Anda di halaman 1dari 51


Silver Ware
Hupari (Kolhapur)
Submitted By
Satyajeet Kaushal
Anupama Nishad
Himanshu Singh
Nirali Doshi
Jocelyn Akoijam

Batch 2012-2014

PGDS , Sem - III

Submitted to
Department of Masters in Design Space
National Institute of Fashion Technology

Certificate of ownership and original

This is only certify that Himanshu,, Jocelyn, Anupama, Nirali and Satyajeet have
submitted the cluster & Craft Project titled Hupari Silverware to the Department of
Master of Design space(M.DES), National Institute of Fashion Technology(NIFT),
Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India, Mumbai toward partial fulfillment of their research
work. The research project is an original piece of work and has not been submitted to
any other institute or university. They have dually acknowledged and given credit to the
data, factual figures as well as concept draw from numerous secondary sources.

(Disha Gupta)
Asst. Prof & CC- PGDS


we are grateful to all the Esteemed Members of Chaadi Karkhandar (Udhyojak)

Association Hupari for providing us an opportunity to do research work on Craft and
Cluster development Hupari Silver Craft. We express our whole hearted thanks to

all the craftsmen and people involved in silver craft at Hupari, who have guided and
supervised us throughout this study and for their encouragement and their morale
support in understanding the existing system.
We would like to express our gratitude to all those who enable us to complete this
project. We want to thank Prof. Disha Gupta, course Coordinator of the department of
master of space design, NIFT MUMBAI and Mrs. Sharmila Dua, Faculty Guide, NIFTMumbai, for giving us permission to commence this research in the first instance and to
do the necessary research work.
Last, but always the most important, we will always stay indebted to our parents who
committed themselves to our growth and success enabling us to undertake all
challenges and endeavors, big or small.

(Disha Gupta)
Asst. Prof & CC- PGDS


























1.1 Need for cluster projects.
India is the land with diversity and distinctive art, craft and heritage.These arts and craft are
passed on from generation to generation. It is specific to a particular region like patola from
patan(gujrat). Paithani saree from paithan (Maharashtra) etc.These craft are produced by
artisans in village who are proficient in their particular art. This art is like their family business.
They learn this art as part of their tradition to earn their livelihood.
In this modern age of electronics, art and craft is lagging behind time. People are moving from
village to cities leaving their tradition and old profession behind adopting modern lifestyle. The
art and craft artisan are also moving to new avenues to earn their livelihood. Instead of
modernizing their art and craft manufacturing, marketing and supply chain they are opting to
work elsewhere.

1.2 Government Initiatives for protecting Indian art and craft.

In order to protect art, craft and heritage of our country, the government of India is working
meticulously through various initiatives taken by various ministries like Ministry of Textiles,
Ministry of Rural Development, and Ministry of tourism etc. There are several programs to

promote the art and craft industry and cluster development is one of them.

1.3 NIFT and Cluster

Ministry of textiles with the help of National institute of fashion technology is running cluster
initiatives across India through its 15 centres into different art and craft. The cluster initiatives
taken by NIFT Mumbai are at Surendranagar (Gujarat), Hupari(Maharashtra) etc.
In this cluster program the NIFT centres send its students from various departments like Master
of Design space, Fashion Management studies, Fashion communication etc. To these places
students interact with artisan know their art and craft & understand their skills. After doing
research work the students help the artisans by providing them with market development plan,
modernization plan, Quality control measures and issues, fund raising and fund management,
awareness of government scheme etc.
1.3 Objective of Cluster
The objective for the Hupari silver cluster were to know the history, evolution of craft, various
products, their price point, technology, production system manpower level, current price points,
distribution networks and current promotion mix.

Jewellery in India has been an unbroken tradition for over 5,000 years. Such is the skill of Indian

jewellers that with time, the real flowers and leaves used by our ancestors inspired them to
recreate the gifts of nature in gold and silver.
In early India, people handcrafted jewellery out of natural materials found in abundance all over
the country. Seeds, feathers, leaves, berries, fruits, flowers, animal bones, claws and teeth;
everything from nature was affectionately gathered and artistically transformed into fine body
jewellery. Even today such jewellery is used by the different tribal societies in India.
Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro and other sites of the Indus Valley civilization have unearthed a
wealth of handmade ornaments. It appears that both men and women of that time wore
jewellery made of gold, silver, copper, ivory and precious and semi-precious stones.
The history of Indian jewellery can be traced
back to a very ancient time. From the excavation
of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, jewelleries of
geometrical and flora designs were found,
besides, mentions of various kinds of silver
ornaments are found in Rig Veda Referring to
cultural milieu of Indus valley civilisation,
It is found that jewelleries were exported to
Sumer, Egypt and Troy as back as 3000 BC,
The glorious jewellery making art has been
related to Indian philosophy, religion, Culture,
aesthetic sense, rituals, and social way of life

Marvellous workmanship could be seen in different

Silver Craft

Silver craft In India

media and silver became the base of all types of jewelleries including modern jewellery. Of late,
as women have started wearing jewelleries made in terracotta, wood and stone media, all of
which have a high demand, the precious pure white silver metal has been preferred by the
smith community next to gold. The artisan of Hupari has been making silver jewellery for about
more than century.

Silver craft producing area- Panipat (Haryana), Udaipur (Rajasthan), Rajkot(Gujarat),

Hathras, Lucknow, Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), Salem (Tamilnadu),
Cuttack (Orissa).

Kolhapur city situated in the south-west corner of Maharashtra, India. Kolhapur, or as
it seems to have been formerly called Karavir, is probably one of the oldest religious
and trade centres in western India. In the Karavir or Kolhapur Mahatmya or account
of the greatness of Kolhapur, Kolhapur is mentioned as the Kasi or Banaras of the
South. City situated on the banks of river Panchganga. Kolhapur is a blend of ancient
tradition and modern influences. In 1945, excavations on the Brahmapuri in Kolhapur
revealed the existence of an ancient town dating back to the Roman era. Kolhapur
had different dynasties ruling it in the past, but it was under the rule of the Marathas
that it became a cultural hub.

Rajarshi Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaja is an architect and founder of modern

Kolhapur. Chhattrapati Shahu Maharaja's reign lent a progressive spirit to the city and
the king extended his patronage to arts like theatre, film making, music, painting,
sculpture, wrestling and crafts like tanning and Jewellerys making. Of late, Kolhapur
has become a prominent centre for the Marathi film industry.
Kolhapur is one of the oldest civilizations of the country. Kolhapur's cultural history is
dated back to 17th Century. Situated at the banks of River Panchganga, Kolhapur is
called as DAKSHIN KASHI. Kolhapur has also seen and gone under the various
regimes and since the emergence of the Marathas, the place was being ruled by the
Bhonsle dynasty.
Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaja was not among the male ancestor of this dynasty as he
was born as the eldest son of appasahed Ghatge [Chief of Kagal (Senior)] on 26th
June 1874 and was named as Yashwatrao Ghatge. Those were the days around the

Holi [an Indian Festival related with colour and usually celebrated in the months of
March April] in the year 1884, when Rani Shrimant Anandi bai Raje Saheb decided
to adopt him and made him Chhatrapati of the princely state of Kolhapur.
Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaja ascended the throne of Kolhapur in 1894, bringing an
end to the 50 year old regency administration. His reign of 28 years from 1894 to
1922 ushered A new era of social, cultural and economic reforms for which he is
remembered as one of the greatest rulers in Maharashtra.

Area of Kolhapur district-66.82 sqft kms

Population of Kolhapur-3523162 and that of city is
485183 Literacy rate- 76% People of Kolhapur are
generally referred to as 'Kolhapuri' or 'Kolhapurkar'.
The main language spoken here is Marathi, apart
from that Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati, Kananda is used.

Kolhapur city is on the banks of River Panchganga

and reflects a rich heritage along with a fast growing

Map of Kolhapur

industrial town. Its importance as a commercial centre

is well known. Kolhapur is a big market for
jaggery (Gul) of which the district is a very large producer.
This jaggery is supplied to various parts of India and is

exported to different countries. Kolhapur District is one of the

shining examples in the Co-operative Movement of India. No doubt, the district has the
highest per capita income in the Maharashtra State and one of the highest in the
A Historical Background can be easily noticed in the culture and the architecture of
the city making it a Historical Tourist spot. Also various temples and religious

places in and around the city make it an important destination for Religious
Tourism. Apart from that Numerous Lakes and River Panchganga add to the
beauty of the city thus also attracting Leisure Tourism.
Tourist attraction in Kolhapur-The famous temple of Goddess 'Mahalaxmi' /
'Ambabai' blesses the city and guards all evil. Also Old Palace , New Palace ,
Rankala Lake, Shalani Palace, Town Hall, Panchaganga Ghat, Shivaji Pool etc.
City is famous for-Kolhapur city is famous for Kolhapuri Chappal , Kolhapuri
LavangiMirchi, Kolhapuri Gur(Gul), Kolhapuri Tambada&PandaraRassa (Red &
White curry), Kolhapuri Suke Mutton (Dry Meat), Kolhapuri Misal, Kolhapuri Saaj,
Kolhapuri Pheta, Kohapuri Dudh Katta, Kusti (wristeling).

Hupari is town which is around 20km from Kolhapur city. Entire village is into silver
jewellery manufacturing since past 100 years. The story of Hupari silver jewellery
goes back to the first decade of this century, precisely the year 1904, in that year
Krishanji Ramchandra sonar switched over to making ornaments in silver from gold.
He would have hardly imagined that his silver craftsmanship would one day rise to
such a height that within the next four decades it would make Hupari synonymous
with silver smithing.
Hupari is a census town in Kolhapur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Hupari comes under Hathkanangle taluka.

As of 2001 India census Hupari had a population of 28,229.
Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%.
Hupari has an average literacy rate of 70%,
higher than the national average of 59.5%:
male literacy is 76%, and female literacy is 62%.
In Hupari, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.
The regional language of Hupari is Marathi.

Map of Hupari

Ethnographic Study
A majority of residents in Kolhapur follows Hinduism Hence, Diwali, Ganesh
Chaturthi Vijaya Dashami, Navaratri are main festivals celebrated along with Holi
known as festival of colours Kolhapur is blessed with mahalaxmi goddess.

The costume of Kolhapur is sari and dhoti. It is also famous for jewellery Kolhapuri
Saaj.The food habbit of Kolhapur is Lavangi Mirchi, Kolhapuri Gur(Gul), Kolhapuri
Tambada&Pandara Rassa (Red & White curry), Kolhapuri Suke Mutton (Dry Meat),
Kolhapuri Misal.
People of Hupari have strong beliefs in Ambabai goddess. The Hupari village got
famous after the Ambabai temple.

The people of Kolhapur and Hupari they hang Drust Bahuli and kolhapuri sleeper at
their doors to get rid of bed omen.

Kolhapuri Food

Drust Bahuli

Kolhapuri Outfit

Kolhapuri Sleeper


Hupari is also known as Silver Nagari. It is well known since the 13th century as
centre of silver jewellery manufacture. In 1400-1500 A.D. Goddess Ambabai temple
was erected by villagers, and the villagers believe that the actual progress of Hupari

began only after the temple was built. Hupari village to the days of Sahu Maharaja. "It
started with a regular demand for silver ornaments from the Kolhapur royalty. During
festivals, elephants and horses were clothed with silver.

During 1750, village was conquered by patwardhan from Kolhapur sans than& erected
a fort around the city, in 1800; Nipanikar Desai Had attacked Hupari along with the fort
further king of Kolhapur conquered Hupari again since then it became part of Kolhapur
sansthan. Skilled workers of the village used to make different types of design
jewellery for the royal family of Kolhapur. In this way Hupari got name and fame.
The village of Hupari has today become a busy and well known place for silver
jewellery. Silver jewellery of unique craftsmanship is executed here with traditional
artistry. The silver jewellery especially of Hupari is payal or anklet of varied length and
design. Hupari is also famous for the seamless silver balls known as gujrav. These
hollow silver balls combined with solid ones, known as rawa are added to the payals as
per design needs. There are a variety of designs created through the stamped-out
dies. Huparis speciality in this business is payal, challe ,kad-dore, which are in great
Demand all over india.

After World War II in 1944, approximately 60- 70 skilled worker come together &

formed Hupari Chandi Karkhandar (Udhyojak) Association. The main objective of this
association was to give opportunity to new entrepreneur & strongly build association.
New comers in this industry were provided all sort of Co-operation by giving silver on
credit with a condition that he should be known to some local people, there is no
written agreement in the business but only oral commitment.


1904-First manufacturing unit of silver jewellery established.
1940- Small scale industry machinery installed and manufacturing of sakhali, torde,
Kad-dore etc was developed.
1944- Chandi KarkhandarUdhyojak Association established.
1947-Association register under Chandi Association Society Act.
1948- Wages of 1 anna and silver exchange system established.
1972- Chandi kharkhandar Udhyojak association, Hupari was erected and
inaugurated their administrative building.
2001- Member of association were allotted 200 acre of land in Kagal, Hathkanangle,
industrial area which was declared as silver zone, Hupari.
2001-Association participated in silver exhibition opened by central government in
New Delhi.
2007-Government recognized cluster yojna.

Chandi Kharkhana (Udhyojak) Association

After World War II in 1944,
Approximately 60-70 killed o ked o e togethe & fo

ed Hupa i

Chandi Kharkhana (Udhyojak) Association. The main objective of this

association was to give opportunity to new entrepreneur of association was
to give opportunity to new entrepreneurs & strongly build association. New
comes in this industry were provided all short of co- operation by giving silver
on credit with a condition that he should be known to some local people.

There is no any written agreement in the business but only oral commitment.
Hupa i s specialty in this business is payal, challe & kad-dore, which are in
great demand from all over India.

70% of Hupa i s people & 30% of nearly village totally depend on this
handmade silver industry. In Hupari Silver trading, there is no difference
et ee e plo ee a d e plo e . The e is sa i g, Toda s e plo ee
to o o s e t ep e eu . I Hupa i the e a e 40% o e e plo ee total
turnover of Hupari, is 1000cr and is growing at the rate of 5% per annum due
to silver industry.

Process of Silver Anklet (Payal)

STEP 1 Procurement of row silver
Fi st je elle s gets pu if a d a

i k of sil e the it goes to pu it testi g fo

ualit .

In this stage, jewellers brings his alloy for the product And it is tested for the percentage of
silver in it i.e. Purity is checked.

Silver bricks

Step 2 Testing of purity

3 to 4 gm of the alloy is taken, then 200 Is cut and tested. It is known as Tunch.

Only 1 person is engaged for testing.

Chemicals used are Ammonium , Thycynade, Ammonium, Phosphoric, sulphate. Chemicals
are mixed with the alloy. Silver dissolves in the acid and impurities remain. Distilled water is
added in the mixture. 400 ml of solution is taken in pipette and added to the mixture till the
colour turns to milky and precipitate forms. If the silver does not dissolve initially then it is
heated till it dissolves. Colour change with reaction Then separation of silver comes out from
impurities Then finally checker gives purity note.

Pure silver

Impure silver


Purity note

STEP 3. Melting of silver

After testing the silver bars are heated at certain temperature and added mixture of

oppe a d zi


elted i a e a i

o tai e a o di g to the u e s

requirement. Crucible (moos) is the container made up of ceramic in which alloy is

melted. After silver is melted into the ceramic bowl with utmost care it is taken out by
the operator and melted silver is poured into wooden moulds which are shown in
picture and after pouring the wooden mould with silver is put into a solvent containing

Furnace of Silver

Molten silver

STEP 4. Making of Pasta

Pasta is a flat, black or thick wire which is made from silver rods. Pastas are prepared by
pressing the rods. After melting the silver rod is prepared, then it is passed between the
rollers (pasta making machine) according to the thickness requirement. Pastas are those
flat rods on which the design of the payal would be cut. Pasta could be 20, 21, 22 geige
in weight ( half kg ). There were 2 machines and each had 2 labours with it.

Silver Rod

Silver Stripes

Pasta machine


STEP 5 process of wire

In this stage more fine wires are produced. Wires are set in the gauge according to the
requirement of the diameter of wire And then wires are wound on a roller. Gauge has
holes ranging from 17 to 30. 2 labours are employed for this job. This process is called
Mati utti g.

Making of Silver wire

STEP 6 a making of kadi, Ghungroo and balls

The wire which has been a sheen and a finish, is passed through this cutting machine for
making of kadi, Ghungroo and balls are those parts of a payal which is used to join the
different parts of the payal and to make one single payal.

Making of Silver kadi

Silver balls

Silver kadi

Silver gungroo


STEP 6 ( b )

Cutting machine for designing Ghungroo.

Mati cutting is done for attaching chain.
Loops and balls are made.
Chains are made with adjoining the wire from the previous step.
Around 15 machines were used in the process.
Minimal manpower of 3-4 is used.

Attaching chain

Step 7 Dye cutting

The design of the payal is done by using dye. Dyes are specially being made in Rajkot and all
the design done they are made done in Rajkot. Dyes are Small Square like box on which the

design is carved and the dye is put on the machine and the design is automatically seen on
the pasta. Patterns are engraved on the white metal with the help of roller and stamping
machine. Only one stamping machine is used. Operated by one person only, When the
design is cut as per the requirement the pieces are joined together by the soldering process.
One machine is operational and Only one person required as a labour. A total of 10 designs
were available.

Silver Strip

Making of Designs

Silver design


Step 8 Assembling

In this process all materials and pieces are collected, the pieces are joined with the help of
A sort of glue in which is mixture of zinc and takankhaar
The glue is also called as morchud
The pieces are placed above the jewellery with the help of glue, after which it goes for
Material and tools are used in solding are boric acid, hydromax, methyl gas and solding
After soldering the final products are cleaned through acetic acids.

Assembling with glue


Applying fire

Final Anklet


Step 9 Electroplating

Electroplating of silver on materials is outsourced to some other person

This is the only step which the Artisan do not own at his place
This process takes around 2 hours for every 10 kg

Step 10 Polishing

The dried material is then polished in the Vibrator

They use easily available Tipol shampoo for the purpose
Fibre balls are used inside the vibrator to polish
Then the material is rinsed thoroughly.


Step 12. Oxidization

Once the oxidization is finished the materials are then dried at the artisans place.

It is exposed to the sunlight for half an hour

They use normal black 99 Camlin ink for colouring the material black

The products are first cleaned and only then dry it.

Step 13.Meenakari
Meenakari is not a traditional process but now-a-days is done to enhance the traditional silver
products. Only one family in Hupari is engaged in doing Meenakari. It is done by a normal thin
pai t

ush 0 u


ith li uid olou s alled Mee a Casti g Colou s . This is do e o

finished products. After applying the paints, they are dried in a dryer i.e., a box with many bulbs
which heats up and helps the colour to dry quickly. Generally the colour dried in sunlight but the
weather is rainy & humid so dryer is used.

Applying colour
Casting colours




( 0 ) no. brush
Bada Kalam pin

Ceramic bowl



Player ( pakkad)

Kalam pin


point Player ( pakkad)


Man power level

The industry requires hard labour .males and females and children of artisans,
families work in it. the work also requires some skill and an artistic mind.

A typical skilled worker earns wages as follows:

21 gauge silver jewellery wages are Rs.170/kg

22 gauge silver jewellery wages are Rs.330/kg

The factors on wages depend are:

The experience of worker

The complexity o design

The skills of worker

Unit in which worker is employed. If the worker is employed in pasta unit then the
daily wage for 8 hrs the pay varies from Rs.85 to Rs.125.
For most of the work involved in making anklets which is the prominent item of
jewellery produces, here , most artisans are at the level of unskilled or semi skilled
labour mostly.



The speciality of siliver jewellery of Hupri is payal or anklet of various types of length and
design. Hupri is also famous for the seamless silver balls known as gujrav/ghungaroos (the
tiny tinkling beads in an anklet) and is the only supplier of the same in the entire country.
These hollow silver balls combined with solid ones, are added to payal as per design needs.
There are a variety of designs created through the stamped-out dies. They also make some
kinds of necklaces and jewellery on order basis. Silver jewellery from Hupri is in great demand
at home and abroad. Small families, operates presses to drill small holes in silver strips with
the hollowed ends supplied to families making ghungroos (silver beads). In their spare time
women spread the tiny, silver hollowed ends on steel plates and join two hollowed halves to
form a ghungroo with sharp, steel pencils. These are then knotted by round silver hooks
formed out of silver wires.

Women folk making ghungroos

An image of Rupali-Koyna payal

Arc flames are run over steel plates lined with ghungroos to solder them into long strands
of payals. Some shops add colour to the payals to give Meenakari effect. At most work
spots, young men do the hard work with the female folk taking up the strenuous job of
stringing ghungroos. Children go to school even while being aware of their future being a
live part of the payal trade.Out of the various designs, the few popular and traditional
ones are: rupali, chum-chum, gajashree, etc. They are also famous for the antique
jewellery pieces, crafted here and sold the everywhere.


5.2TYPES OF PAYALThere are four main types of Traditional Hupri Payal and they are :
1.Rupali-It has a single chain.The deisign is simple yet the joints of the rectangle loops are
Avery firm and strong.

Rupali payal

Illustration of Rupali Payal

2.Sonya-The Sonya payal is characterised by its horizontal V-shaped Shape.

Sonya Payal

Illustration of Sonya payal.

3.Gajashri-The payal with the double chain of Rupali Payal is known as Gajashri payal.

Gajashri Payal

Illustration of Gajashri payal

4.Gayashree Chum Chum- These are the payals for children and is characterised by simple
round loops and ghungroos.

Gayashree Chum chum payal

Illustration of the loops


5.3 BASIC MOTIFS IN HUPRI PAYALThe basic motifs used in Hupri Payal:
The koyna motif looks like a paisley/mango motif .

Illustration of koyna motif

A payal with koyna motif


The pankha motif may be derived from wings of birds.

Illustration of pankha motif

A payal with Pankha motif

The topi motif has a round and circular shape.The motif may be taken from a hat
and hence the name of the motif

Illustration of topi motif

A payal with topi motif


Sea Shells may be an inspiration for the Sankh motif.

Illustration of sankh motif

A payal with Sankh motif

Pari motif has smooth triangular shape.Sea corals or some natural objects may be a source of
inspiration of this particular motif.

Illustration of pari motif

A payal with pari motif


The secondary motifs of the Hupri Payal is derived from the basic motifs or it is form by
combing two or more basic motif.The name of the secondary motifs are Pankhtopi,pankh-koyna,pankh-koyna,koyna-topi,etc
Some illustration of the secondary motis are shown below:



So,the payal are term according to their types and the motif koyna payal or
Sonya Pari-Topi payal,etc.There is a great visual pleasure in looking at the silver ornaments of
Hupri which are designed and executed by extremely skilled and sensitive craftsmen of today
who have maintained the glorious tradition of the craftsmanship in Hupri.

Gajashri Pankh-koyna payal

In Hupri,besides the production of traditional payal,there are some units which produces
contemporary jewellery most of which has been oxidised to give an antique touch.The motifs
and design of the jewelley has mostly been taken out from the temple carving(as told by the
karigars).And the motifs are named according to their local term such asBadami,til,dambru,mandakini,jokemani,minti,kanist,etc

Picture of the basic motifs used in

contemporary jewellery

Picture of a contemporary jewellery



There is no production of utensils and vessels in Hupari village but in the Kolhapur town there is
a mass production of utensils,vessels,decorative items,temple goods,etc.The local term of the
name of motifs used in their designs are-Pan,Badam,kamani-nakshi,checks,ect

Picture of vessels using pan motifs

Picture of vessels using checks motifs

Picture of vessels using Badam motifs

Picture of vessels using kamani-nakshi motifs



Meenakari Payal

Tribal Payal

Salem Payal

Chham chham Hupari Payal


Toe Ring

Toe ring
Workmanship charges: 350 per kilogram of
Wastage: 5%
Weight: 15g 150g


Workmanship charge Rs 1200 per kilogram of silver
Wastage 7%
Made out of 70% silver


Chattar:Workmanship charge Rs 2000 per kilogram of silver

Design charges vary from Rs 10,000 per kilogram of silver

Tamaan (Puja Thali)

Workmanship charge: Rs 350 per kilogram of silver
Wastage 6%


Workmanship charge: Rs. 1000 per kilogram of silver

Workmanship charges: Rs 350 per kilogram of silver
Wastage: 5%
Weight- 10 100g


Oxidized jewellery
Necklace Set

Ear ring





Silverware A Business


Government Initiatives

The small scale industries have emerged as a dynamic and vibrant sector of the economy
during eighties. At the end of the seventh plan period, it accounted for nearly 35% of the
gross value output in the manufacturing sector and over 40% of total exports from the

country. It also provided employment to around 12 million people.

The primary objective of the Small Scale Industry Policy during the nineties would be to
impart more vitality and growth-impetus to the sector to enable it to contribute its mite
fully to the economy, particularly in terms of growth of output, employment and exports.
The sector has been substantially de-licensed. Further efforts should be made to deregulate
& de-bureaucratise the sector with a view to remove all fetters on its growth potential,
reposing greater faith in small & young entrepreneurs.

All statutes, regulations and procedures would be reviewed and modified, wherever
necessary, to ensure that their operations do not militate against the interests of small and
village enterprises.

Small scale industries

Government have already announced increase in the investment limits in plant & machinery
of small scale industries, ancillary units and exports-oriented units to Rs 6 million, & Rs200
thousand respectively. Such limits in respect of TINY ENTERPRISES would now be increased
from the present, irrespective of location of the unit. Limit in plant & machinery for

determining the status of SSI/Ancillary units as on date Rs 10 million. For tiny it is Rs2.5 million
& for SSSBE Rs500 thousand.
Service sub-sector is a fast growing area & there is a need to provide support to it in view of
its recognised potential for generating employment. Hence all industry related service &
business enterprises, recognized as small scale industries & their investment selling would
correspond to those of tiny enterprises. It has also been decided to widen the scope of the
national equity fund scheme to cover projects up to Rs1 million for equity support (up to
15%). Single window loan scheme has also being enlarged to cover project up to Rs2 billion as
working capital. Margin up to Rs 1million. Composite loan under single window scheme now
available only through state financial corporation (SFCs) and twin function state small
industries development corporation (SSIDCs), would also be channelized through commercial
banks. This would facilitate access to large number of entrepreneurs.


Financial Supports Measures

Inadequate access to credit- go short term & long term remains perennial problem facing the
small scale sector. Emphasis would hence fourth shift from subsidised/cheap credit, expect for
specified target groups, and efforts would be made to ensure both adequate flow of credit on
a normative basis, and the quality of its delivery, for viable operations of this sectors. A special
monitoring agency would be set up to oversee that the genuine credit needs of the small
scale sector are fully met.
To provide access to the capital market & to encourage modernization & technological upgradation, it has been decided to allow equity participation by other industrial undertakings in
the SSI, not exceeding 24% of the total shareholding. This would also provide a powerful
boost to sub-contracting, leading to expansion of employment opportunities.
Regulatory provisions relating to the management of provide limited companies are being
liberalised. A Limited Partnership Act will be introduced to enhance the supply of risk capital
to small scale sector. Such an Act would limit the financial liability of the new & non active
partners/entrepreneurs to the capital invested.

Infrastructure Facilities
To facilitate location of industries in rural or backward area & to promote stronger linkages
between agriculture & industries, a new scheme of integrated infrastructure development
(including technological backup services) for small scale industries would be implemented
with the active participating of state government & financial institution. A beginning in this

direction will be made this year itself.

The technology development cell (TDC) would be setup in the small industries development
organization (SIDO) which would provide technology input to improve productivity &
competitiveness of the products of the small scale sectors parts the TDC would coordinate the
activities of the tools rooms, process cum product development centres (PPDCs) existing as
well as to be established under SIDO, and would also interact with other industrial research in
development organisation to achieve its objectives.
Adequacy & equitable distribution of indigenous & imported raw materials would be ensured
to the small scale sector, particularly the tiny sub-sector policies would be so designed that
they do not militate against entry of new units. Based on the capacity needs tiny or small
scale units would be given priority in allocation of indigenous raw materials.


Marketing Exports

In spite of the vast domestic market, marketing remains a problem area for small
enterprises. Mass consumption labour intensive products are predominantly being
marketed by the organised sector. The tiny/small scale sector will be enabled to have a
significant share of such markets. In addition to the existing support mechanism, market
promotion would be undertaken through cooperative/public sector institution, other
specialised/professional marketing agencies & consortia approach, backed up by such
incentives, as considered necessary.
National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) would concentrate on marketing of
mass consumption items under common brand name and organic links between NSIC &
SSIDCs would be established.
Government recognises the need to widen and deepen complementarily in
production programmes of large/medium and small industrial sectors. Parts, components,
sub-assemblies, etc. required by large public/private sector undertakings would be
encouraged for production in a techno economically to viable manner through small scale
ancillary units. Industry association would be encouraged to established sub-contracting
exchanges in addition to strengthening once under the SIDO. Emphasis would also be laid
on promotion of viable and competitive component market. Through the small scale sector
is making significance contribution to t control would be total export, both direct and
indirect, a large potential remains untapped. The SIDO has been recognised as a nodal
agency to support the small scale industry in export promotion. An export development
centre would be setup in SIDO to serve the small scale industries through its network of
field officer to further augment export activities of this sector.

Modernization, Technological & Quality Up-gradation

A greater degree of awareness to produce goods & services confirming national &
international standards would be created among the small scale sector.
Industry association would be encouraged and supported to establish quality counselling &
common testing facilities. Technology information centre to provide upgrade acknowledge
on technology & markets would be established.
Where non-conformity with quality and standards involves risk to human life and public
health, compulsory quality control would be enforced.
A reoriented programme of modernisation and technological up-gradation aim improving
productivity efficiency and cost effectiveness in the small scale sector would be pursued.
Specific industries in large concentrations or clusters would be identified for studies in
conjunctions with SIDBI and other banks. Such studies will establish commercial viability of
modernisation prescription, and financial support would be provided for modernisation of
these industries on a priority basis.
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) and selected regional other engineering colleges will
serve as technological information design and development centre in their respective
command areas.


Promotion of Entrepreneurship

Government will continue to support 1st generation entrepreneurs through training and will
support their efforts. Large number of EDP trainers and motivators will be trained
significantly expand the entrepreneurship development programmes. Industry association
would also be encourage participating in this venture effectively. EDP would be built into

curricula of vocational and other degree level courses. Women entrepreneurs will receive
support through special training program. Definition of women enterprises would be
simplified. The present stipulation regarding employment of majority of women workers
would be dispensed with the units in which women entrepreneur have a majority
sha eholdi g a d

a age e t o t ol ould e defi ed as Wo e E te p ises .


Business Structure

Production: Production involves all the making processes of the silver products & also
includes individual costs of each process as every process is done at a different place and
also done by different KARIGAR .

Marketing: A tisa s i

illage o k at ho e o l as the do t ha e shops the get o de s

from big dealers who further takes the products to bigger market.

Finance: Artisans require minimum of 1000 to 1500 rupees to start up at a small scale
level. In this artisans can start the business by jus purchasing tools to work and further
because they get raw materials are provided by the big business owners who give them
bulk orders. Some obtain raw materials on credit and start up.

Employment & Labour: This industry requires hard labour in which artisans mostly involves
their families too. Almost all the families of the village are involved in the same craft. Two
artisans make ornaments weighing 25 to 30 tolas a day. All artisans work on per day basis,
per basis & sometimes when it is a case of beads they charge according to pieces.

Co-operative societies: the e e e t o

etal o ke s so ieties o ga ised at Kolhapu &

Hupari in 1956. The society at Hupari was organized by and silver workers. This society had
98 members, Rs. 3500 as share capital at the end of June 1956.

is possible.


Business Structure

Distribution network: The distribution network works in the following manner:

Jewellery wholesalers, individual firms sends silver to the Hupari




Processing on silver and final product ready for delivery.


Final product received by Jewellery wholesalers/ individual firms.

Promotion: Currently very less or no promotions are done but Hupari craft require
promotion to start exporting, compete with upcoming centres and to bring much of
awareness regarding the craft in international markets.

Scope of Export: Silverware (Silver Utensils) is in great demands at USA and in European
markets. Silverware is very famous from Denmark but products made in Hupari can also be
exported in those countries. Moreover the labour charges of Hupari will definitely be less
than that of Denmark so there is a wider cost advantage. Promotion of craft can help
majorly & Hupari also need to identify channel and partner through which export is


The viability of the silver craft

The silver ornaments manufacturing industry in Hupari town, in Maharashtras Kolhapur
district, is disappearing owing to the lack of government support. Manufacturers have
written to the state government for financial assistance and they await the same,
according to manufacturers and traders. Some organization have sent their proposal to
the state government and they are waiting for the approval and the funds to build a
training centre; a raw material depot; testing and designing centers in the town.

The manufacturers take raw material from the traders and make silver jewellery. They
sell this silver ornaments across the country. But there are not many opportunities for
direct sales to various parts of the country
There is no automation in technology and the manufacturing is all done by hand. There is
no raw material depot and the manufacturers have to depend on traders for the raw
material. There is no quality testing centre; and no design centre .There should be a
training facility for manufacturers to help them grow in this business.

Around Eighty percent of the families in Hupari are engaged in manufacture of Silver
ornaments like bangles, various types of bracelets, rings, strings of beads, neckwear,
Silver buttons, etc. The industry requires hard labor. The work also requires some skill
and an artistic mind. This industry also forms a major economic source of the village.

During the production of silver ornaments, many chemical processes are involved. Liquid
waste of these chemical processes is directly released in the gutters may cause damage
to the water pipe line. Therefore, an attention be given to the release of waste.
And a study is needed to understand damage caused to the pipe lines as well as water
pollution needs to be checked.



The design processes on which these artisans work are also old and conventional.
Known for being simplistic and traditional, these are not in line with the current trends of
the market. There is lack of new ideas and innovations to attract and capture new market
niches; they are still stuck up with those same old monotonous designs like Gajeshree

etc which is unable to beckon much of the metro crowds. The customers in metro cities
and also abroad expect more trendy designs and thus the artesian need to update their
design process. However, there may be a decline of production and sale of the traditional
Hupari payal that is considered as craft, due to modern demand. We need to keep our
attention on the traditional design values and make sure that the design remains
sustainable. The designs that were being manufactured in Hupari were of typical
Kolhapur and Maharashtra style. These restrict the access to more markets where these
are considering outdated and old fashioned. After the market survey, it was observed
that there is wide gap between what is manufactured in Hupari and what is in demand by
the consumers. The traditional payal that is manufactured in Hupari is also very heavy
and not in great demands. Customer prefers payals which are less than 50g and expect
more artistic and delicate designs.

Through the art has been the life support system for so many people in Hupari and its vicinity
yet they have to undergo a lot of hardships to earn their livelihood. There are several problems
which have been the hitch in the progress of these people. But still they are left with no means
to get rid of these problems. Some of them are mentioned as follows.
There is lack of any aid or assistance.
At times when the rate of silver goes high their trade and business are affected as they have
no other source of livelihood, so they have to sit idle without work. Though there is no problem
in availability of scrap still the dealers are increasing the rates of scrap so as to increase their
profit range which again adversely affects the poor artisans.
The working of the artisans in poor condition for long has resulted in them developing certain
health problems like poor eye-sight , backache , headache , hernia , tv etc. due to poor health

conditions the artisans are unable to be regular at work which again affects the daily output of
the business. The working conditions are not all proper according to the rights and the workers
and artisans face many problems like poor lighting , poor ventilation , unhygienic place , sound
pollution, lack of new instruments , the age old use of same instruments over and over again.



Traditional methods of production are still being used for production of vessels and the
artisans are largely unaware of the avenues open to them. The traditional methods
needs to encourage and preserve but at the same time the artisans should keep
themselves updated with the latest technology to be able to survive in this competitive

Some are born with skill but some needs a special skill set and it comes through rigorous
training. The labors also needs to be trained so that they are able to take massive order
as sometimes it is beyond their capacity to deliver client orders hence result in decline in

As the manpower in the village is a constraint, they are already overloaded with work and
have no scope to take on large orders. Sometimes, they even have to turn down orders
as they do not have the capacity to fulfil them.



In our visit to the village there were a certain draw back and issues which need to be
keep in mind and act towards the development of the Hupari silver craft:

1. Restriction to their own community member for work

The Hupari Chandi Kharkhana (Udhyojak) association has a policy of not allowing
people of different community to enter in their silver business. They only people known
to them and of the same community to work with them and also give them credit and
silver to work.

This has the following impact on the business:Growth of manpower for the manpower for the business is limited.
Also limiting themselves to the present skills and speed of the workers.
Avoiding help from other communities.
Setting an easy example for the newer generation to just come and join the business
without even giving their 100% to the business.
Limiting their knowledge of crafts and design.

2. Lack of proper assembly line system of production

Though around 70% of the population in the village is involved in the silver business
and almost every second house is doing the silver business but we did not see even a
single house or workplace where we could find proper assembly line system of
The impacts are as followsUnable to get the maximum production which they are capable of getting from the
existing manpower and machines.
Involving workers in too many activities renders them from getting specialization in
one particular activity.


3. Proper safety measures not taken

In almost every workplace we visited we did not find proper safety measures taken by the
There was no proper spacing between the machines.
Gloves were not worn by the workers when they were working with acids , LPG
Face mask was not worn in the process of soldering.

Proper safety measures were not taken near the blast furnace.
These had the following impacts:
New workers avoid getting into such risky jobs.
There are more chances of injuries and mishaps.
Workers need rest at regular intervals.
4. Research and Development
The research and development process of Hupari silver is not up to mark as told by
the different retailers in the city. The designs and methods are not up to the mark.

5. Collaboration
For their technological up gradation they are not joining hands with any of the modern
industry. ACPL in Delhi is one of the best companies in India, having the best
machineries. The machine which the Hupari association is eyeing from Italy is
present with the company.

6. Market Exploration
They are not exploring the markets for their product and still are sticking to their
buyers. They should go and explore Gujarat as it is considered to be one of the best
destinations for Payal.

7. Design up gradation
They should update their design to fit with the modern demands. At the same time,
they should come up with innovative ideas in such a way that they fuse the modern
design and the traditional designs.


Suggested solution
The artisans and workers of Hupari must be given credit for the way they are
keeping this craft alive even after facing many problems. Their must be
arrangements for some training programmers and workshops where these Hupari
craftsmen can improve upon their skills and designs. Training institutes where the
beginners could be trained towards a better production and craftsmanship of silver
jewellery. This will give them a lot of encouragement.
Like the gold council which promotes the gold jewelers from all parts of the world, a
silver council should be established so that silver jewellery also carves out a good
market. This will in turn make things better for the silver jewellery craftsmen in
Hupari and all over the India. Small programmers and workshops can be organized
in these institutes where these craftsmen and students can mingle with each other.
The designers or the students can give them the designs and the craftsmen.
Exposure to media is required , through which they can be inspired to make new

designs. Media can make them know about fashion and style and the ancient
demands in the market. The craftsmen are very skilled and can produce almost
anything. Its the lack of money and time which keeps them away from


Eventually as one reaches the end of this venture one realizes its the beginning
not the end. After a detailed study of the people of Hupari its evident that this craft
has mingled into their blood. They feel its a part of their family tradition which
must be inherited by their future generations. Even after the various hardships
they encounter due to lack of funds and aids, old machinery and techniques,
insufficient awareness about the latest technologies their enthusiasm never

seems to wane away. It is really hard to believe when one sees their complete
dedication towards the work. Their exquisite skill which has even enhanced over
the years has equipped them to create masterpieces in silver jewellery. Anklets
have become their speciality and is almost equivalent to an emblem of Hupari
jewellery. The local people are very amiable , caring and brimming with hospitality.
Yet there are and devotion is not given its due recognition. The dealers and
shopkeepers buy this unparalleled piece of art at very minimal rates leaving very
small range of profit for the artisans
and workers. Basically needs more of encouragement and aid from external
sources. Given the proper training and expertise help this craft can actually
become a national asset. Another problem coming their way is the repetitive use
of same old motifs which is gradually losing its market in urban areas. There
needs to be some compensation in the design to attract the youth.




The process and setup of melting silver and forming lag gad and patla


The oven




A brick of pure silver






small square chips used to join silver pieces in paijhan


The stencil used to cut design


The famous Orissa jewellery


Anklet with ghunghroos


A silver waist belt like jewellery piece


Red powder used to put bindi or tilak


An impure silver rod

A vessel


The enamel work


A tool used in atni


An impure silver bar


Sheets of silver


Strips of silver


A type of anklet


Small silver ball




silver wire
A grey white powder used in atni


Research method C.R Kothari
craft and cluster development, hupari silver crafts , by : MFM students of Nift Mumbai,
batch 2008.
Cluster report on silver of hupari, by : MFM students of Nift Mumbai, batch 2008.
Craft and cluster development, by : MFM students of Nift Mumbai, batch 2008.
Cluster development report on hupari silver works on white metal and oxidized jewellery,
by : MFM students of Nift, batch 2008.
Kolhapur a study of the arts and crafts by : Nift FD students , from Nift RC.
Hand made of India by: M.P Ranjan, from Nift RC.
Arts and crafts of India
By : Barry Cooper, Ilay Gillow, John Dawson PUBLISHER :Thames and Hudson (New York)
The Golden Book of Indian Crafts and Lore
By W. Ben Hunt Publisher: Simon and Schuster;
The Complete How-To Book of Indian craft:
By W. Ben Hunt Publisher: Wiley