which is visible even from a long distance.
6. As shown in figure, when i = ic , r = 90
Using Snell's law of refraction,
1 sin ic = 2 sin90

sinic = 2
1
or ic = sin

= 2 I + I + 2 I 1 +

= 4I neglecting I and

I
I min = [ I + I I ]2 = I[(1 + I / I )1/2 1]2
2

OR
I
9
Given, min =
I max 25

or

2
9
r 1

=
25
r +1

r 1 3
or 5r 5 = 3r + 3
=
r +1 5
a
r = 4 = 1 , the amplitude ratio
a2

or

| I |2
I
I
= I 1 + 1 = I =
2I
2I
4I

or
1 2

I
I

Width ratio of the slits,


w1 I1 a12 16
=
=
=
= 16 : 1
w2 I2 a22
1

7. The ray diagrams are shown below

10. Here = 8.1 109 Hz, = 2.7 103 Hz


v
As = .
c
v=
8. Given, focal length of convex lens, f1 = + 30 cm
Focal length of concave lens, f2 = 20 cm
Focal length of the combination is given by
1
1
1
1
1
1
= +
=
+
=
f
f1 f2 30 20
60
or f = 60 cm
The negative value of f indicates that the
combination behaves as a diverging lens.
9. For any interference pattern,
I max = (a1 + a2 )2 = ( I1 + I 2 )2
2
and I min = (a1 a2 )2 = ( I1 I2 )2 (as I a )

Given, I1 = I and I2 = (I + I),


2

I max = ( I + I + I )

= I + ( I + I ) + 2 I ( I + I )

2.7 103
.c =
3 108 = 100 m s 1
9

8.1 10

Since the velocity of the aeroplane determined


by radar waves is double of its actual velocity of
approach, therefore,
Actual velocity of the aeroplane
= 50 m s1 = 180 km h1
11. (a) Here, area of each square = 1 mm2
u = 9 cm, f = + 10 cm
1 1 1
As =
v u f

1 1 1 1 1
1
= + =
=
v f u 10 9
90

or v = 90 cm
Magnitude of magnification is
v 90
=
= 10
9
u
Area of each square in the virtual image
= (10)2 1 = 100 mm2 = 1 cm2
m=

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

59

25
D
=
= 2.8
|u| 9
(c) No, Magnification of an image by a lens and
angular magnification (or magnifying power) of
a optical instrument are two separate concepts.
The latter is the ratio of the angular size of the
object to the angular size of the object if placed
at the near point (25 cm). Thus magnification
v
25
and magnifying power is
.
magnitude is
u
|u|
Only when the image is located at the near
(b) Magnifying power, M =

point |v| = 25 cm, the two quantities are equal


as will be seen.
12. Suppose O be the optical centre and F be the
principal focus of concave lens of focal length f. AB
is an object placed perpendicular to its principal
axis. A virtual, erect and diminished image AB is
formed due to refraction through the lens.

ABO and ABO are similar


A B BO
...(i)

=
AB
BO
Also, ABF and MOF are similar
A B FB

=
MO FO
But MO = AB, therefore
A B FB
...(ii)
=
AB
FO
From (i) and (ii), we get
BO FB FO BO
=
=
BO
FO
FO
Using new cartesian sing convention, we get
BO = u, BO = v, FO = f
v f + v
=

f
u
or vf = uf uv or uv = uf vf
Dividing both sides by uvf, we get
As

60

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

1 1 1
=
f v u
This is the thin lens formula for a concave lens.
13. For a given prism and for a given colour of light, the
angle depends on i only. As i increases, the angle
of first decreases and reaches a minimum value
m and then increases. Clearly, any given value of
corresponds to two angles of incidence i and i . This
fact is expected from the symmetry of i and i in the
equation : = i + i A i.e., remains the same as
i and i are interchanged. Physically, it means that
the path of the ray in figure (a) can be traced back,
resulting in the same angle of deviation.
The minimum value of the angle of deviation
suffered by a ray of light on passing through a prism
is called the angle of minimum deviation and is
denoted by m.

When a prism is in the position of minimum


deviation, ray of light passes symmetrically through
the prism so that
i = i, r = r, = m
As A + = i + i
A + m
A + m = i + i or i =
2
Also A = r + r = r + r = 2r
A
r=
2
From Snell's law, the refractive index of the material
of the prism will be
A + m
sin
sin i
2
=
or =
A
sin r
sin
2
14. When a beam of white light passes through a prism,
it gets dispersed into its constituent colours. Let V,
R and be the angles of deviation for violet, red
and yellow (mean) colours respectively, as shown
in figure.

OI1 = distance of virtual object I1 from convex


mirror = OI1 OO = (30 15) cm = 15 cm
For the convex mirror : u2 = + 15 cm and R = +20 cm
Using mirror formula, we get
1
1
2
1
1
2
+
=
i.e.,
+ =
v2 u2 R
v2 15 20
V = (V 1) A
R = (R 1) A
= ( 1) A
where V, R and are the refractive indices of the
prism material for violet, red and yellow (mean)
colours, respectively.
The angular separation between the two extreme
colours (violet and red) in the spectrum is called
the angular dispersion.
Angular dispersion = V R
= (V 1) A (R 1) A
= (V R)A
Clearly, the angular dispersion produced by a prism
depends upon (i) angle of the prism and (ii) nature
of the material of the prism.
Dispersive power is the ability of the prism material
to cause dispersion. It is defined as the ratio of the
angular dispersion to the mean deviation.
Dispersive power,
Then

Angular dispersion

Mean deviation
R
or = V
1

R
= V

15. The ray diagram, for the image formed by the


combination, is shown in figure.

For the convex lens = u1 = 60 cm and f = +20 cm


Using thin lens formula, we get
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

=
or
=

=
v1 60 20
v1 20 60 30
or v1 = 30 cm
In the absence of the mirror, the lens would have
formed the image of P at I1, which acts as a virtual
object for the convex mirror.

or

1
1
1
1
=
=
v2 10 15 30

v2 = +30 cm
Hence the final image I is a virtual image formed at
a distance of 30 cm behind the convex mirror.
16. Image formed by concave mirror acts as a virtual
object for convex mirror.
Here parallel rays coming from infinity will focus at
110 mm an axis away from concave mirror.

Distance of virtual object for convex mirror


= 110 20 = 90 mm
For convex mirror
1 1 1
u = 90 mm, f = 70 mm + =
v u f
1 1 1 1
1
= =

v f u 70 90
v = 315 mm
Hence image is formed at 315 mm from smaller
convex mirror.
17. Diffraction of light occurs when the size of the
obstacle or aperture is comparable to the wavelength
of the light.
2D
Linear width of central maximum, 0 =
d
0 2
Angular width of central maximum =
=
D
d
(a) When slit width d decreases, angular width
increases.
(b) When distance D between the slit and screen is
increased, angular width does not change.
(c) When light of smaller wavelength is used,
angular width decreases.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

61

18. As per question, slit width, a = 2.0 104 m; distance


of screen from the slit, D = 1.5 m; 1 = 590 nm
= 5.9 107 m and 2 = 596 nm = 5.96 107 m
We know that for first diffraction maxima,
3
a sin =
2
3
If is small, then sin =
2a
Linear distance of first maximum from central
maximum,
3 D
x = D =
2a
3 D
For wavelength 1, x1 = 1
2a
3 D
and for wavelength 2, x2 = 2
2a
3D
x2 x1 =
( 1 )
2a 2
3 1. 5
=
[5.96 107 5.90 107 ] m
4
2 2.0 10
= 0.0675 mm
19. Let intensity of polarised light after passing through
the first polaroid P1 be I. When polaroid P is rotated
between two crossed polaroids P1 and P2, let at a
certain instant, P is inclined at an angle with P1
and an angle (90 ) from P2.
Intensity of light after passing through P
= I cos2
and final intensity of light transmitted even through P2
= I = (I cos2). cos2 (90 )
I = I cos2 sin2
I
I
= . 4 cos2 sin2 = sin2 (2)
4
4
From this result, we concluded that intensity of
transmitted light is maximum when 2 = 90, so
that sin 2 = 1. Thus, for maximum transmitted
intensity, the polaroid sheet must be placed at an
angle of 45 between two crossed polaroids and
I
then, I = .
4
20.







 
 




Initial path difference between SS1 and SS2,


62

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

4
Path difference between disturbances from S1 and
S2 at point P,
xd
=
D
Total path difference between the two disturbances
at P,
xd
T = 0 + = +
4 D
In general for constructive interference,
x d
T = + n = n ; n = 0, 1, 2,...
4
D
0 = SS2 SS1 =

xnd
1
= n

D
4
For destructive interference,

x d
T = + n = (2n 1)
4
2
D
x n d
1
or
= 2n 1

D
2 2
or

or

...(i)

x n d
3
= 2n

D
2 2

D
d
The position x0 of central fringe is obtained by
putting n = 0 in equation (i). Therefore,
D
x0 =
4d
The negative sign shows that the central fringe is
obtained at a point O below the (central) point O.
Fringe width, = xn + 1 xn =

OR
Two sources of light which continuously emit light
waves of same frequency (or wavelength) with a
zero or constant phase difference between them, are
called coherent sources.
Two sources of light which do not emit light
waves with a constant phase difference are called
incoherent sources.
When two monochromatic waves of intensity I1, I2
and phase difference meet at a point, the resultant
intensity is given by
I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos
The last term 2 I1 I 2 cos is called interference
term. There are two possibilities:

(a) If cos remains constant with time, the total


intensity at any point will be constant. The
2
intensity will be maximum ( I1 + I 2 )
at points, where cos = +1 and minimum

( I1 I 2 )2 at points where cos = 1. The


sources in this case are coherent.
(b) If cos varies continuously with time assuming
both positive and negative values, then the
average value of cos will be zero. Then
interference term averages to zero. There will
be same intensity, I = I1 + I2 at every point. The
two sources in this case are incoherent.
Hence to observe interference, we need to have
two sources with the same frequency and with
a stable phase difference. Such a pair of sources
is called coherent sources.
Conditions for obtaining two coherent sources of
light :
(a) The two sources of light must be obtained from
a single source by some method. Then the
relative phase difference between the two light
waves from the sources will remain constant
with time.
(b) The two sources must give monochromatic
light. Otherwise, different colours will produce
different interference patterns and fringes of
different colours will overlap.
21. Wavelength of yellow light in vacuum,
= 6000
Wavelength of yellow light in air,

is partly reflected back into the denser medium


and partly refracted to the rarer medium. This
reflection is called internal reflection. Under certain
conditions, the whole of the incident light can be
made to be reflected back into the denser medium.
This gives rise to an interesting phenomenon called
total internal reflection.

Necessary conditions for total internal reflection


(i) Light must travel from an optically denser to an
optically rarer medium.
(ii) The angle of incidence in the denser medium
must be greater than the critical angle for the
two media.
(a) To deviate a ray through 90 : A right angled
prism shown in figure (a), as the light is incident
normally on one of the faces containing right
angle, it enters the prism without deviation. It
is incident on the hypotenuse face at an angle
of 45, greater than the critical angle. The light
is totally internally reflected. Having been
deviated through 90, the light passes through
third face without any further deviation. Such
prisms are used in periscopes.

6000

=
1.0003
Let a thickness t of vacuum contain n waves and the
same thickness t of air contain n + 1 waves.
t
t
...(i)
Then n = =
6000
=

and n + 1 =

1.0003 t
t
=
6000

...(ii)

From equations (i) and (ii), we get


1.003 t
t
+1 =
or t + 6000 = 1.0003 t
6000
6000
or t = 2 107 = 2 mm
22. If light passes from an optically denser medium
to rarer medium, then at the interface, the light

(b) To invert an image with deviation of rays


through 180 : As shown in figure (b), the light
is incident normally on the hypotenuse face, it
first suffers total internal reflection from one
shorter face and then from the other shorter
face. The final beam emerges through the
hypotenuse face, parallel to the incident beam.
The deviation is 180. Such a prism is called a
porroprism.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

63

23. (a) Keen observer and curiosity.


(b) Moon has no atmosphere. There is no refraction
of light. Sunlight reaches moon straight covering
shortest distance. Hence sunrise and sunset are
abrupt.
(c) Moon has no atmosphere, so there is nothing to
scatter sunlight towards the moon. No skylight
reaches the moon surface, sky appears dark in
the day time as it does at night.
24. Refer to point 6.5 (5 (i)), 6.6 (1) page no. 372, 374
(MTG Excel in Physics)
OR
(a) Refer to point 6.15 (7) page no. 453 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
(b) Refer to point 6.15 (9) page no. 455 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
25. Refer to point 6.9 (1 (iv)) page no. 381 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
Angular magnification of objective will be large
when u0 is slightly greater than f0. Now a compound

64

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

microscope is used for viewing very close objects,


so u0 is small. Consequently, f0 has to be small.
OR
Refer to point 6.9 (2) page no. 382 (MTG Excel in
Physics)
The two important differences between a telescope
and a compound microscope are
(a) The aperture of the objective of a microscope is
very small while that of the telescope is large.
(b) Both the lenses of a compound microscope
have short focal length while the objective of a
telescope has large focal length.
26. (a) Refer to point 6.11 (1) page no. 444 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
(b) Refer to point 6.11 (5) page no. 445 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
(c) Refer to point 6.12 (1, 3) page no. 445 (MTG
Excel in Physics)
OR
Refer to point 6.13 (6, 7, 8 (v)) page no. 447, 448
(MTG Excel in Physics)

CHAPTERWISE MCQs FOR PRACTICE


Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams
ATOMS

1. The total energy of an electron in the excited


state corresponding to n = 3 state is E. What is its
potential energy with proper sign?
(a) 2E (b) 2E
(c) E
(d) E
2. The energy levels of a certain atom for 1st, 2nd
and 3rd levels are E, 4E/3 and 2E respectively.
A photon of wavelength is emitted for a transition
3 1. What will be the wavelength of emission for
transition 2 1?

4
3
(a)
(d) 3
(b)
(c)
3
3
4
3. In Bohr model of hydrogen atom, the ratio of period
of revolution of an electron in n = 2 and n = 1 orbit
is
(a) 2 : 1 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 8 : 1 (d) 16 : 1
4. A hydrogen atom and a Li2+ ion are both in the
second excited state. If lH and lLi are their respective
electronic angular momenta, and EH and ELi their
respective energies, then
(a) lH > lLi and EH > ELi
(b) lH = lLi and EH < ELi
(c) lH = lLi and EH > ELi
(d) lH < lLi and EH < ELi
5. The ratio of the longest and shortest wavelengths in
Brackett series of hydrogen spectra is
9
4
25
17
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
5
3
9
6
6. The electric potential between a proton and an
r
electron is given by V = V0 ln , where r0 is a
r0

constant. Assuming Bohrs model to be applicable,


write variation of rn with n, n being the principal
quantum number.
1
(a) rn n
(b) rn
n
1
(c) rn n2
(d) rn 2
n
7. A hydrogen atom is excited up to 9th level. The total
number of possible spectral lines emitted by the
hydrogen atom is
(a) 36
(b) 35
(c) 37
(d) 38
8. The radius of the hydrogen atom in its ground
state is a0. The radius of a muonic hydrogen atom
in which the electron is replaced by an identically
charged muon with mass 207 times that of an
electron, is a equal to
a0
a0
(c)
(d) a0 207
(a) 207a0 (b)
207
207
9. Which energy state of doubly ionised lithium has
the same energy as that of the ground state of
hydrogen ? (Given Z for lithium = 3)
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 2
(d) 1
10. When the electron in hydrogen atom is excited
from the 4th stationary orbit to the 5th stationary
orbit, the change in the angular momentum of the
electron is (Plancks constant, h = 6.63 1034 J s)
(a) 4.16 1034 J s
(b) 3.32 1034 J s
(c) 1.05 1034 J s
(d) 2.08 1034 J s
257
11. If the atom 100
Fm follows the Bohr model and the
257
Fm is N times the Bohr
radius of fifth orbit of 100
radius, then the value of N is
(a) 100 (b) 200
(c) 4
(d) 1/4
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

65

12. The angular momentum of electron in 3d orbital of


an atom is
k
(a) 2
(b) 3 k
2
2
k
6
2

k
12
2
13. Taking the Bohr radius as a0 = 53 pm, the radius of
Li++ ion in its ground state, on the basis of Bohrs
model, will be about
(a) 53 pm (b) 27 pm (c) 18 pm (d) 13 pm
(c)

(d)

14. An alpha particle of energy 5 MeV is scattered


through 180 by a fixed uranium nucleus. The
distance of closest approach is of the order of
(a) 1
(b) 1010 cm
12
(c) 10 cm
(d) 1015 cm
15. The wavelength of the first spectral line in the Balmer
series of hydrogen atom is 6561 . The wavelength
of the second spectral line in the Balmer series of
singly-ionized helium atom is
(a) 1215
(b) 1640
(c) 2430
(d) 4687
NUCLEI

16. In the following reaction, the energy released is


1
4
4 1H 2 He + 2e+ + Energy
Given

1
: Mass of 1H = 1.007825 u
4
Mass of 2 He = 4.002603 u
+

Mass of e = 0.000548 u

(a) 12.33 MeV


(c) 25.7 MeV

(b) 24.67 MeV


(d) 49.34 MeV

17. A radioactive isotope A with a half life of


1.25 1010 years decays into B which is stable.
A sample of rock from a planet is found to contain
both A and B present in the ratio 1 : 16. The age of
the rock is
(a) 9.6 1010 years (b) 4.2 1010 years
(c) 5 1010 years
(d) 1.95 1010 years
18. A heavy nucleus at rest breaks into two fragments
which fly off with velocities in the ratio 3 : 1. The
ratio of radii of the fragments is
(a) 1 : 31/3 (b) 31/3 : 4 (c) 4 : 1

(d) 2 : 1

19. A radioactive nucleus emits 3-particles and


5-particles. The ratio of number of neutrons to
that of protons will be
66

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

AZ
A Z 12
(b)
Z 1
Z 6
A Z 11
(d)
(c) A Z 11
Z 1
Z 6
20. A radioactive sample has half life of 5 days. To decay
from 8 microcurie to 1 microcurie, the number of
days taken will be
(a) 40
(b) 25
(c) 15
(d) 10
21. A free neutron decays spontaneously into
(a) a proton, an electron and anti-neutrino
(b) a proton, an electron and a neutrino
(c) a proton and electron
(d) a proton, and electron, a neutrino and an
anti-neutrino.
22. The radius of germanium (Ge) nuclide is measured
9
to be twice the radius of 4Be. The number of
nucleons in Ge are
(a) 72
(b) 73
(c) 74
(d) 75
(a)

23. Fusion reaction takes place at high temperature


because
(a) nuclei break up at high temperature
(b) atoms get ionised at high temperature
(c) kinetic energy is high enough to overcome the
coulomb repulsion between nuclei
(d) molecules break up at high temperature.
24. To generate power of 3.2 MW, the number of fissions
of 235U per minute is
(Energy released per fission = 200 MeV,
1 eV = 1.6 1019 J)
(a) 6 1018
(b) 6 1017
17
(c) 10
(d) 6 1016
232

25. The 90Th atom has successive alpha and beta decays
208
to the end product 82Pb. The numbers of alpha and
beta particles emitted in the process respectively
are
(a) 4, 6
(b) 4, 4
(c) 6, 2
(d) 6, 4
26. An element X decays first by positron emission
and then two -particles are emitted in successive
radioactive decay. If the product nucleus has mass
number 227 and atomic number 89, the mass
number and atomic number of element X are
(a) (273, 93)
(b) (235, 94)
(c) (238, 93)
(d) (237, 92)
27. A radioactive isotope has a decay constant and a
molar mass M. Taking the Avogadro constant to be
L, what is the activity of a sample of mass m of this
isotope?

mL
M
m
mL
(c)
(d)
ML
M
28. In a nuclear reactor, moderators slow down the
neutrons which come out in a fission process. The
moderator used have light nuclei. Heavy nuclei will
not serve the purpose because
(a) they will break up
(b) elastic collision of neutrons with heavy nuclei
will not slow them down
(c) the net weight of the reactor would be unbearably
high
(d) substances with heavy nuclei do not occur in
liquid or gaseous state at room temperature.
(a) mML

(b)

29. The half life of radioactive radon is 3.8 days. The


time at the end of which (1/20)th of radon sample
will remain undecayed (given log10 2 = 0.30103) is
(a) 3.8 days
(b) 16.5 days
(c) 33 days
(d) 76 days
30. A radioactive sample consists of two distinct species
having equal number of atoms initially. The mean
life time of one species is and that of the other
is 5. The decay products in both cases are stable.
A plot is made of the total number of radioactive
nuclei as function of time. Which of the following
figures best represents the form of this plot?

(a)

(d)

SOLUTIONS
1. (b)
2. (d) :








E3 E1 = 2E E = E
From figure,
E2 E1 = E2 E3 + E3 E1

Tn =

402 h3n3
me 4

Tn n3
3

T2 2 8
= =
T1 1 1

4. (b) : In second excited state, n = 3,


h
So, lH = lLi = 3
2
2
while E Z and ZH = 1, ZLi = 3
So, ELi = 9 EH or EH < ELi
5. (a) : For Brackett series,
1
1
1
= R
2

4 n2
where n = 5, 6, 7, 8, ........
For longest wavelength, n = 5
1
1 1

= R
Longest
42 52
.... (i)

.... (ii)

r0

hc
=E

3. (c) : In Bohr model of hydrogen atom, the period


of revolution of electron in nth orbit is given as

6. (a) : Given : V = V0 ln r



(Using (i))

9
1 1
= R =
R
16 25 400
For shortest wavelength, n =
1
1 R
1

= R
=
2
Shortest
4
2 16
Dividing (ii) by (i), we get
Longest R 400 25
=
=
Shortest 16 9R 9

(b)

(c)

4
= E 2E + 2E E
3
2
1
= E+E= E
3
3
hc 1 hc
=
3
= 3

...(i)

Potential energy, U = eV
dU
r
r 1
or U = eV0 ln
= eV0 0
r r0
dr
r0
eV
dU
Force, F =
= 0
dr
r
or

F =

eV0
r

eV0
r
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

67

This force provides the necessary centripetal force.

mv 2
r

eV0

or v =

eV0

m
nh
By Bohrs postulate, mvr =
2
nh
or v =
2mr

...(i)

...(ii)

From equations (i) and (ii), we get


eV0
nh
=
m
2mr

or

h
2

r=

or r =
1
meV0

nh
m

2m
eV0

rn n
7. (a) : Number of spectral lines emitted is
n(n 1)
N=
2
9(9 1) 9 8
=
= 36
Here n = 9 N =
2
2
h 2 0
a
=
8. (b) : 0
me 2
h 2 0
a =
(207m)e 2
Dividing (ii) by (i), we get
a
a
1
=
or a = 0
a0 207
207

.... (i)
.... (ii)

CZ 2

, where C is a constant.
n2
For ground state of hydrogen atom, Z = 1, n = 1

C(1)2

=C
(1)2
For nth state of Li2+ ion (Z = 3)
En =

E1 =

C(3)2

9C

n
n2
As En = E1
9C

= C or n2 = 9 or n = 3
n2
10. (c) : According to Bohrs quantisation condition
nh
Ln =
2
4h
5h
For n = 4, L4 =
and for n = 5, L5 =
2
2
Change in angular momentum when an
electron is excited from n = 4 to n = 5 is
68

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

n2
a , where n is the orbit number.
Z 0
For 257
100 Fm, Z = 100
25
1
rs

a0 = a0
r5 =
a = N
100
4
0
r5
1
=N =

a0
4

11. (d) : As rn =

12. (c) : The angular momentum is given by


k
L = l(l + 1)
2
For 3d orbital, l = 2
k
k
L = 2(3) = 6
2
2
13. (c) : Radius of Li++ ion in its ground state, i.e.,

9. (b) : The energy of nth state of a hydrogen like atom


is given as
En =

5h 4h

2 2
h 6.63 1034
J-s = 1.05 1034 J s
=
=
2
2 3.14
L = L5 L4 =

r0 =

0 h 2

mZe 2
53 pm
h2
a
18 pm
As Bohr radius, a0 = 0 2 r0 = 0 =
me

( for Li, Z = 3)

14. (c) : Gain in potential energy of -particle


= Loss in kinetic energy of -particle
1 Ze 2e
5 1.6 1013 =

4 0
r0
2
1
2Ze

r0 =
4 0 5 1.6 1013
=

9 109 2 92 (1.6 1019 )2

5 1.6 1013
= 5.3 1014 m = 5.3 1012 cm 1012 cm
15. (a) :

1
1
1
= RZ 2
2
2

n1 n2
1
1 1 5
= R(1)2 = R
1
22 32 36

1
1 3
1
= R(2)2 = R
2
2
42 4
2
2 = 5 4 = 5
1 36 3 27
5
5
or 2 = 1 = 6561 = 1215
27
27
16. (c) : The given nuclear reaction is
1
4
4 1H 2 He + 2e+ + Energy
The energy released during the process is
1
4
Q = [4m(1H) m( 2He) 2(me+)]c2
= [4 1.007825 4.002603 2 0.000548]u c2
= [4.0313 4.002603 0.001096]u c2
= (0.027601 u)c2
= (0.027601)(931.5) MeV = 25.7 MeV
17. (c) : According to Rutherford and Soddy law for
radioactive decay,
Number of atoms remained undecayed after time
t is
N = N0et
N
N
e t = 0 or t = ln 0
N
N
1 N0
t = ln
N
T1/2 N 0 1.25 1010 16
ln
t=
ln
=
ln 2 N
ln 2
1
10
1.25 10 4 ln 2
= 5 1010 years
=
ln 2
18. (a) : As the heavy nucleus at rest breaks, therefore
according to law of conservation of momentum,
we get
m1v1 + m2v2 = 0
and

v1 m2 3
=
=
v2 m1 1
As nuclear density is same,
4 3
m1 3 R1 R13

=
=
3
4
m2
R23 R2
3
R13 m1 1
=
=
or
R23 m2 3

or

....(i)

(Using (i))

R1 : R2 = 1 : 31/3
19. (d) : During the emission of -particle, the mass
number and atomic number decreases by four and
two respectively. During the emission of -particle
the mass number remains the same while the atomic
number increases by 1.
3
5
12)
( A 12)
( A
(Z 6)Y (Z 1)Y
Number of neutrons A 12 (Z 1)

=
Number of protons
Z 1
A Z 11
=
Z 1
20. (c) : Here,
Half life, T1/2 = 8 days
Initial activity, R0 = 8 microcurie
Final activity, R = 1 microcurie
A
ZX

R 1
= where n is the number of half lives
As
R0 2
n

1 1
1 1
= or =
2 2
8 2
or n = 3
t
As n =
or t = nT1/2 = (3)(5 days) = 15 days
T1/2

21. (a) : A free neutron is unstable. It decays


spontaneously into a proton, an electron and
antineutrino.

n p + e +
neutron

proton

electron

anti-neutrino

22. (a) : Nuclear radii, R = R0(A)1/3 (where R0 = 1.2 fm)


or R (A)1/3

or

RBe (9)1/3
=
RGe ( A)1/3
RBe
(9)1/3
=
2RBe ( A)1/3

(A)1/3 = 2 (9)1/3
or
A = 23 9 = 72
The number of nucleons in Ge is 72.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

69

23. (c) : For fusion to take place, high temperature is


needed because at high temperature, the kinetic
energy becomes large enough to overcome the
coulomb repulsion between nuclei.
24. (a) : Here, power = 3.2 MW = 3.2 106 W
Energy released per fission = 200 MeV
= 200 106 eV = 200 106 1.6 1019 J
Number of fissions per minute
3.2 106 60
=
= 6 1018
200 106 1.6 1019
25. (d) : Let number of particles emitted be x and
number of -particles emitted be y.
Difference in mass number = 4x = 232 208 = 24
or x = 6
Difference in atomic number = 2x y = 90 82 = 8
12 y = 8 or y = 4
26. (b) : Let A and Z be mass number and atomic
number of element X.
+

and M is the molar mass.


mL
m
N = L or A =
M
M
28. (b) : During an elastic collision between two
particles, the maximum kinetic energy is transferred
from one particle to the other when they have the
same mass. Consequently, a neutron loses all of
its kinetic energy when it collides head-on with
a proton, in analogy with the collision between a
moving billiard ball and a stationary one. For this
reason, materials which are abundant in hydrogen
such as paraffin and water, are good moderators
for neutrons.
N
29. (b) : Here, T1/2 = 3.8 days, N = 0
20
Disintegration constant,
0.693 0.693
day 1
=
=
T1/2
3.8
As N = N0et

Z A1Y ZA58Y
Since the product nucleus has mass number 227
and atomic number 89.
A 8 = 227 or A = 235
and Z 5 = 89 or Z = 94
A
ZX

27. (b) : A = N
N = nL where n is the number of moles and L is the
Avogadro number.
m
Now, n =
where m is the mass of the isotope,
M

N0
= N 0e t or e t = 20
20
Taking natural logarithm,
t = loge 20 or t = 2.303 log10 20

2.303 1.3010 2.303 1.3010 3.8


=
days

0.693
=16.43 days 16.5 days
or

t=

30. (d)

   




 $

   




 $

   


$

 $

   
  

      

70

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16





 


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an
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Physics
ed
Archim
ican Institute of
exist. The Amer
t
uld
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co

ds
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on
w
en
up
phenom
and surprising
dustry or
in
ar
cle
said: This new
nu
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th
ne,
tions in medici
lead to applica
logy.
no
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io
at
ul
micromanip

Courtesy : The Times of India

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

71

 


INDUCED ELECTRIC FIELD

This article expects a brief knowledge of induction;. i.e.,


when the magnetic flux through a closed conducting
loop is changed, a current is induced within the loop
such that it opposes the change that has produced it.
According to Faraday's law, the induced emf in the
loop is,
d
= B
dt
where B is magnetic flux through the loop.
Induced current,
d
B

I=
= dt
R
resistance of the loop
Now, the question that should pop up in our head is
how does current appear; i.e., what actually makes the
free electrons of the loop push along the length of the
wire? In current electricity chapter, you must have learnt
that the terminals of the battery creates a potential
difference across the length of the conductor which
creates an electric field and hence the free electrons
get pushed due to which current appears. So, it was
the conservative electric field there since they were
produced by static charges at the ends of the battery
terminals.
But how do we explain the generation of current
without battery?
An interesting observation found in nature is that a
changing magnetic field leads to an induction of electric
field in the surrounding and vice versa.
So in time varying magnetic field, current is generated
due to induced electric field which is very different
from the conservative electric field. How do we know
that its electric field only which is making the charges
push along the length of conductor and not magnetic
forces?
Had it been magnetic forces, they would have been
perpendicular to velocity [F = q(v B)] and hence

perpendicular to length of wire too and hence charges


could not have moved.
Now, how do we find the strength of the induced
electric field?
We go back to the definition of emf of a battery
which was the work done per unit charge by the nonconservative forces developed within the battery in
moving the charges from one terminal to the other.
Similarly, for induced emf, it will be the work done
per unit charge by induced electric field in taking the
charge through a closed loop once. Induced emf can
be found out from Faraday's law as
d
= B
dt
where B is the magnetic flux through the loop.
Hence combining the two definitions,
=

Winduced electric field


q

qEi dl

d B
q
dt
d
Ei dl = B
dt
where Ei is the induced electric field's value at an
elemental length dl of the loop.
To avoid the confusion of positive and negative in the
above result, it would be convenient to use this law
in two parts.
1. Calculation of magnitude using
d
E dl = dtB
2. Calculation of direction of induced electric field
using Lenz's law, according to which if a conducting
loop is placed in a region of time varying magnetic
field (TVMF), current will be induced in it such that
the induced magnetic field due to induced current
is in opposite direction with respect to inducing

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

72

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

magnetic field if the strength of inducing field


increases with respect to time and in same direction
if the strength decreases with respect to time.
The direction of induced current would give us the
direction of induced electric field.
We will restrict our discussion to a cylindrical region
of TVMF.
Let us consider a cylindrical region of radius R which
has a magnetic field uniform in space (along the length
of cylinder) but variable in time and changing at the
dB
rate
.
dt
We would be interested in finding out the induced
electric field (Ei ) for internal as well as external
points.
At whichever point Ei is to be found out, we imagine
that if we had placed a conducting loop in this
cylindrical region symmetrically and passing through
the given point, there would have been an induced
current certainly and this induced current would give
us the direction of Ei .
dB
>0
dt
For internal points ( r < R):
Current would have induced in
anticlockwise sense, so would
be the direction of Ei . Hence,
note that Ei is forming closed
circular loop.
Ei dl = Eidl cos

Let us assume



= Ei dl cos 0 = Ei (2r)
dB
d B
= r 2
dt
dt
r dB
Ei =
2 dt

Ei (2r) =

For external points (r R):


dB
Ei (2r) = R2
dt
2 dB
Ei = R
2r dt
If the strength of Ei is plotted against r :
(i) Ei r for r < R
1
(ii) Ei for r R
r
74

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16





 
 


Some of the important noteworthy points regarding


Ei are
These are non-conservative in nature and hence
work done by such field in a closed path is
non-zero. In fact, work done in closed path =
charge emf of loop.
Induced electric field lines form closed loops.
Potential energy cannot be associated with them.
This comes not due to static charges but rather
due to TVMF. Hence if a charge particle is placed
at rest in a TVMF, it will experience a non-zero
force due to induced electric field.
Now, let us see some applications of it :
Q1. A charge particle of charge q, mass m is placed at a
distance 2R from the centre of a cylindrical region
of radius R with TVMF where magnetic field varies
^
as B = (4t 2 2t + 6) k where t in sec gives B in tesla.
Find the acceleration of the charge at t = 2 s.
(Take R = 1 m)
Sol.:
dB

= 8t 2

dt
At t = 2 s
dB
= 14 T s 1
dt
which is greater than zero, so induced electric
field must try to decrease the strength of inducing
magnetic field, so must be circular loops in
anticlockwise sense.
7
R2 dB 1
= (14) = N C 1
2
2(2R) dt 4
F qE 7q
a= = i =
m m 2m
Ei =

Q2. A charge q, mass m is placed


in a cylindrical region of
uniform magnetic field of
strength B and of radius R.
It is attached to one end of a
relaxed spring of stiffness





constant k as shown. If the magnetic field is suddenly


switched off, find the maximum elongation or
compression in the spring.
Sol.: Switching off the magnetic field is decreasing
the magnetic flux, to oppose which electric field
would be induced in anticlockwise sense for the
short duration in which the magnetic field changed
its value from non-zero to zero value due to which
the particle will experience an impulsive force and
gain a kinetic energy using which the spring gets
deformed. Clearly to increase the flux electric field
gets induced in clockwise direction, hence spring
will be elongated.
The momentum gained by charge in switching
duration
p = mv 0 = F dt
= (qEi ) dt = q

a dB
dt
2 dt

qa
q
dB = aB

2
2
qaB
v=
2m
1 2
1
kxmax
= mv 2
2
2
=

m qaB
xmax =

k 2m

 



Q3. A conducting rod of length l is placed as a chord


in a cylindrical region of TVMF of radius R where
dB
> 0. Find the potential difference across the
dt
ends of the rod.
Sol.: Isn't there a contradiction in what has been
taught in theory and numerical since we learnt that
potential term cannot be associated with induced
electric field.
No, there isn't! Induced electric field pushes the
free electrons of the conductor from one end to the
other which creates a separation of charges across
the ends of the rod and these separated charges
create conservative electric field along the length of
the rod in opposite direction to the component of
induced electric field.
We consider an arbitrary point on the rod at a radial
distance r. The component of Ei along the length of
rod,

E|| = Eicos
r dB y
=
2 dt r

y dB
=
2 dt

   = 2 

2

Do you notice something




interesting here? The
value is independent of r !

This E|| pushed the free electrons towards left.
At equilibrium, if the drift of electron stops,
conservative field strength,
y dB
Ec = E|| =
2 dt
Potential difference across the ends
y dB
l=
V = Ecl =
2 dt

l2
4 dB l
2
dt

R2

Q4. Consider a rectangular




conducting loop PQRS
placed in a cylindrical
region of radius R of
dB
TVMF where
>0
 
dt
is known. Find the
induced emf across

the ends QR.

Sol.: Let us observe the distribution of induced
electric field in the region once
There cannot be an


induced emf in the
section PS since Ei
is perpendicular to
length [Ei dl = 0].

In the remaining 4
sections, PQ, QT, TR
and RS, the induced
emf will be identical


as can be seen from
symmetry.
Hence, the induced emf of the loop = 4 times in QT
=

d B R2 dB
=
= 4QT
2 dt
dt

QT =

R2 dB
8 dt

QR = 2QT =

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

R2 dB
4 dt

75

Class XII

his specially designed column enables students to self analyse their


extent of understanding of specied chapters. Give yourself four
marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.
Self check table given at the end will help you to check your
readiness.

Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism


Total Marks : 120

Time Taken : 60 min


NEET / AIIMS / PMTs

Only One Option Correct Type

1. Consider a long, straight wire of cross-sectional area


A carrying a current I. Let there be n free electrons
per unit volume. An observer places himself on
a trolley moving in the direction opposite to the
I
current with a speed v =
and separated from
Ae
the wire by a distance r. The magnetic field seen by
the observer is very nearly
0 I
2 0 I
I
(a) 0
(b) zero (c)
(d)
r
r
2 r
2. Two short magnets of equal
dipole moments M are fastened
perpendicularly at their centres
as shown in the figure. The
magnitude of the magnetic field
at a distance d from the centre
on the bisector of the right angle
is
0 2M
M
(a) 0 3
(b)
4 d3
4 d
0 2 2M
0 2 M
(c) 4
(d)
3
4 d3
d
3. An electron accelerated through a potential
difference V passes through a uniform transverse
magnetic field and experiences a force F. If the
accelerating potential is increased to 2V, the electron
in the same magnetic field will experience a force
F
(a) F
(b)
(c) 2 F
(d) 2F
2
76

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

4. An electric current I enters and leaves a uniform


circular wire of radius a through diametrically
opposite points. A charged particle q moving along
the axis of the circular wire passes through its centre
at speed v. The magnetic force acting on the particle
when it passes through the centre has a magnitude
0 I
0 I
(a) qv
(b) qv
2a
2 a
0 I
(c) qv
(d) zero
a
5. A beam consisting of protons and electrons moving
at the same speed goes through a thin region in
which there is a magnetic field perpendicular to the
beam. The protons and the electrons
(a) will go undeviated
(b) will be deviated by the same angle and will not
separate
(c) will be deviated by different angles and hence
separate
(d) will be deviated by the same angle but will
separate.
6. A charged particle of mass 103 kg and charge
105 C enters a magnetic field of induction 1 T. If
g = 10 m s2, for what value of velocity will it pass
straight through the field without deflection?
(a) 103 m s1
(b) 103 m s 1
6
1
(c) 10 m s
(d) 1 m s1
7. Mark out the correct options.
(a) Diamagnetism does not occur in all materials.
(b) Diamagnetism results from the partial
alignment of permanent magnetic moment.

(c) The magnetising field intensity is always zero in


free space.
(d) The magnetic field of induced magnetic
moment is opposite to the applied field.
8. A particle is moving with velocity v = i + 3 j and it
produces an electric field at a point given by E = 2k.
It will produce magnetic field at that point equal to
(all quantities are in SI units)
(a) (6i 2 j ) 0 0
(b) (6i + 2 j ) 0 0
(c) zero
(d) cannot be determined from the given data
9. A point charge is moving in clockwise direction in
a circle with constant speed. Consider the magnetic
field produced by the charge at a fixed point P
(not at the center of circle) on the axis of the circle.
Then,
(a) it is constant in magnitude only
(b) it is constant in direction only
(c) it is constant both in direction and magnitude
(d) it is constant neither in magnitude nor in
direction
10. A dip circle is so that its needle moves freely in the
magnetic meridian. In this position, the angle of
dip is 40. Now the dip circle is rotated so that the
plane in which the needle moves makes an angle
of 30 with the magnetic meridian. In this position,
the needle will dip by an angle
(a) 40
(b) 30
(c) more than 40
(d) less than 40
11. What should be the current in a circular coil of
radius 5 cm to annul BH = 5 105 T?
(a) 0.4 A
(b) 4 A
(c) 40 A
(d) 1 A
12. A particle of mass 2 105 kg moves horizontally
between two horizontal plates of a charged parallel
plate capacitor between which there is an electric
field of 200 N C1 acing upward. A magnetic
induction of 2.0 T is applied at right angles to the
electric field in a direction normal to both B and v .
If g is 9.8 m s2 and the charge on the particle is 106 C,
then find the velocity of charge particle so that it
continues to move horizontally.
(a) 2 m s1
(b) 20 m s1
(c) 0.2 m s1
(d) 100 m s1

Assertion & Reason Type

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of


assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the
correct choice as :
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the
correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not
the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If both assertion and reason are false.
13. Assertion : The sensitivity of a moving coil
galvanometer is increased by placing a suitable
magnetic material as a core inside the coil.
Reason : Soft iron has a high magnetic permeability
and cannot be easily magnetized or demagnetized.
14. Assertion : The true geographic north direction is
found by using a compass needle.
Reason : The magnetic meridian of the earth is
along the axis of rotation of the earth.
15. Assertion : The net force on a closed circular
current carrying loop placed in a uniform magnetic
field is zero.
Reason : The torque produced in a conducting
circular ring is zero when it is placed in a uniform
magnetic field such that the magnetic field is
perpendicular to the plane of loop.
JEE MAIN / JEE ADVANCED / PETs

Only One Option Correct Type

16. A charged particle of specific charge (charge/mass)


is released from origin at time t = 0 with velocity
v = v0 (i + j ) in a uniform magnetic field B = B0 i.

Coordinates of the particle at time t =


are
( B0)

2v0 v0

v0
, 0, 0
,
(a) 0,
(b)

2 B0
B0 B0
2v0
v0
v
2v
, 0,
(c) 0, 0 , 0 (d)
B0
B0
B0 2 B0
17. A small block of mass m, having charge q, is placed
on a frictionless inclined plane making an angle
with the horizontal as shown in figure. There exists
a uniform magnetic field B parallel to the inclined
plane but perpendicular to the length of a spring.
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

77


If m is slightly pulled on

the incline in downward

direction, the time period of
oscillation will be (assume
that the block does not leave
contact with the plane)
(a) 2 m / k
(b) 2 2m / k

(c) 2 qB / K

(d) 2 qB / 2K

18. A thin, plastic disk of radius R has a charge q


uniformly distributed over its surface. If the disk
rotates at an angular frequency about its axis,
then magnetic dipole moment of the disk is
qR 2
qR 2
(b)
(c) qR2
(d) 2qR2
2
4
19. From a cylinder of radius R, a cylinder
of radius R/2 is removed, as shown
in the figure. Current flowing in
the remaining cylinder is I. Then,
magnetic field strength is
(a)

(a) zero at point A


(b) zero at point B
I
(c) 0 at point A
2 R

(d)

0 I
at point B
3 R

More than One Options Correct Type


20. A conductor ABCDEF, shaded as shown, carries a
current I. It is placed in the xy plane with the ends
A and E on the x-axis. A uniform magnetic field of
magnitude B exists in the region. The force acting
on it will be

(a) zero, if B is in the x-direction


(b) BI in the z-direction, if B is in the y-direction
(c) BI in the negative y-direction, if B is in the
z-direction
(d) 2aBI, if B is in the x-direction
21. A microammeter has a resistance of 100 and a full
scale range of 50 A. It can be used as a voltmeter
or as a higher range ammeter provided a resistance
is added to it. Pick the correct range and resistance
combination(s)
78

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

(a) 50 V range with 10 k resistance in series


(b) 10 V range with 200 k resistance in series
(c) 5 mA range with 1 resistance in parallel
(d) 10 mA range with 1 resistance in parallel
22. A direct current I flows
along a long straight wire
as shown in the figure.
From point O the current
spreads radially all over on
infinite conducting plane
perpendicular to the wire.
Then
(a) Magnetic field in region 1 is non-uniform
(b) Magnetic field in region 2 in non-uniform
(c) Magnetic field in region 3 is non-uniform
(d) Magnetic field in region 3 is zero.
23. A current I flows in a long round uniform
cylindrical wire made of paramagnetic material
with susceptibility . Which of following statements
are correct regarding the surface molecular current
(Is) and the volume molecular current (Iv) ?
(a) Both the currents Is and Iv have same
magnitude.
(b) Both the currents Is and Iv have different
magnitude.
(c) Both the currents Is and Iv flow in the same
direction.
(d) Both the currents Is and Iv flow in the opposite
directions.
Integer Answer Type
24. A current I = 10 A flows in a ring of radius r0 = 15 cm
made of a very thin wire. The tensile strength of the
wire is equal to T = 1.5 N. The ring is placed in a
magnetic field, which is perpendicular to the plane
of the ring so that the forces tend to break the ring.
Find B (in T) at which the ring is broken.
25. An elevator carrying a charge
of 0.5 C is moving down with
a velocity of 5 103 m s1. The
elevator is 4 m from the bottom
and 3 m horizontally from P as
shown in figure. What magnetic
field (in T) does it produce at point P?
26. An iron of volume 104 m3 and relative permeability
1000 is placed inside a long solenoid wound with
5 turns per cm. If a current of 0.1 A is passed
through the solenoid, find the magnetic moment of
the rod.

Comprehension Type

Column I
Column II
(A) In the given situation, (P) Resultant force is
acting along Pm
(B) If loop is rotated (Q) Resultant force
is acting opposite
such that Pm is along
positive z-direction
to Pm
(C) If loop is rotated (R) Fx = 0, Fy = 0
such that Pm is along
negative z-direction
(D) If loop is rotated (S) Fx = 0, Fz = 0
such that Pm is along
positive y-direction
A
B
C
D
(a) P
P, R
S
Q
(b) S
P, R
P, R
Q, S
(c) Q
P, R
P, R
P, S
(d) R
R, S
Q, R
P, Q

A thin, uniform rod with negligible mass and length


0.200 m is attached to the floor by a frictionless hinge at
point P as shown in the figure. A horizontal spring with
force constant k = 4.80 N m1 connects the other end of
the rod to a vertical wall.
The rod is in a uniform
magnetic field B = 0.340 T
directed into the plane of
the proper. There is current
I = 6.50 A in the rod, in the
direction shown.
27. Calculate the torque due to the magnetic force on
the rod, for an axis at P.
(a) 0.0442 N m1, clockwise
(b) 0.0442 N m1, anticlockwise
(c) 0.022 N m1, clockwise
(d) 0.022 N m1, anticlockwise
28. When the rod is in equilibrium and makes an angle
of 53.0 with the floor, is the spring stretched or
compressed?
(a) 0.05765 m, stretched
(b) 0.05765 m, compressed
(c) 0.0242 m, stretched
(d) 0.0242 m, compressed
Matrix Match Type
29. An elementary current loop is placed in a nonuniform magnetic field as shown in the figure. Where,
Pm is magnetic moment of loop.. In column I
different orientations of loop are described and in
column II, the corresponding forces experienced by
the loop. Match the entries of column I with entries
of column II.

30. Three wires are carrying same constant



current I in different directions.

Four loops enclosing the wires in
different manners as shown in the

figure. The direction of dl is shown

in each loop. Match the entries
of column I with entries of column II.
Column I
Column II
(A) Along closed loop 1
(P) B dl = 0 I







(B) Along closed loop 2 (Q)

B dl

(C) Along closed loop 3 (R)

B dl = 0

= 0 I

(D Along closed loop 4 (S) Net work done by


the magnetic force to
move a unit charge
along the loop is zero
A
B
C
D
(a) P, Q
Q, R
Q, S
R, S
(b) Q, S
P, S
R, S
R, S
(c) P, Q
P, R
Q, S
P, S
(d) P, S
Q, S
R, S
R, S
Keys are published in this issue. Search now!

Check your score! If your score is


> 90%

EXCELLENT WORK !

You are well prepared to take the challenge of nal exam.

No. of questions attempted

90-75%

GOOD WORK !

You can score good in the nal exam.

No. of questions correct

74-60%

SATISFACTORY !

You need to score more next time

Marks scored in percentage

< 60%

NOT SATISFACTORY! Revise thoroughly and strengthen your concepts.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

79



 

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment
the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who
send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

SINGLE OPTION CORRECT TYPE

1. A smooth cannon of mass M attached with an ideal


spring of stiffness k fires a shell of mass m with
muzzle velocity u. The recoil velocity of the cannon is


mu cos
mu sin
(b)
M +m
2M + m
mu cos
2mu cos
(d)
(c)
M +m
M +m
2. A uniform disc of mass m and radius R with a spring
connected (spring constant K) to its centre stands in
static equilibrium on a very rough inclined plane.
Now a constant moment of couple M0, is applied at
the centre as shown in the figure such that the disc
rolls down the incline. The maximum distance the
discs centre of mass will go down as measured from
initial position is
(a)

M0 2mg sin
(a)
+
Rk
3k
(c)

2 M0
Rk

(b)

2 M0 2mg sin
+
Rk
k

(d)

2 M0 mg sin
+
Rk
k

3. In a resonance tube experiment, a closed organ pipe


of length 120 cm is used and tuned with a tuning
fork of frequency 340 Hz. If water is poured into
the pipe, then which of the following statements is
incorrect? [Velocity of sound in air is 340 m s1,
neglect end correction]
(a) Minimum length of water column to have the
resonance is 45 cm.
(b) The distance between two successive nodes is
50 cm.
(c) The maximum length of water column to create
the resonance is 95 cm.
(d) The distance between two successive nodes
is 25 cm.
4. A ball is hung vertically by a thread of length l
from a point P of an inclined wall that makes an
angle with the vertical. The thread with ball is
deviated through a small angle ( > ) and set
free. Assuming the wall to be perfectly elastic, the
period of such pendulum is
(a)

l
g

1
2 sin

(b)

l
g

1
sin

(c)

l
g

1
cos

(d) 2

l
g

1
cos

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for JEE Main & Advanced, Professor, IITians PACE, Mumbai.

80

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

COMPREHENSION TYPE

Direction for question 5 to 8 :


The pressure of a monoatomic gas increases linearly
from 4 105 N m2 to 8 105 N m2 when its volume
increases from 0.2 m3 to 0.5 m3. Calculate
5. Work done by the gas
(a) 2.8 105 J
(b) 1.8 106 J
5
(c) 1.8 10 J
(d) 1.8 102 J
6.

Increase in internal energy


(a) 4.8 105 J
(b) 4.8 104 J
5
(c) 6.8 10 J
(d) 4.8 106 J

7.

Amount of heat supplied


(a) 8.6 105 J
(b) 12.6 105 J
5
(c) 6.6 10 J
(d) 10.6 105 J

8. Molar heat capacity of the gas (R = 8.31 J mol1 K1)


(a) 20.1 J mol1 K1
(b) 17.14 J mol1 K1
(c) 18.14 J mol1 K1
(d) 20.14 J mol1 K1
SUBJECTIVE TYPE

9. A body is projected vertically upwards from the


surface of the earth with a velocity sufficient to
carry it to infinity. Calculate the time taken by it to
reach height h.
10. In Young's double slit experiment if the source
consists of two wavelengths 1 = 4000 and
2 = 4002 . Find the distance from the centre
where the fringes disappear, if d =1cm ; D =1 m.

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

81

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just cant get
answered?
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.

Object is released from rest at y = 0, so u = 0


Equations of motion become at time t1
v1 = 0 gt1 = 9.8t m s1
1
h = 0 gt 2 = 4.9 t 2 m
2
v12 = 0 2 gy = 19.6h m2s 2
Hence signs of u, v, a and h are negative as they are
chosen along negative y-direction.

Q1. Are photons always moving? What about their


rest mass?
Basavraj S. Awatiger, Hubballi (Karnataka)

Ans. Yes, photons always move with speed of light (c).


In relativistic dynamics,
rest mass of a particle, m0 = m 1 v 2 /c 2 ;
m = moving mass of particle,

(a) a t graph
(b) v t graph
(c) h t graph

For photon, v = c m0 = m 1 c 2 /c 2 = 0
Rest mass of photon is zero.
Q2. Explain why Gausss law is not very useful in
calculating the electric field of a charged disc.
Aquil Ahmed, Banda (U.P.)

Ans. Gausss law is useful as a calculational tool only in


case of high symmetry, where one can produce a
Gaussian surface on which the electric field is either
constant or has no perpendicular component. It is
not possible to do so in any simple way for the case
of a charged disc. Gausss law still applies but it is
just not particularly useful to find electric field.
Q3. What are the sign used for initial velocity (u),
final velocity (v), acceleration (a), and height (h)
during free fall motion of an object and why?
Priyanka Soren

Ans. Assume motion of the object


is in y-direction. Choose
upward direction as positive
so motion of an object
under free fall is in negative
y-direction.
Since acceleration due to
gravity is always downward
so a = g = 9.8 m s2 .
82

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

Q4. A magnetised needle in a uniform magnetic field


experiences a torque but no net force. An iron
nail near a bar magnet, however, experiences
a force of attraction in addition to a torque.
Why?
Inova Singh, Dispur (Assam)

Ans. There is only a uniform magnetic field so that


a magnetised needle experiences no net force.
An iron nail near a bar magnet is in the nonuniform magnetic field of the magnet. The nail
is magnetised due to magnetic induction. This
nail, which behaves like a small magnet, apart
from experiencing a torque, does experience a
force.

I dont know anything, but


I do know that everything
is interesting if you go into
it deeply enough.
Richard Feynman

SOLUTION SET-38

1
2 2
2
1. (c) : Since, kinetic energy K = m A cos t
2
1
2 2
2
and potential energy, U = m A sin t
2
1
2 2
2
2
or K U = m A [cos t sin t ]
2

Angular frequency = 2,
2 T
2
= =
=
time period, =

2
2
T

4
=
=2 s
2
2. (b) : Linear momentum is conserved.
p1 = p2

where K2 is for -particle and K1 is for nucleus.


K2 = 54 K1

...(i)

Given K1 + K2 = 5.5 MeV


From (i) and (ii), K1 + 54 K1 = 5.5 MeV
55 K1 = 5.5 MeV
K1 =

1
10

or

K1 =

...(ii)

5.5
55

MeV
54

K2 = 54K1 or K 2 =

or

K2 = 5.4 MeV
Kinetic energy of -particle = 5.4 MeV.

10

MeV

dM
(L )
3. (d) : Heat of radiator, P =
dt
Pt
M
L=

L
M
t
4. (c) : Missing ones are dark fringes
1

d 2 + b2 d = n

2
1 b2
1
1
b2
d 1 +
= n
d = n or
2
2
2

d
2d
2

or

P=

2
b2 3
= =b
2d 2
3d

5. (c) : As =

nv n T
=
2l 2l

Here, TI > TII, lI = lII , I = II


and I = II
nI < nII

Gm(dM )
x2

A + Bx 2
= Gm
dx
x2

a+L
1
F = Gm 2 dx ( A + Bx 2 )

x
a

and 2(216 m) K1 = 2(4 m) K 2

or

For n = 2,

dF =

But p = 2mK where K = kinetic energy.

216K1 = 4K2 or

b2
b2
=
=
2d 2
d

6. (b) : Mass per unit length of the rod = A + Bx2.


So the mass of length dx is dM = dx(A + Bx2)

1
= m 2 A2 cos 2t
2

or

For n = 1,

a+L
A

A
A

= Gm 2 + B dx = Gm
+ BL

a a+L

x
a

7. Given, the pitch of screw gauge = 1 mm and total


number of division on the circular scale = 50
1 mm
= 0.02 mm
Least Count, L.C =
50
The instruments has a positive zero error
e = n L.C = 6 0.02 = 0.12 mm
i.e. zero correction = 0.12 mm
Linear scale reading (LSR) = 3 1 mm = 3 mm
Circular scale reading (CSR) = 31 (0.02 mm)
= 0.62 mm
Measured reading = LSR + CSR
= 3 + 0.62 = 3.62 mm
True reading = 3.62 0.12 = 3.50 mm

Solution Senders of Physics Musing


SET-38

1. Suman Tiwari, Patna (Bihar)


2. Trideep Jyotida, New Delhi
PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER '16

83

8. Consider dN number of turns of radius r and


thickness dr. Let d be the corresponding induced
emf, then
d
d = (dN )
dt

L=
=

N
d = dr (r2 B0 cos t)
a

L=

N B0 cos t 2
= d =
r dr

a
0
a

N (B0 cos t )a
N B0 cos ta
=
3a
3
3

max =

Na 2 B0

t0

1/2
(F0 kt ) dt

t0
2
(F0 kt )3/2 0

(3k)

2
3k
2
3k
k=
=

dx =

d
(2 B0 sin t)
dt

d = dN

[(F0 kt 0 )3/2 (F0 + k(0))3/2 ]

F03/2

(Using (i))

3
333
2 F0
2
=
3 L 3 1 3 10 2

23
3 0. 1

= 20 N s 1

We get, n = 3
9. When outer surface is grounded charge Q resides
on the inner surface of sphere B.
Now sphere A is connected to earth, potential on
its surface becomes zero.
Let the charge on the surface A becomes q
kq kQ
a

=0 q= Q
a
b
b
In this position energy stored

SOLUTION OF SEPTEMBER 2016 CROSSWORD

U1 =

Q2
1 a
1 a
Q
Q ( Q )
+
+

8 0 a b 8 0 b 4 0 b b

When S3 is closed, total charge will appear on the


outer surface of shell B.
In this position energy stored
2

U2 =

1 a

1 Q 2

8 0 b b

Heat produced = U1 U2 =

Q 2 a (b a)
8 0 b3

= 1. 8 J

10. Time taken by the pulse to reach from P to Q,


F
...(i)
t0 = 0
k
where F0 = 3 N
dx
F kt
T

= 0
Now, v =

dt

84

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER' 16

Winner (September 2016)


s Preeti Dahiya, Sonipat (Haryana)

Solution senders (August 2016)


s Maduree Shirimal, Sehore (Madhya Pradesh)
s Nabanika Das, Lohit (Arunachal Pradesh)

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.
Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

ACROSS
1. A diffraction grating made of parallel glass
plates, each of which extends slightly beyond
the next, used to examine extremely fine
structures through interferometry. [7, 7]
2. A propulsion engine in which a fuel burns in
air that has been compressed by the forward
motion of the engine only. [6]
7. A thermometer designed for the measurement
of very low temperatures. [9]
10. The removal of any unwanted a.c. components
from a circuit or circuit element. [10]
11. The dissociation of molecules by nuclear
radiation. [10]
14. A tradename for an alloy of iron, cobalt and
nickel with an expansivity similar to that of
glass. [5]
15. A mixture of two substances that solidifies
as a whole when cooled, without change in
composition. [8]
18. Absence of an electron in a semiconductor. [4]
21. A quantum mechanical description of an
elementary vibrational motion in which a
lattice of atoms or molecules uniformly oscillates at a single
frequency. [6]
23. An instrument for measuring the total solar radiation
intensity received on a horizontal surface. [11]
25. A non SI unit of luminance. [3]
27. Process of connecting a charged object to earth to remove
objects unbalanced charge. [9]
28. Point of maximum displacement of two superimposed
waves. [8]
29. The study of the behaviour and characterstics of nucleons or
atomic nuclei. [10]
30. A now-discarded hypothetical medium once thought to fill
all space and to be responsible for carrying light waves and
other electromagnetic waves. [6]
31. The process of preventing the plasma from coming into
contact with the walls of the reaction vessel in a controlled
thermonuclear reaction. [11]
DOWN
3. The molecular attraction exerted between the surfaces of
bodies in contact. [8]
4. A grid or pattern placed in the eyepiece of an optical
instrument, used to establish scale or position. [7]

5.
6.
8.
9.
12.
13.
16.
17.
19.
20.
22.
24.
26.

The SI unit of dose equivalent. [7]


Study of motion of particles acted on by forces. [8]
An instrument for studying thin films on solid surfaces. [12]
An apparatus for generating very high frequency currents at
high potential. [5, 4]
Roughly spherical ice particles, usually a few millimeters in
radius, produced in very turbulent clouds. [4]
Number of decays per second of a radioactive substance. [8]
Two or more sounds that, when heard together, sound
pleasant. [10]
The amount of potential energy stored in an elastic substance
by means of elastic deformation. [10]
A hypothetical quantum of gravitational energy, regarded as
a particle. [8]
Defect of eye, in which distant objects focus in front of the
retina. [6]
An exposed ring surroundings a strongly illuminated spot
on a photographic emulsion. [8]
A portable insulation tester calibrated directly in mega ohms. [6]
Point where disturbances caused by two or more waves
result in no displacement. [4]

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16

85

86

PHYSICS FOR YOU | OCTOBER 16