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STRUCTURE OF CLAUSES

A CLAUSE is a part of a sentence with its own subject and predicate. They
are those group of words which have a complete sense of their own, i.e.,
they stand independently because they follow the SV/SVO/SVC patterns
and they have their own subject and predicate.
E.g.1. He has a chain, which is made of gold.
Which subject
Is made of predicate
Gold object
2. I think that you have made a mistake.
You subject
Have made a mistake predicate
Made a mistake clause
3. When the sun sets, he returns home.
When the sun set clause
4. People who pay their debts are trusted.
Who pay their debts clause
5. He is not so clever as he thinks.
As he think clause
6. We cannot start while it is raining.
While it is raining clause

FLUENCY TECHNIQUE

Many times we may use a clause instead of a full sentence


For E.g. If you ask me - Where may I sit?
I will say Wherever you like.
Ill not say You may sit wherever you like.
Theres no need to say the full sentence because the second person can
easily understand, so it all depends ON THE SITUATION where we use
them.
Examine the group of words IN A CORNER
It makes sense, but NOT COMPLETE SENSE.
such a group WORDS WHICH MAKE SENSE , BUT NOT
COMPLETE SENSE, IS CALLED A PHRASE.
E.g. 1. The Sun rises in the east.
2. Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.
3. Show me how to do it.
4. It was a sunset of great beauty.
A GROUP OF WORDS WITHOUT A FINITE VERB IS A
PHRASE. A phrase usually forms part of a sentence:
E.g. 1. She is a girl with short hair.
Here Short Hair is a phrase (NON-FINITE CLAUSE) because it has no
finite verb.
BUT SHE IS A GIRL is a CLAUSE (FINITE CLAUSE) because it has a
subject and a finite verb.

2. He has a chain of gold.


3. He has a chain which is made of gold.
Which is made of gold CLAUSE
The first group of words is PHRASE
The second of words , unlike the phrase of G. contains a SUBJECT
(WHICH) AND A PREDICATE(IS MADE OF GOLD) =- IT IS A
CLAUSE.
COMPLEX SENTENCE : STRUCTURE

A COMPLEX SENTENCE HAS TWO CLAUSES ONE PRINCIPAL


CLAUSE/MAIN CLAUSE AND ONE OR MORE SUBORDINATE
CLAUSES/DEPENDENT CLAUSE

Study the following sentences:


1. I know where she lives.
2. I think that he acted wisely.
3. We shall leave when it is fine.

Each sentence is composed of two clauses. One principal Clause, which


makes complete sense of itself and does not depend on other clauses.
I KNOW, I THINK and WE SHALL LEAVE are the PRINCIPAL
CLAUSES.
Principal clause is the clause which does not depend for its meaning on
another clause.
WHERE SHE LIVES, THAT HE ACTED WISELY, & WHEN IT IS
FINE are SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE: always depend on the principal clause to


make complete sense (depend on P.C. for its meaning)
SOME MORE EXAMPLES

ADVERB CLAUSE

PRINCIPAL CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE


He is so dull. That he cant understand me.

I havent seen her. Since she left this place.

She cant see. Because she is blind.

NOUN CLAUSE

PRINCIPAL CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE


She told me. That she was learning English.

We dont know. Where he is living these days.

I dont know. Who he is and what he wants.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

PRINCIPAL CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE


This is the church. That James built in 1935.

This is the house. She lives in.

He is the same man. That saved me yesterday.

He is the kindest person. I have ever seen.


KINDS OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

There are 3 kinds of subordinate clauses.

1. ADVERB CLAUSE
2. NOUN CLAUSE
3. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

ADVERB CLAUSE

They rested at sunset. (rested when ?)


They rested when evening came. (rested when?)

In both the sentences, underlined group of words, do the WORK OF AN


ADVERB as they modify the VB RESTED, showing when the action was
performed.

The first group of words at sunset IS AN adverb phrase.

Is the second group of words, when evening came also an adverb phrase?

NO: it is not a phrase, coz it has a subject (evening) and a predicate (came
when) of its own, and is thus like a sentence, but a part of a sentence. So it is
CLAUSE and since it acts like an ADVERB it is an ADVERB CLAUSE.

Take another e.g. 1. They came in the evening. (started when?)


2. They started when the evening came. (started when)

In the sentence 1, in the evening does the work of an Adverb. It tells us


when the action took place.
In the Sentence 2, WHEN THE EVENING CAME modifies the verb
started and so does the work of an adverb.
In the sentence 1 , in the evening is an ADVERB PHRASE, It has a
SUBJECT (EVENING) and PREDICATE(game evening) and since it acts
as an adverb, it is called an ADVERB CLAUSE.
ADVERB CLAUSE
An Adverb Clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a
predicate of its own, and does the work of an Adverb.
One more example
1. The stolen property was found IN THE DACOITS HIDING
PLACE.
2. The stolen property was found WHERE THE DACOITS WERE
ACCUSTOMED TO HIDE.
Both the underlined group of words do the work of an Adverb.
But the group of words in sentence 2 is a Clause because it has a subject (the
dacoits) and a predicate (were accustomed to hide where) of its own, while
the group of words in sentence in sentence 1 is a phrase.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

Look at the underlined group of words in following sentences:


1. The umbrella with a broken handle is mine. ( which umbrella?)
2. The umbrella which has a broken handle is mine.

The first group of words, with a broken handle, describe the umbrella;
that is, it qualifies the noun umbrella, and does the work of an Adjective.
It is what we call an Adjective Phrase.

The second group which has a broken handle also describes the umbrella
and so does the work of an ADJECTIVE. But because it contains a
subject and a predicate of its own, it is called an ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.
Take another example
1. The pen with red cap is Aloks ( which pen?)
2. The pen which has red cap is Aloks (which pen?)
The first group of words, WITH RED PEN, describes the pen; that is, it
qualifies the noun pen and does the work of an Adjective, so it is called
an ADJECTIVE PHRASE.
In the second sentence words, WHICH HAS RED CAP, also describes
the PEN, and so does the work of an adjective . But since it has a
subject and predicate of its own, it is an ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.
One more example
1. A man of courage is respected everywhere.
2. A man who is courageous is respected where.
Here the adjective PHRASE OF COURAGE equivalent in meaning to
the adjective clause, WHO IS COURAGEOUS, and can, therefore, be
replaced by it.
DEFINITION :
An ADJECTIVE CLAUSE is a group of words which contains a subject
and a predicate of its own , and does the work of an ADJECTIVE, i.e.,
modify a Noun or Pronoun.

E.g.1. Here is the book you want.


2.Mary had a lamb whose fleece was white as snow.
3. They never fail who die in great cause
4. Heaven help those who help themselves.
5. It is a long lane that has no turning.
6. He that climbs too high is sure to fall.
7. He laughs best who laughs last.

NOUN CLAUSE
Study the following sentences:
1. He helps to win the first prize.
2. He hopes that he would win the first prize.
In the sentence 1 the group of words in bold to win the first prize, is
the object of the words hopes, It is therefore does the work of a noun ,
and since it has no subject and no predicate of its own it is a Noun
Phrase.
In the sentence 2, the bold words that he would win the first prizr, is
also the object of the verb hopes and so does the work of a noun. But it
has a subject and a predicate of its own , it is called Noun Clause.
Take one more example
1. I expect to get a prize.
2. I expect that I shall get a prize.

In the first group of words, to get a prize, does not contain a subject and
a predicate of its own. It is therefore a phrase. This phrase is object of
the verb expect and hence does the work of a Noun. It is therefore a
Noun Phrase.
The second group of words that I shall get a prize, contains a subject and
a predicate of its own. It is therefore a Clause. This clause is the object
of verb expect and so does the work of a Noun. We therefore call it a
Noun Clause.
CLAUSES AND ITS TYPES
Clauses are also parts of sentence asre group of words, and they have a
complete sense of their own is, they can stand independently because
they follow the SV/SVO/SVC patterns and they have their own subject
& predicate. For e.g.

1. He has a chain, which is made of gold.


2. We cannot start while it is raining.
3. The sun rose and we started the journey.
4. I think you have made a mistake.
5. He is not so clever as he thinks.
6. He spoke so low that we could not bear him.
7. When the sunset, he returned home.