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MATHEMATICS 332: ALGEBRA ASSIGNMENT 5 SOLUTION

1. (Gallian 11.9 ) Suppose that G is an abelian group of order 120 and that G
has exactly three elements of order 2. Determine the isomorphism class of G.
Since 120 = 23 3 5, we have G G2 C3 C5 where G2 is abelian of order 8
and C3 is cyclic of order 3 and C5 is cyclic of order 5. The isomorphism class is
determined by which of the following conditions holds:
G2 C8 ,

G2 C4 C2 ,

G2 C2 C2 C2 .

But C8 has a unique element of order 2 (because it has a unique subgroup of order 2),
and C2 C2 C2 has seven elements of order 2, so by elimination the answer must
be that G2 C4 C2 . And indeed C4 C2 has three elements of order 2, they being
(a2 , 1), (1, b), and (a2 , b) where a generates the copy of C4 in the first coordinate
and b generates the copy of C2 in the second. In sum,
G C4 C2 C3 C5 ,
and (although the exercise didnt ask) the elementary divisors of G are 2 and 60.
2. (Gallian 11.10 ) Find all abelian groups of order 360.
Since 360 = 23 32 5, such a group takes the form G G2 G3 C5 where G2
is as in the previous exercise and the possibilities for G3 are
G3 C9 ,

G9 C3 C3 .

Thus there are six possibilities altogether.


3. (Gallian 11.19 ) The set
{1, 9, 16, 22, 29, 53, 74, 79, 81}
is a subgroup of (Z/91Z) . Determine its ismorphism class.
Since the group has order 9, the isomorphism class is either C9 or C3 C3 .
Working modulo 91, compute that
92 = 81,

9 81 = 9 (10) = 90 = 1.

Similarly,
162 = 74,

16 74 = 16 (17) = 74 16 = 90 = 1.

So also 916 = 63 must have order 3, showing that G has too many order-3 elements
to be C9 . Thus G C3 C3 .
4. (Gallian 11.21 ) Characterize those positive integers n such that the only
abelian groups of order n are cyclic.
The relevant integers are the squarefree integers; that is, n must be a product of
distinct primes. For such n, any abelian group of that order is Cn by the structure
theorem and the Sun-Ze theorem. On the other hand, if any prime power pe
where e > 1 divides n then the p-power part of an abelian group of order n need
not be cyclic, much less the entire group.
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MATHEMATICS 332: ALGEBRA ASSIGNMENT 5 SOLUTION

5. (Gallian 24.11 ) Suppose that G is a group of order 168. If G has more than
one 7-Sylow subgroup then how many 7-Sylow subgroups does it have?
Since 168 = 23 3 7, the number 1 + 7k of 7-Sylow subgroups satisfies 1 + 7k | 24.
The possibilities are thus 1 and 8. Since the problem excludes 1, the number of
7-Sylow subgroups of G is 8.
6. (Gallian 24.14 ) Let G be a noncyclic group of order 21. How many 3-Sylow
subgroups does G have?
The number of 3-Sylow subgroups is 1 + 3k and divides 7, so it is 1 or 7. But
there is one 7-Sylow subgroup, which is normal, and if also there is one 3-Sylow
subgroup then G is the direct product of the two, making it abelian. Thus the
number of 3-Sylow subgroups of G is 7.
7. (Gallian 24.18 ) Prove that a group of order 175 is abelian.
Since 175 = 52 7, the number of 5-Sylow subgroups is 1 + 5k and divides 7,
and so it is 1. So there is only one 5-Sylow subgroup, and it is normal, and having
prime-squared order, it is abelian. The number of 7-Sylow subgroups is 1 + 7k and
divides 25, and so it is 1. Thus there is one 7-Sylow subgroup, which is cyclic and
hence abelian. The group is easily seen to be the direct product of its 5-Sylow
subgroup and its 7-Sylow subgroup, hence abelian.
8. (Gallian 24.24 ) Prove that a group of order 105 contains a subgroup of order 35.
Since 105 = 3 5 7, the number 1 + 7k of 7-Sylow subgroups is 1 or 15.
If there are 15 such subgroups then we get 15 6 = 90 elements of order 7. This
makes it impossible for the number 1 + 5k of 5-Sylow subgroups to be 6 or more,
since that would require at least 6 4 = 24 elements of order 5, making the group
too big. Thus there is a unique subgroup G5 of order 5, and it is normal. For any
7-Sylow subgroup G7 we thus have that G5 G7 is a subgroup of order 35: it is a
subgroup because G7 normalizes G5 , and its order is 35 because G5 G7 = 1. (In
general, the intersection of a p-Sylow subgroup and a q-Sylow subgroup for p 6= q
must be trivial.)
On the other hand, if there a unique subgroup G7 of order 7, then it is normal.
For any 5-Sylow subgroup G5 we thus have that G5 G7 is a subgroup of order 35
for the same reasons as in the previous paragraph but with the roles of 5 and 7
exchanged.
9. (Gallian 24.26) Let G be a group of order 60. Show that G has exactly four
elements of order 5 or exactly 24 elements of order 5. Which of these cases holds
for A5 ?
Since 60 = 22 3 5, G has 5-Sylow subgroups, all cyclic of order 5. The number
of such subgroups is 1 + 5k and divides 12, so it is 1 or 6. The number of order-5
elements is four times the number of 5-Sylow subgroups, four or 24.
The order 5 elements of A5 are the 5-cycles. Elementary counting shows that in
general the symmetric group Sn contains n!/n = (n 1)! n-cycles. In particular,
the number of 5-cycles in S5 (and hence in A5 since 5-cycles are even) is 4! = 24.
10. (Gallian 24.38 ) Let G be a group of order p2 q 2 where p and q are distinct
primes such that p - q 2 1 and q - p2 1. Prove that G is abelian.

MATHEMATICS 332: ALGEBRA ASSIGNMENT 5 SOLUTION

The number n of p-Sylow subgroups of G equals 1 mod p and is a divisor of q 2 ,


n = 1 mod p,

n {1, q, q 2 }.

However, the condition p - q 2 1 is q 2 6= 1 mod p, implying (but not implied by)


q 6= 1 mod p as well. Thus there is only one p-Sylow subgroup Gp , which is normal
in G. And Gp is abelian since every group of prime-squared order is abelian.
By the same reasoning, there is only one q-Sylow subgroup Gq , which is normal
in G and is an abelian group. Since gcd(p2 , q 2 ) = 1 we have Gp Gq = 1. And
Gp Gq = G since |Gp Gq | = |Gp | |Gq | = p2 q 2 = |G|. Thus G is the direct product of
the abelian groups Gp and Gq , making G abelian.