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Seminar Nasional Cendekiawan 2015

ISSN: 2460-8696


Aldo Fadhillah Abraham, Rachmat Sudibjo, Andry Prima
Petroleum Engineering Department, Trisakti University
This thesis mainly discuss about workover (Squeeze Cementing) evaluation Activity in OKTA-36
well of OKTA field, East Java. The choice to did a workover activity in this well was because the oil
and gas production for this particular carbonate well has been depleted. The cause of this problem
was the watering problem near wellbore as the problem was found by using the Chans
Diagnostics. Chans diagnostics is one of a method to determine the watering problem by
comparing days to the existing production data. To increase the oil and gas productivity of this well,
the justification was to close the old perforation interval of 6300ft 6330ft MD by squeezing cement
activity and then move the perforation interval to 6195ft 6205ft MD and 6220ft 6230ft MD. To fix
the wellbore problem caused by water, the interval of 6260ft 6262ft MD was also squeezed. The
choice of 6260ft -6262ft MD was based on the tightness of the formation because of the total loss
characteristics of the well. The result shows that the workover activity was a success because of
the massive increase in oil and gas productivity. The numbers for the production performance
analysis after workover activities are the WHP of 925 psi, WHT of 122o F, FLP 280 psi, Choke
30/64, oil production 1242 BOPD, Water Cut 0% and Gas Production 0.950 MMSCFD
Keywords :workover, squeeze, cementing, Chan, Diagnostics, production, evaluation

Workover is an activity which is conducted to a remedy well to achieve a better
production. To break it down, two of the examples of well workover program are squeeze
cementing and perforating new interval holes. Squeeze cementing is a process when the
cement slurry is pressed under some pressure to a certain spot inside the well for
repairing purposes. One of the main reasons is to isolate water under the wellbore. As for
the perforating new interval holes is an activity to produce at new perforation interval
inside the same wellbore. Both of these programs are important for developing or
increasing the oil productivity
In this thesis, the analysis is about workover activity in OKTA-36 well of OKTA field.
Because the production of this well has been depleted, workover process is a must to
improve the oil and gas production. Before the perforation job can be done to make a new
perforation, the repairing process of cement bonding in 7 production line is necessary to
fix problem of water channeling near wellbore behind the casing. The repairing process
would be squeezing light cement and isolate the old perforation interval of 6300 6330ft
MD. This thesis mainly discuss about the operational process of workover starting from
Rigging up operation until rig released of OKTA-36. The author also discussed a bit about
the use of Chans diagnostic to predetermine the problem of why the WOR and water cut
in this particular well are very high before the workover process. Furthermore the logging
reading of the new perforation interval is also discussed in this thesis.
General Fundamental Theory
Workover is an activity which is conducted to a completed well to achieve a better
production. To break it down, two of the examples of well workover program are squeeze
cementing and perforating new interval holes. Before a workover activity gets underway
there are many kinds of analysis that could provide data about the problems, one of them
is Chans diagnostic. This diagnostic produces analysis that capable of differentiating
whether the well is experiencing water coning or near wellbore channeling due to bad

Seminar Nasional Cendekiawan 2015

ISSN: 2460-8696

cement bonding. Finally, the prediction of new interval with logging tools is very important
because the production flow depends on the results of the new perforated interval.
Fundamental Theory of Squeeze Cementing
In general, squeeze cementing is a process when the cement slurry is pressed under
some pressure to a certain spot inside the well for repairing purposes. One of the main
reasons on an oil well is to isolate water under the wellbore. There are reasons why the
squeeze cementing is used:

Repair primary cement job

Voids due to losses
Shut-off produced water
Shut-off produced gas
Repair casing leaks
Abandon depleted zones
Selective shut-off for water injection
Seal lost circulation zone
Shut off fluid migration

To finish the squeezed cementing process, the volume of cement which is needed to
finish the job is quite small, but it has to be placed in a good spot inside the well.
Sometimes the main difficulty is to limit the cement against the wellbore. To contain this
problem, a good plan is necessary especially in planning the cement slurry, pressure
choice and the choice of technique. Some the techniques are:

High Pressure Technique

Low Pressure Technique
Bradenhead Placement Technique
Squeeze Tool Placement Technique
Running Squeeze Pumping Methods
Hesitation Method

Further about Squeeze cementing, there is also injection test. Injection test is performed

To make sure that the perforation is opened and ready to be entered by fluids
To get the cement slurry approximation rate of the injection
To predict the pressure when the squeeze is performed
To predict the amount of slurry thats being used.

Design and Cement Suspension Preparation also important in making a successful

squeeze cementing operation, the variables are:

Compressive Strength
WOC (Waiting On Cement) time
Water Cement Ratio (WCR)
Fluid Loss Control
Volume Slurry
Slurry Viscosity
Spacers and Washers

Below are the steps for basic procedure of the squeeze cementing:
1. The upcoming cemented zone is isolated with retrievable packer or drillable bridge


Seminar Nasional Cendekiawan 2015

ISSN: 2460-8696

2. Perforation is cleaned with equipment of perforation cleaner or can be opened again

with back surging technique
3. The equipment of perforation cleaner is pulled out of hole (POOH) and if the drillable
squeeze packer method is already chosen so the circulating equipment has to be
4. Places the equipment into the well to targeted depth
5. All pipes or casing had to be tested first and after that the formation breakdown can be
6. While letting the circulating valve opened above the retainer, spacer fluids is poured
into the pipe followed by slurry. After that the second slurry is entered and finally by
the sufficient amount of mud to enter half of the first fluids spacer into annulus.
7. Circulating valve is closed and the formation can be squeezed
8. After the squeeze pressure has finally been reached, the pressure can be hold for a
couple of minutes. Furthermore if the formation isnt breaking or the valve is not
leaking, the pressure can be stopped, circulating valve can be opened and the excess
slurry can be taken out.
9. If the excess slurry cant be taken out, its best that all of the equipment should be pull
out of hole.
As for the Applications of the squeeze cementing, it has been widely used for some of
these purposes below:

Fill the perforating channel or channel behind casing with cement to achieve tightness
between casing and formation
controls high GOR
controls excess water or gas
repairs casing damage
covers lost circulation zone
protects production zone from fluids migration
isolates production zone entirely and permanently
repairs damaged primary cementing jobs
prevents fluids migration from abandoned zones or wells

Two of the problems which cause imperfection in cementing results are the emergence of
channeling and micro annulus. Channeling is a symptom which appears when the cement
successfully occupied the annulus room but not entirely around the veil and fills up the
annulus room. Whereas, micro annulus is a tiny hollow space that formed between veil
and cement or between cement with formation wall. This indication causes the bonding
quality of cement to become bad.
Below are some of the test needs to be done to evaluate squeeze cementing:

Acoustic Log
Radioactive Tracers
Cement Hardness
Temperature Profile

Fundamental Theory of Logging

Well logging, also known as borehole logging is the practice of making a detail record (a
well log) of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole. The log may be based
either on visual inspection of samples brought to the surface (geological logs) or on
physical measurements made by instruments lowered into the hole (geophysical logs).
Some types of geophysical well logs can be done during any phase of a well's history:
drilling, completing, producing, or abandoning. Well logging is performed in bore holes
drilled for the oil and gas, groundwater, mineral and geothermal exploration, as well as

Seminar Nasional Cendekiawan 2015

ISSN: 2460-8696

part of environmental and geotechnical studies. Logging Evaluation is divided into some
parameters, such as:

Spontaneous Potential Log

Gamma Ray Log
Resistivity Log
Density Log
Cement Bond Log (CBL)

Fundamental Theory of Perforation

Cased hole completion technique is done by perforating production veil pipe which
protects productive zone in order to create an effective fluid flow between formation zones
and well hole. Before continuing, the
purpose of the perforation method is to make contact or connection between reservoir and
wells bottom hole with an intention to make hydrocarbon fluid flows into the bottom hole
of the well so that the production can be happened. The success rate of perforation
process is largely influenced by pressure, whether its hydrostatic or formation. The
partition of this perforation condition is based on difference between those two pressure
and usually differentiate into two condition, that are overbalance and underbalance.
The perforation technique that used either overbalance or underbalance are hugely
determined the outcome of the whole perforation process in pursuit of upscaling the
productivity of a well.
Chans Diagnostic
A technique to determine excessive water and gas production mechanisms as seen in
petroleum production wells has been developed and verified.
Based on systematical numerical simulation studies one reservoir water coning and
channeling, it was discovered that log-log plots of WOR (Water/Oil Ratio) vs Time or GOR
(Gas/Oil Ratio) vs time show different characteristic trends for different mechanisms. The
time derivatives of WOR and GOR were found to be capable of differentiating whether the
well is experiencing water and gas coning, high permeability layer breakthrough or near
wellbore channeling.In general, there were three basic classifications of the problems.
Water coning, multilayer channeling and near wellbore problems are most noticeable
among others. Field experience showed successful job design would not be the same for
different mechanisms. However, there are no effective methods to discern these
differences. In reality, the problem could be very complex, and usually is the combination
of several mechanisms taking place over a period of time and compounding one with the
other. It can be concluded that the log-log plot of production data and the WOR provide
more insight and information for well performance evaluation. It can be applied either for
the entire well life or any chosen period, such as the waterflood period. With a detailed
workover history, the results analysis improves the understanding of reservoir flow
behavior and determines the predominant mechanisms of excessive water production.
Below are some of the log-log plot of production data and the WOR.
Using the WOR (time derivative of WOR), coning and channeling can be discerned.
Furthermore, the change in slope of then WOR and WOR and the value of the WOR
become good indicators to differentiate normal displacement and production behavior,
multilayer water breakthrough behavior, rapid layer depletion and water recycling
behavior. This technique has some advantages, such as:

It mainly uses available production history data


Seminar Nasional Cendekiawan 2015




ISSN: 2460-8696

It can be used to rapidly screen a great number of wells.

It entails the best reservoir engineering principles and practices
It could yield results to form the basis for conducting a production mechanism survey,
compare mechanisms between adjacent wells vs problematic production wells, and
by area or by well pattern
With the WOR vs cumulative oil production plot and the oil rate decline curves, it
would become an effective methodology to select candidate wells for water control
There should be more production and reservoir engineering opportunities and
benefits by using this diagnostic technique as one further progress along this

From figure 1 in the references chapter, the comparison between Water Coning and
Channeling WOR can be observed. As for the figure 2, the Field Example of Near
Wellbore Water Channeling.
Before the workover activity was done in this well, the oil production of this carbonate
base formation well is very low. Even worst, the water production was also very high and
this well can really become water well if a workover activity wasnt done to this well. The
following shows how much the water cut and water production ruining the production of oil
and gas in OKTA-36, Flowing Well Head Pressure (FWHP) 280 PSI, Choke 40/64, Oil
Production 99 BOPD, Water Production 1666 BWPD, Water Cut 94%, Gas Production
0.490 MMscfd, Cumulative of Oil Production 5003 bbls.
The first thing to do is to find the type of watering problem which causing the well to
produced large sum of water. One of the methods is using the Chans Diagnostic. Chans
diagnostic is a technique to determine excessive water and gas production mechanisms in
petroleum production wells. For the case of OKTA-36 well problem after the use of this
simple but sophisticated technique is near wellbore water channeling (Figure 2) behind
casing. By using the WOR (Water Oil Ratio) and WOR (time derivative of WOR) from the
production data the problem can be discerned. The CBL reading also gave certainty about
the poor cement bonding of OKTA-36. By using the CBL, the cement bonding can be
seen as good or not by the Millivolts reading of the CBL were high or not. If the millivolts
reading are high then it could mean that the cement bonding is bad and the water is
entering the wellbore but if the millivolts reading are low then the bonding is in good
condition.The justifications or solutions of this problem were to squeeze light cement in 7
prod. Liner to repair the poor cement bonding which causing water channeling problem
near wellbore behind the casing and isolate the existing perforation interval (6300 6330ft
MD) and creates new perforation in interval 6195 6205ft MD & 6220 6230ft MD (total
of 20ft). This justification was made by speculating some variables. The first was to
evaluate the logging and find the tight formation to perform the hesitant squeeze
cementing in interval 6260ft 6262ft MD. The choice to use tight formation was to prevent
the pumped cement to be lost into the formation before the estimated thickening time.
Even the characteristic of OKTANIA reservoir itself is total loss so the tight formation is
very useful to prevent losses. The choice of new perforation interval was also using the
variable of logging evaluation to find a good interval which can produce oil and gas in a
good basis. After the Chans Diagnostics and log reading has been done, the next step
was to perform the squeeze cementing activity in the old interval of 6300 6330ft MD and
6195 6205ft MD. This interval was closed because it produced much unwanted water
and very ineconomical for this well. The technique which applied for this squeeze
cementing activity was hesitant squeeze cementing. The last squeeze cementing activity
the interval of 6260 6262ft MD was done to repair the cement bonding of OKTA-36
wellbore. The poor cement bonding of this wellbore causing a problem called near

Seminar Nasional Cendekiawan 2015

ISSN: 2460-8696

wellbore water channeling. To fix this this problem one of the solutions is to perform
hesitant squeeze cementing. Especially For this interval, the perforation was first done to
open up the stymie before the squeeze cementing activity so that the cement slurry can
enter the formation. Along the cementing activity, there were also 2 injectivity test to go
with it. For both of this perforation activity, the placement technique which has been used
was the drillable cement retainer. After both of the squeezes cementing activity has been
done, the next step was to perform the perforation activity in interval 6195ft 6205ft MD.
The perforation activity condition for this particular well was underbalanced and the gun
type is TCP Gun which has to be dropped after the perforation activity was done. The
following is the production performance test after all the workover activity has been done:
Well Head Pressure 925 PSI, Well Head Temperature (WHT) 122F, Casing Pressure
(CP) 900 PSI, Flow Line Pressure (FLP) 280 PSI, Oil Production 1242 BOPD, Water
Production 0 BWPD, Water Cut 0%, and Gas Production 0.950 MMscfd. From the
Production Performance Test number above we can conclude there were significant raise
for the oil and gas production per day. Furthermore, the Well Head Pressure for this well
was also increase by significant margin. This means that the pressure loss inside the well
had been managed quite well by the squeeze cementing. From this table the most
important thing is zero number for water production and water cut means that the squeeze
cementing activity for this particular well was a huge success back then because the main
activity was to control water production. The casing pressure for this well was still quite
high when this production performance was run but other variable are good.
To conclude this thesis, there are some important points that can be taken based on
whole pages of this thesis

The purpose of squeeze cementing activity in OKTA-36 is to improve production of oil

by the repairing process of cement bonding in 7 production line to fix problem of
water channeling near wellbore behind the casing


The method which was used to find the watering problem was Chans Diagnostic.
Thus the result of the diagnostics itself is near wellbore water channeling by
comparing WOR and WOR vs days from production data.


CBL was used to inspect the cement bonding quality. The result of the CBL
observation is the bonding of OKTA-36 was quite bad by the reading from Fluid
Compensated CBL Amplitude (CBLF), 40 MV is the highest.


Before squeeze cementing activity was performed, logging reading is necessary to

determine the tight formation. Interval depth which used for the tight formation is 6260
6262ft MD. Logging reading was also used to determine the new 2 interval
perforation of OKTA-36 which is 6195 6205ft MD and 6220 6230ft MD


New perforation was made because the old perforation wasnt producing good
amount of oil and gas. Usually after the squeeze cementing activity, new perforation
is usually made to create better flow rate


The type of formation in OKTANIA reservoir is carbonate which more likely to cause
total loss so the choice of tight formation to squeeze the cement was the right choice


Squeeze cementing activity for OKTA-36 is a huge success with the increase of oil
production of more than 100 percent and erased the water production and water cut
percentage altogether.


Seminar Nasional Cendekiawan 2015

ISSN: 2460-8696

List of Symbols

= Beat per Minute, (minute)

= Amplitude, (mV)
= Casing Pressure, (PSI)
= Gas Oil Ratio, (scf/bbl)
= Flow Line Pressure, (PSI)
= Flowing Well Head Pressure (PSI)
= Measured Depth, (ft)
= Mud Filtrate Resistivity, dimensionless
= Water Resistivity, dimensionless
= Waiting On Cement, (minutes)

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Publishing Company. 1984.
Chan, K.S. Water Control Diagnostic Plots. Richardson: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
King, George E. Cement Evaluation Methods to Prove Isolation of Barriers in Oil and Gas
Wells: Should a Cement Bond Log (CBL) Be Run or Required in Every Well? Houston:
Apache Corporation. 2012.
King, George E. Perforating Basics: How the Perforating Process Work. Texas: George E.
King Engineering. 2009.
Kuchuk, Fikri. Middle East Well Evaluation Review: Water in the Oil Field. Cape Town:
Middle East & Asia Reservoir Review. 1997.
Rubiandini, Rudi. TeknikOperasiPemboran 1I. Bandung: ITB. 2012.
Schlumberger. The Oilfield Glossary: Where the Oil Field Meets the Dictionary


Seminar Nasional Cendekiawan 2015

ISSN: 2460-8696

Figure 1 Water Coning and Channeling WOR Comparison

Figure 2 Field Example of Near Wellbore Water Channeling