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EXPERIMENT NO 1
DETERMINATION OF FRICTION FACTOR FOR A GIVEN PIPE LINE
AIM :
To determine the Darcys friction factor for a given pipe.
APPARTUS :
Experimental set up with two different pipe diameter (20mm & 15mm)
U-tube differential manometer
stop clock
INTRODUCTION:
When the water is flowing in the pipe it experiences some resistance to its motion,
whose effect is to reduce the velocity and ultimately the head of water available.
Though there are many types of losses, yet the major loss is due to frictional
resistance of the pipe only. The major losses are neglected.
SPECIFICATIONS:
Diameter of the pipes = 20mm & 15mm
Length of the pipe = 2000mm
Cross sectional area of collecting tank (A)

= 500X500mm2
= 0.25m2

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. The following procedure is to be adopted for conducting this experiment.
2. Connect the manometer to the taps of the pipe.
3. Adjust the value and keep the flow rate minimum.
4. After the steady state is attained, note down the manometer readings and flow
rate.
5. Repeat the experiment for different flow rates ranging from minimum to
maximum.
6. Repeat the Experiment is the same way as mentioned above by connecting the
manometer across the different pipe diameters provided.
GRAPHS:
The following graphs are to be plotted in order to represent the results obtained from
the experiment.
1. Re Vs f
1
tVs
t
2. Re
RESULTS:
1. Friction factor for the 20mm diameter pipe is _____________
2. Friction factor for the 15mm diameter pipe is _____________

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OBSERVATION TABLE
S.NO.

MANOMETRIC READING
LHS(cm)
RHS(cm)
X=LHS-RHS
(cm of hg)

VOLUMETRIC READING
Rise in head
Time taken for rise
(cm)
(sec)

1
2
3

CALCULATION TABLE
S.NO.

Head loss
(hf)

Discharge(Q)

v=

Q
m/s
a

v2

Friction
factor
(f)

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CALCULATIONS:
flv 2
2 gd
2 gd hf

hf=
h=

lv 2
where ,
h f =head loss due tofriction
f =friction factor
l=two pressure points onthe length of the pipe=2 m
v =velocity of flow throughthe pipe
d=diameter of the pipe
Density of mercury( manometric fluid ) ( m )=13,600 Kg/m 3
Density of water ( w )=1000 Kg/m3
acceleration due gravity ( g )=9.81 m/s 2
( m w )
Head difference h f =X 102
w
2
X 10 12.6 m of water
Q
v = m/s
a
where ,
AR
Q=
t
R=rise headcm
t=timetaken for risehead cm
2
Cross sectional area of collecting tank( A)=500 500 mm
d 21
Cross sectional area of the pipe(a1 )=
4
2
d
Cross sectional area of the pipe(a2 )= 2
4

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EXPERIMENT NO 2
CALIBRATION OF VENTURI METER
AIM:
To calibrate a given Venturimeter by determining the co-efficient of discharge.
APPARATUS:
Experimental setup which consists of U-tube differential manometer, collecting
tank, stop watch.
SPECIFICATIONS:
Diameter at inlet ( d i)=25 mm
Diameter of the venturimeter (d t )=15 mm
Cross sectional area of collecting tank( A)=500 500 mm2
THEORY:
Venturimeter is an apparatus for finding out the discharge of a liquid following in a
pipe.
A venturimeter in its simplest form consists of the following three parts.
1) Convergent cone
2) Throat
3) Divergent cone
Venturimeter is a discharge measuring device used in circular pipes. Venturimeter
occupies considerable space and expensive when compared to other conventional
flow meters like orificemeter or flow-nozzle. However, it has an advantage of
causing lesser loss of energy as it is designed to prevent boundary layer separation
and original pressure is largely recovered.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1) Connect the U-tube manometer to the taping provided.
2) Regulate the inlet value to allow a steady how through venturimeter.
3) After steady state is reached note down the manometer readings.
4) Collect the certain volume of water in the collecting tank in timet sec.
5) Repeat the above steps for other rate of flow and take seven to eight sets of
readings.

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GRAPHS:
1) Plot the graph between or and H on an ordinary graph sheet. It will be a
straight line passing through the origin.
Re
2) Plot a graph between C and log10 on a semi logarithmic graph sheet.
d

RESULT:
The average Co-efficient of discharge (Cd ) of the given venturimeter is
___________

OBSERVATION TABLE
S.NO.
1
2
3
4

Manometric reading in cm of Hg
LHS(cm)
RHS(cm)
X=LHS-RHS
(cm of hg)
22.8
17
5.8
25.7
14.3
11.4
26
14.2
11.8
25.9
14.1
11.8

Volumetric reading
Rise in head
Time taken for rise
(cm)
(sec)
5
20
5
14
5
14
5
24

CALCULATION TABLE
Sl.No.

X=LHS-RHS
(cm of hg)

1
2
3
4

5.8
11.4
11.8
11.8

H=
0.7308
1.4364
1.4868
1.4868

12.6 X
100

Theoretical
discharge
6.69 x 10-4
9.3793 x 10-4
9.5424 x 10-4
9.5424 x 10-4

Actual
discharge
6.25 x 10-4
8.928 x 10-4
8.928 x 10-4
8.928 x 10-4

Coefficient of
discharge
Cd=Qa/Qthe
0.9342
0.9518
0.9356
0.9356

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CALCULATIONS:
Diameter at inlet ( d i)=25 mm
Diameter at throat (d t )=15 mm
Cross sectional area of the pipe(ai )=

d 2i
4

25 25
=4.9087 104 m2
4

Cross sectional area of the pipe(at )=

dt
4

15 15
=1.7671 104 m2
4
Density of mercury( manometric fluid ) ( m )=13,600 Kg/m 3
Density of water ( w )=1000 Kg/m3

Manometric deflection X = LHS RHS = 5.8 Cm of Hg


( m w )
Head difference H= X 102
w
-2
= 5.8 x 10 x 12.6 = 0.7308 m of H2O
V
Qact =
t
Cross sectional area of collecting tank( A)=500 500 mm2
V =volume of water = ARm 3
R=rise headcm
t=timetaken for risehead cm
Qact =
Qthe=

AR 0.25 5
=
=6.25 104 m3 / sec
t
20
ai at 2 g H

a a
2
i

2
t
2

acceleration due gravity ( g )=9.81 m/s


4
4
4.9087 10 1.7671 10 2 9.81 0.7308
Qthe=
2
2
( 4.9087 104 ) ( 1.7671104 )
= 6.69 x 10-4 m3/sec

coefficient of discharge=
4

C d=

6.25 10
=0.9342
4
6.69 10

Qact
Q the

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Graph between Qact and

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EXPERIMENT NO 3
CALIBRATION OF ORIFICEMETER
AIM:
To calibrate the given orifice meter by determining the Co-efficient of discharge.
APPARATUS:
Experimental setup which consists of U-tube differential manometer, collecting tank
and stop watch.
SPECIFICATION:
An orifice meter in if simple form consists of a plate having a sharp circle hole. This
plate is fixed a pipeline with flanges for measuring the discharge of following liquid.
Diameter of the pipe at inlet section or main pipe diameter (di) =40mm.
Diameter of the orifice meter (do) =24mm.
C/S Area of collecting tank (A) = 500X500 mm2.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the U-tube manometer to the given diameter pipe.
2. Regulate the inlet value to allow a study flow through orifice meter.
3. After steady state is reached note down the monometer readings.
4. Collect the certain volume of water in the collecting tank in time t sec.
5. Repeat the above steps seven to eight sets & readings.
GRAPHS:

H on an ordinary grap sheet taking Q on X1. Plot a graph between Q and


axis and H on y-axis. It will be a straight line passing through the origin.
Re
2. Plot a graph between & and log10 on a semi logarithmic graph sheet.

RESULT:
The average Co-efficient of discharge (&) of the given orifice meter
is____________

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OBSERVATION TABLE
S.NO.

MANOMETRIC READING
LHS(cm)
RHS(cm)
X=LHS-RHS
(cm of hg)

VOLUMETRIC READING
Rise in head
Time taken for rise
(cm)
(sec)

1
2
3

CALCULATION TABLE
S.NO.

X=LHS-RHS
(cm of hg)

H
cm of H 2 O

Theoritical
discharge

Actual
discharge

Coefficient of
discharge

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CALCULATIONS:
V
Qact =
t
Cross sectional area of collecting tank( A)=500 500 mm2
3
V =volume of water = ARm
R=rise headcm
t=timetaken for risehead cm
a a 2 gH
Qthe= i o 2 2
ai ao
Diameter at inlet ( d i)=25 mm
Diameter at throat (d o )=15 mm
d 2i
Cross sectional area of the pipe(ai )=
4
2
do
Cross sectional area of the pipe(ao )=
4
acceleration due gravity ( g )=9.81 m/s 2
3
Density of mercury( manometric fluid ) ( m )=13,600 Kg/m
Density of water ( w )=1000 Kg/m3
manometric deflection X =LHSRHS=Cm of Hg
( m w )
Head difference H= X 102
w
2
X 10 12.6 m of wat er
Q
coefficient of discharge= act
Q the

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EXPERIMENT NO 4
IMPACT OF JETS ON VANES
AIM:
To determine the efficiency of the jet on vane.
APPARATUS:
Experimental setup collecting tank and stop clock
DESCRIPTION:
The apparatus consists of a water jet is swing from a nozzle which is connected to a
high head pump main (or) a overhead tank. All the pressure head of the water is
converted into velocity head by the nozzle. Which discharges the water in the
atmosphere. The jet when strikes the vane a portion of the velocity energy is
transmitted to the vanes as lifting force. The percentage of the velocity energy thus
transmitted depends upon the shape of the vane. The lifting force can be measured
with the help of spring balance arrangement.
Theory: let H be the head of the water in meter before the nozzle is shown by the
pressure guage.
V2
Assuming C d=1 the velocity head H=
2g
Q
V = 2 gH =
a
where ,
AR
Q=
t
Q=discharge m3 /s
A=Cross sectional areaof collecting tank
2
2
500 500 mm =0.25 m
R=rise headcm
t=timetaken for risehead cm
d=diameter of jet
diameter of the nozzle=10 mm

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a=area of the jet=


The lifting force=change of momentum per secvertical direction
= 2(1+) =(1+)
Case(i) For rectangular flat plate= 900
Theoretical lifting force f t=a 2 vQ
Case(ii) For curved Vane=180angleof deflecting .
Theoretical lifting force F t=a 2 (1+cos)
vQ(1+ cos)

Case(iii) For semi vane=


00
F t=2 a 2 2 vQ

Actual lifting force Ft is measured on spring balance.


The of the jet provided (or) Coefficient of the impact of jet on the vanes is given
by
=

F act
F the

PROCEDURE:
1. Fix the nozzle and
2. Check the power alignment of free column with a weighing scale.
3. Open the water inlet value to the nozzle.
4. Collect the water in the collecting tank by closing the drain value note down the
time for 10cm rise of water in the collecting tank.
5. Measure the force of spring balance.
6. Repeat the same for various discharges.
GRAPHS:
1. Q Vs efficiency
2. Q Vs FA
RESULT :
The Coefficient of impact of the jet on the vanes

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EXPERIMENT NO 5
PERFORMANCE TEST ON A SINGLE STAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
AIM:
1. To obtain the performance characteristics curves of a given single stage centrifugal
pump running at constant speed.
2. To determine the specific speed, speed design need and design discharge of a given
single stage centrifugal pump.
APPARATUS:
Experimental setup collecting tank and stop clock.
SPECIFICATIONS:
C/S Area of the collecting tank (A) =700 X700mm2
Level difference between vacuum gauge and delivery
______________mm.
Energy meter constant () =100 revolutions per one kwh
Efficiency of the motor (m)=75%
Speed of the pump (N) =1400rpm.

gauge

(Z)=

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. First close the delivery value and prime the centrifugal pump with the fluid,
which is to be delivered.
2. Start the electric motor to run the pump to its full speed.
3. Wait for few minutes until the required speed is attained and measures the speed
with a tachometer.
4. Note the readings of the delivery gauge (P d) suction (vacuum gauge) (Ps) and
time for 10 reductions (t) in the energy meter by means of stopwatch under zero
discharge of fluid.
5. Now open the delivery value slowly and note down the readings Pd, Ps and t.
6. Repeat the above step 5 for various setups of the delivery value.
i.e for various discharges of the fluid(from minimum to maximum).

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PRECAUTIONS:
1. Before starting the electric motor make sure that priming of the CP is done
properly.
2. During priming before starting of pump and upto the time the pump attains its
full speed the delivery value should be kept closed.
NOTE:
Priming is the operation in which, suction pipe, casing, the portion of the delivery
pipe upto the delivery value are completely filled with the liquid which is to be
pumped, So that all the air (or gas or vapor) from this portion of the pump is out and
no air pocket is left.

GRAPHS:
Draw a graph taking Q m3/sec along x axis and H, 0, Pi along Y-axis. The resulting
curves are known as performance Curves OR characteristic curves for the given
single stage centrifugal pump.
RESULTS:
From the above result the specific speed of the given single stage centrifugal pump
is ________

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EXPERIMENT NO 6
MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
AIM:
1) To study the performance characteristics of multistage centrifugal pump at
Constant speed.
2) To determine the specific speed, design head and design discharge.
APPARATUS:
Experimental setup collecting tank and stop clock.
DESCRITION:
A Centrifugal pump consists of an impeller rotating inside a casing. The impeller
has a number of curved vanes. Due to the Centrifugal head impressed by the rotation
of impeller the water enters at the center and flow outwards to the periphery. There
it is collected in a gradually increasing passage in the casing known as inviolate
chamber that serves to convert a part of the velocity head into pressure head for
higher heads multistage centrifugal pumps having two or more impeller in series
will have to be used.
An energy meter is provided to measure the input the motor and a collecting tank to
measure the discharge. A pressure gauge and a vacuum gauge are fitted in the
delivery and section sides to measure the head.
THEORY:
Discharge Qa =AR/t
Where A=area of collecting tank in m2.
R=Rise of water level in m
T=time taken for rise R
Total head H=G+V+X

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Where G= Guage pressure head in mts of water.


U=Vacuum pressure head in mts of water.
X=difference in between vacuum gauge & pressure gauge.
Output of the pump, P0 =Pressure X Discharge
=
3600
10
) X ( ) X m
1
Input of the pump = Pi =(
Where E=energy meter Constant.
T=Time for 10 revolutions.
Theoretical power required Output power (P0 )
Efficiency of the pump ()
= Actual power required = Actual power (Pi )

SPECIFIC SPEED:
It is defined as the speed in revolutions per minute of a pump to deliver 1 Liter of
Q / H 3/ 4 N P / H 5 / 4
liquid per second against a head of 1m Ns =N
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1) First close the delivery value and prime the centrifugal pump with the fluid,
which is to be delivered.
2) Start the electric motor to run the pump to its full speed.
3) Wait for few minutes until the required speed is attained and measures the speed
with a tachometer.
4) Note the readings of the delivery gauge (P d) suction (vacuum gauge) (Ps) and
time for 10 reductions (t) in the energy meter by means of stopwatch under
zero discharge of fluid.
5) Now open the delivery value slowly and note down the readings Pd, Ps and t.
6) Repeat the above step 5 for various setups of the delivery value.
i.e for various discharges of the fluid(from minimum to maximum).
PRECAUTIONS:
1) Time for 10 revolutions in energy meter by means of stop watch (t).
2) The time for 10cm rise in collecting tank by means of stop watch (t).
3) The difference of level between the pressure and vacuum gauge.
4) Take at least 6 sets of readings varying the head from maximum at shut off to
minimum where gate value is fully open. Throttling the delivery value can do
this.
GRAPHS:

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Draw a graph taking m3/sec along X axis and H,,Pi along Y-axis. The resulting
curves are Known as, performance curves or characteristic curves for the given &
multistage centrifugal pump.
RESULTS:
Draw a vertical line through the point of maximum efficiency in the graph.
From this is has found that design head (H) 47.06 m of H 2O and design discharge
() 3.05X10-3 m3/sec. For the given multistage centrifugal pump.
At this point it was also found that the power required to operate the pump is (P i) 1.6
few from the above result the specific speed of the given multistage centrifugal
pump is
Q / H 3/ 4 4 rpm based on unit discharge.
Ns= N
5/ 4
=N P / H =454 rpm based on Unit power.

EXPERIMENT NO7
PERFORMANCE TEST ON RECIPROCATING PUMP
AIM:
To determine the slip and Efficiency of a reciprocating pump
DESCRIPTION:
A reciprocating pump is a positive displacement type of pump and consists of a
piston of a plunger working inside in a cylinder the cylinder has got two values. One
allowing water into cylinder from suction pipe and allowing from the cylinder into
the delivering pipe.
SPECIFICATIONS:
Type of double acting single cylinder.
Piston stroke =45mm.
Piston diameter =40mm.
Suction pipe =25mm.
Delivering pipe =19mm.
An energy meter is provided for the determination of input to the motor. The pumps
are left driven by a AC motor. The pump can be run at three different speeds by the

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use of V belt and differential pulley system. The belt can be put in differential
groove of the pulley for different speeds. Quickly by loosening the belt special
arrangements are provided for quick alteration of speed. A set of pressure and
vacuum gauge is provided and the required pipelines are also provided.
THEORY:
Reciprocating pumps are those in which the liquid is sucked and then it is actually
pushed or displaced due to thrust exerted on it by a moving member, which results
in lifting the liquid to the required height. This is the working principle of
reciprocating pumps
coefficient of discharge: The actual discharge (act) of reciprocating pump is always
slightly different from the theoretical discharge (th) due to leakage and imperfect
operation of the value. The ratio b/n the actual discharge and theoretical discharge is
defined as the coefficient of discharge (Cd) of the pump.
2D 2 LN 3
m / sec
th= 4 X 60
Where D=diameter of the piston in m
L=length of the cylinder in m
N=No. of revolution per min.
The actual discharge can be calculated by collecting water in the collecting tank
over a period of time.
AR
Qact= T where R=Rise of column=10cm.
A= Area of collecting tank (50cm X 50cm)
T=Time for 10cm rise
act
Then C = th
d

Slip: The difference between the theoretical discharge and actual discharge is known
as slip of the pump.
Slip =Qth -Qact
th act
X 100%

th
%Slip=
for good condition.
O/P
X 100
Overall efficiency = I / P
3600 5
X KW
t
Input to the motor =
Where
=energy meter Constant i.e revolution for 1Kwh Time for 10 revolutions = t sec.
Head of the pump =H=G+V.
Where pressure gauge reading =G in meter of water vacuum gauge reading =V in
meters of water.
Output of the pump=P0 =P of QH/1000 kW

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PROCEDURE:
1) Select the required speed.
2) Open the gate value in the delivery pipe fully.
3) Start the motor.
4) Throttle the gate value to get the required head.
5) Take at least 6 sets of readings varying the head from maximum at shut off to
minimum where gate value is fully open. Throttling the delivery value can do
this.
GRAPHS:
1) H Vs Qth
2) H Vs Qact
RESULT:
The efficiency of the reciprocating pump is_________
The slip of the reciprocating pump is ________

EXPERIMENT NO 8
PERFORMANCE TEST ON PELTON WHEEL
AIM:
To determine the characteristic curve of Pelton wheel under constant head and
constant speed.
DESCRIPTION:
Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine, which is used to utilize high heads for
generation of electricity. All the available head is converted into velocity energy by
means of speed and nozzle arrangement. The water curves the nozzle in jet
formation. The jet of water then strides the buckets of the pelton wheel. Runner the
buckets are in the shape of double semi ellipsoidal cups joined at the middle
position. The jet strikes the knife-edge to the buckets with least resistance and shock
then the glides along the path of the cup and the jet is through more than 160 0 and
1700 while passing along the buckets. The velocities force is applied to the cups
which intern are moved and shaft is rotated.
The specific speeds of the pelton wheel changes from 10 to 100 the pelton wheel is
supplied with water under high pressure by a centrifugal pump the water under high
pressure by a centrifugal pump the water is conveyed through venturimeter with
manometers connection is used to determine the discharge of water in the pipes.

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The nozzle opening can be decreased by operating the spear wheel at the entrance
1 2 3 4 5
, , , , ,
side of the turbine. The spear can be positioned in 5 plates 5 5 5 5 5 of nozzle
opening.
The turbine can be loaded by applying loads on the brake drum.
The load at the entrance can be used by the pressure gauge.
The speed of the turbine can be measured with a tachometer.
Technical specifications:
1. Turbine
Rated supply head =50mts.
Discharge =660 lts/min.
Unit speed =1500rpm.
Specific speed =10 to 35.
Runner Outside area = 300mm.
No. Of pelton cups = 20Nos.
Brake drum diameter =300mm.

2. Supply Pump:
Discharge-750lts/min.
Power required 15HP.
Normal speed 2880rpm..
Type-high speed mono block centrifugal.
Flow measuring Unit.
Size of venturimeter-65mm.
Area ratio-0.6mm.
Throat diameter-3.9mm.
Pressure guage-7kg/cm2.
PROCEDURE: (CONSTANT HEAD)
1) Prime the pump with water and start the pump.
2) Gradually open eth delivery value of the pump.
3) Adjust the nozzle at 1/5 of the opening by operating the needle value (special by
the hand wheel)
4) The head should be made constant by operating the delivery value and the head
should be maintained at constant value
5) Observe the speed of the wheel using the tachometer.
6) Observe the readings h1 and h2 Corresponding to the fluid level in the two
manometer limbs which is connected to venturimeter

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7) Adjust the load on the brake drum to vary the speed of the drum and record the
readings from the tachometer weight added and spring balance.
8) Repeat Step 7 for getting at least six sets of reading.
2 3 4
, ,
9) Repeat the experiment for 5 5 5 and full opening.
PROCEDURE (CONSTANT SPEED)
1) Closed the delivery value of the pump.
2) Prime the pump with water and start the motor.
3) radually open the delivery value of the pump and adjust the nozzle at 1/5
opening.
4) Read the pressure gauge and note down the value.
5) Apply load on the brake drum so that the speed shown by the tachometer games
to the rated speed and rate this rated speed. Note down the tension TS1 and T2
indicated by the spring balanced attached to the brake drum.
RESULT:
The Characteristics of a pelton wheel under constant head are ______
The Characteristics of a pelton wheel under constant speed are ______