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IJIRST International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology| Volume 3 | Issue 02 | July 2016

ISSN (online): 2349-6010

A DWT Approach for Detection and


Classification of Transmission Line Faults
Prasad P. Kawale
PG student
Department of Electrical Engineering
SND College of Engg. & RC, Yeola, (M.S.) India

Prof. C. Veeresh
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
SND College of Engg. & RC, Yeola, (M.S.) India

Abstract
The rapid growth of electric power systems has resulted in a large increase of the number of lines in operation and their total
length. These lines are exposed to faults because of many reasons such as a result of lightning, short circuits, faulty equipments,
miss-operation, human errors, overload, and aging etc Due to these faults .long term power outages for customers and may lead
to signicant losses. Therefore fast detection and classification of transmission line faults is important in maintaining a reliable
power system operation and to ensure quality performance of the power system. This paper aims at detecting and classifying the
transmission line faults by using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Artificial neural network (ANN). Various types of
fault conditions such as Single line-to-ground faults (L-G), Line-to-Line faults (L-L) and Double Line-to-ground faults (L-L-G)
are simulated in Power System Computer Added Design (PSCAD) software. An extremely large data set of current and voltage
signals is generated by simulating various types of fault conditions by varying the system parameters. Then an advanced signal
processing tools such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used for calculating detail coefficients energy of the fault signals.
Depending upon the detail coefficients energy the fault will be detected. A properly congured Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
can be utilized for classication of the faults based on the DWT signal.
Keywords: Power System Computer Added Design, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Artificial Neural Network,
Transmission line fault detection, fault type classification
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
I.

INTRODUCTION

Now-a-days for the fault detection, a high frequency components technique is used. This new technique is also known as
transient based techniques. In this technique, it is essential that the fault signal has to be analyzed accurately. Wavelet transform
has been used extensively for signal processing in recent years. It has been found that the wavelet transform is capable of
investigating the transient signals generated in a power system.
Wavelet theory is the mathematics, which deals with building a model for non-stationary signals, using a set of components
that look like small waves, called wavelets. The wavelet transformation is a tool which helps the signal to analyze in time as well
as frequency domain effectively. It uses short windows at high frequencies, long windows at low frequencies.
Wavelet transform has the advantage of fast response and increased accuracy as compared to conventional techniques. Using
multiresolution analysis, a particular band of frequencies present in the signal can be analyzed. The detection of fault is carried
out by the analysis of the wavelets coefficients energy related to currents and voltages. On the other hand, properly congured
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) can be utilized for classication of the faults based on the DWT signal. The neural networks
have the ability to learn, generalize and parallel processing, have made their applications for many systems ideal. The use of
neural network as pattern classifiers is among their most common and powerful applications.
II. DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM
In DWT a time- scale representation of a discrete signal is obtained using digital filtering technique. The desired signal which to
be analyzed is passed through different filters having different cut off frequencies at different scales. In discrete wavelet
transform the scale is changed by up sampling and down sampling. Normally half band high pass and low pass filters are used.
The DWT is computed by successive lowpass and high pass filtering of the discrete time-domain signal as shown in figure1.
This is called the Mallat algorithm or Mallat-tree decomposition. Its significance is in the manner it connects the continuous-time
multiresolution to discrete-time filters. In the figure-1, the signal is denoted by the sequence x[n], where n is an integer. The low
pass filter is denoted by G0 while the high pass filter is denoted by H0. At each level, the high pass filter produces detail
information[n], while the low pass filter associated with scaling function produces approximations, a[n].

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Fig. 1: Wavelet Decomposition up to 7th level containing different frequency bands.

For the system taken here, we used 10kHz as sampling frequencies.


The typical wavelets used to detect power disturbance are mainly Haar, Daubechies, Coiflets, Bi-orthogonal, Morlet and
Symlets. In wavelet analysis, a MOTHER WAVELET is chosen as the prototype for generating other basis window functions.
i.e., all the window functions are obtained by translating and scaling the mother wavelet.
III. METHODOLOGY
In this work of detection and classification of EHV transmission line faults is carried out by using following steps.
A 765kV EHV transmission system between UNNAO - ANPARA shown in Fig.3 is simulated using PSCAD software.
Different types of faults are created at different locations with different inception angle.
Voltage and current signals are captured with 10 KHz sampling frequency.
Construction of modal signal.
Modal signal is decomposed upto 7th level using DWT.
The energy is computed from the detail coefficients of the modal signal which is used for the detection of the faults.
Preparation of data sheet of 7th level energies and importing it to ANN.
Training of ANN and validation of the trained ANN using test patterns to check its correctness and generalization.
Combination of different fault conditions are to be considered and training patterns are required to be generated by
simulating different kinds of faults on the power system.
Classification of faults is done by using ANN.

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Fig. 2: Algorithm for classification of faults.

IV. SIMULATED SYSTEM


Fig-3 shows the 765kv single line diagram of 765kV transmission system between Unnao and Anpara (U.P.). The length of
transmission line is extended upto 430km.

Fig. 3: Single line diagram of 765kV Transmission system between Unnao and Anpara

Fig.-4 shows the same transmission system is simulated in PSCAD software with detailed specification.

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Fig. 4: PSCAD simulated network of 765kV transmission line.

V. FAULT ANALYSIS
In this Paper 765KV network is simulated in PSCAD software with a sampling frequency of 10 KHZ. Different types of fault
LG, LL and LLG are created at different locations on the 430 km long transmission line at an interval of 50 km including the
different inception angle 0, 90, and 180 degrees. So for simplicity 5 different locations are considered here for the analysis of
fault i.e. 50km, 100km, 150km, 200km and 215 km from the sending end. Hence, 5 fault locations, three inception fault angles
and three different types of faults (5*3*3=45) constitute 45 cases. For the analysis of faults the three-phase line currents, the
three-phase sending end and receiving end voltages are recorded from the simulation. The data generated from the simulation is
very large. Therefore to avoid the complexity of handling of such huge data, a modal signal of current and sending end and
receiving end voltages is used.
The three phase voltages and three phase current signals for different fault conditions for different faults are taken into
account. In this paper for the fault classification different conditions are used. Fig. 5 shows the simulation waveforms of line
current (I), sending end voltage (V4) and receiving end voltage (V5) of 765kv transmission line for LG fault at a distance of
215km from the source and at 90 0 instant of blue phase and Fig. 6 shows the modal signal of LG fault. Fig. 7 to 9 shows the
wavelet decomposition for modal current signal, sending end & receiving end modal voltage signal upto 7th level using db4 as
mother wavelet. Similarly fig. 10 to 19 shows for the LL and LLG fault resp.

Fig. 5: Simulation waveforms of V & I of LG Fault at 215km with 90 0 inception angle.

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A DWT Approach for Detection and Classification of Transmission Line Faults


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Fig. 6: Modal signal of LG fault.

Fig.7: Wavelet decomposition for modal current signal (IM) of LG fault.

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Fig. 8: Wavelet decomposition for modal voltage signal of sending end (VS) of LG fault.

Fig. 9: Wavelet decomposition for modal voltage signal of receiving end (VR) of LG fault.

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Fig. 10: Simulation waveforms of V & I of LL Fault.

Fig. 11: Modal signal of LL fault.

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A DWT Approach for Detection and Classification of Transmission Line Faults


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Fig. 12: Wavelet decomposition for modal current signal of LL fault

Fig. 13: Wavelet decomposition for modal voltage signal of sending end (VS) of LL fault.

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Fig. 14: Wavelet decomposition for modal voltage signal of receiving end (VR) of LL fault.

Fig.15: Simulation waveforms of V & I of LLG Fault.

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A DWT Approach for Detection and Classification of Transmission Line Faults


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Fig. 16: Modal signal of LLG fault.

Fig. 17: Wavelet decomposition for modal current signal(IM) of LLG fault.

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A DWT Approach for Detection and Classification of Transmission Line Faults


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Fig. 18: Wavelet decomposition for modal voltage signal of sending end (VS) of LLG fault.

Fig. 19: Wavelet decomposition for modal voltage signal of receiving end (VR) of LLG fault.

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VI. ANN USED AS FAULT CLASSIFIER


Artificial neural networks are composed of simple elements which operate in parallel with interconnection between them. The
weights of connection determine the network function. It is considered as the simplest kind offered forward network. An
Artificial neural network when created, has to be configured which is done using training function. The elements of the network
are adjusted automatically to get a particular target output for specific input. A network can have several layers. Each layer has a
weight matrix, a bias vector and an output vector. Each neuron in one layer has direct connections to the neurons of the
subsequent layer. The second class of feed forward neural network distinguishes itself by the presence of one or more hidden
layers, whose computation nodes are called hidden neurons or hidden units. By increasing the number of layers and neurons the
network is enabled to extract higher order. In this work, Principal component analysis (PCA) network of ANN is used as fault
classifier.
VII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
After training, the artificial neural network based fault classifier is extensively tested using independent data set consisting of
different types of faults, different fault locations with different inception angles. The result of classification for a given system
are as shown in table-1. To inquire into the accuracy of the proposed method in these cases, 100% accurate results are found for
LG, LL and LLG type of faults. Hence principal component analysis, modal based fault classifier classifies the types of faults
with an accuracy of 100% in a very fast and effective manner.
The upper part of Table-1 shows the number of readings taken by ANN for classification of respective fault for 4th processing
element. From the table it is observed that the sum of the readings taken for three faults is 11 which is 25% of total readings
input to ANN i.e. 45 readings and the lower part of table shows the various errors and percentage of fault classification accuracy
for 4th processing element.
Table 1
Output / Desired
LG
LL
LLG

LG
6
0
0

LL
0
2
0

LLG
0
0
3

Performance
MSE
NMSE
MAE
Min Abs Error
Max Abs Error
R
Percent Correct

LG
0.038605979
0.155710783
0.169711048
0.023260345
0.343454236
0.980436039
100

LL
0.006681175
0.044912343
0.055192952
0.00295256
0.241157773
0.97734324
100

LLG
0.152392245
0.768310901
0.322101867
0.010735036
0.621906662
0.663213496
100

VIII. CONCLUSION
The work presented in this paper provides a new technique for EHV transmission line of 765kV and fault classification is done
by using db4 as mother wavelet. Decomposition of modaling end voltage at level 7th differentiate clearly the types of fault by
observing the decomposition waveform diagram. The time required for classification of the faults after constructing modal signal
is less so number of inputs is reduced and it required less memory space because they user of modal signal complexity for taking
adecision for ANN is reduced.
The proposed strategy with the use of DWT-ANN based algorithm is promising and suggests that this approach could lead to
useful application in an actual power system.
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A DWT Approach for Detection and Classification of Transmission Line Faults


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