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14 tayangan40 halamanStrut Effectiveness Factor For Simply Supported RC Deep Beams

Nov 15, 2016

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Strut Effectiveness Factor For Simply Supported RC Deep Beams

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14 tayangan

Strut Effectiveness Factor For Simply Supported RC Deep Beams

© All Rights Reserved

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INTRODUCTION

During their service life, reinforced concrete (RC) structures may

suffer from various deteriorations, such as cracks, concrete spalling,

large deformations, and collapse [Ref 5]. Such deteriorations are

caused by several factors, including aging, corrosion of steel

reinforcement, and environmental effects (earthquakes, impacts,

and blasts).

Under high loading rates the increase in the fracture energy

and peak load are influenced due to the effect of inertia force. The

strength and the elastic modulus of concrete were found to increase

with the increasing the loading rates. Also the yield strength and the

corresponding strain of steel increased with the increasing loading

rates. To get proper design for all loading types, the studying of

concrete behavior under wide range of strain rates (Fig. 1.1) is

required[Ref 22].

Numerous studies have examined the behaviors of RC slender

beams subjected to drop weight impact and different loading rates.

According to the current design codes, such as ACI building code, a

RC deep beam should be analyzed utilizing the strut and tie

model(STM), which takes into consideration the complex stress flow

in D-regions. Based on the best knowledge, studies on the ultimate

strength and behavior of RC deep beams subjected to different

loading rates are scarce. As a result, the necessity to modify

methods for assessing the deep beams ultimate shear strength has

become more significant in current literature topics. Therefore, this

study aims theoretically to examine the ultimate shear capacity of

RC deep beams under dynamic loading conditions, and suggests a

new effectiveness factor which utilizes in the STM for designing of

RC deep beams subjected to different loading rates. This factor

1

shear capacity prediction.

Various factors affect the value of the effectiveness factor, for

instance material properties, beam size, steel reinforcement, and

structure loading. According to MacGregor et al. [Ref 20] the

effectiveness factor v differs from 0.25 to 0.85 based on the

concrete strut in the plastic truss model utilized to estimate the

deep beam capacity.

In the present study, the STM is extended to account for the

ultimate shear strength of RC deep beams under varying loading

rates. The proposed model considers the effect of the combined

tensile strength of longitudinal and transverse reinforcements and

the tensile strength of concrete. A linear failure criterion based on

modified MohrCoulomb theory is adopted. A simple and refined

interaction formula for predicting the ultimate dynamic shear

strength of RC deep beams is derived. To imply and integrate the

dynamic effect, the proposed constitutive relationships of concrete

and reinforcing steel are taken consideration [Ref 16]. The

proposed model considers the interaction between two failure

modes, namely, diagonal splitting and concrete crushing of struts. A

case study is also presented to verify the proposed method for deep

beams subjected to varying loading rates. The analysis results

indicated a good accuracy for prediction of the ultimate shear

strength of RC deep beams under dynamic loading conditions.

1.1. Research significance

2

subjected to dynamic loads in literature. Moreover, the previous

proposed STM approaches for RC deep beams and design equations

used for slender beams, are mostly over or under estimation due to

it is empirical nature. A new strut effectiveness factor for deep

beams under different loading rates is proposed, with a refined STM

which used to assist in the appropriate design of such members.

1.2. Limitations and assumptions of the proposed model

To develop the applicability of the STM concept for RC deep beams

under dynamic loads, the following assumptions and limitations are

made:

a) The proposed model is confined for simply supported RC deep

beams.

b) A uni-axial compressive stress f2 (Fig. 1.1) is applied to the

concrete strut which inclined at an angle q with respect to the

beam axis;

c) The

failure

of

shear tension

caused

by

the

inadequate

d) The proposed model considers the effect of crushing and

diagonal splitting concrete failure.

e) The proposed model implies the dynamic effect by considering

the

constitutive

relationships

of

concrete

and

steel

f) The proposed model implies iterative procedures to calculate

conditions.

CHAPTER 2

DESCRIPTION

A beam is a member for which the span is not less than 3 times the

overall section depth. Otherwise it should be considered as a deep

beam. According to IS 456:2000,

Deep Beam defined as when ratio of effective span to overall depth

is less than

1) 2.0 for simply supported beam

4

The analysis of deep beam is done for positive reinforcement and

negative reinforcement and for distribution of these types of

reinforcement special arrangement is given in IS 456: 2000,

Clause 29.3.1 and 29.3.2 . And also side face reinforcement is

also necessary while designing the deep beam and this should be

given as minimum reinforcement which is required for walls.

Deep beam is a beam having large depth/thickness ratio and

shear span depth ratio less than 2.5for concentrated load and less

than 5.0 for distributed load. Because the geometry of deep beams,

their behavior is different with slender beam or intermediate beam.

RC deep beams, which fail with shear compression, are the

structural members having a shear span (orange line) to effective

depth

ratio,

a/d,

not

exceeding

1.

such as transfer girders, wall footings, foundation pile caps, floor

diaphragms, and shear walls. Particularly, the use of deep beams at

the lower levels in tall buildings for both residential and commercial

purposes has increased rapidly because of their convenience and

economic efficiency.

expresses complex stress patterns as triangulated models. STM is

based on truss analogy and can be applied to many elements of

concrete structures. It is usually adopted to design non-standard

elements or parts of elements of concrete structures such as pile

caps, corbels, deep beams (where depth > span/3), beams with

holes, connections, etc. where normal beam theory does not

necessarily apply.

STM is a powerful engineering tool where the engineer stays in

control. With a reasonable amount of experience, it can help design

engineers

provide

simple

engineering

solutions

to

complex

structural problems.

Possibly due to the lack of previous applicable design standards,

STM was not popular in the UK and its use was generally limited.

However, Eurocode 2 now includes STM, allowing and perhaps

encouraging its more widespread use. Even so, there is little simple

guidance within Eurocode 2 or indeed elsewhere. The intention of

The Concrete Centre publication, Strut-and-Tie Models is therefore to

give guidance and impart understanding of the method.

STM is a lower bound plastic theory which means it is safe providing

that:

Equilibrium is satisfied.

and ties to develop.

which beam theory applies, including linear strains and so on, and

6

discontinuities or disturbances, where beam theory does not apply.

D-regions can be geometric discontinuities, adjacent to holes,

abrupt

changes

in

cross

section,

or

direction,

or

statical

reactions. Corbels, dapped ends, and joints are affected by both

statical and geometric discontinuities. The design process for strutand-tie models can be summarised into four main stages:

1. Define and isolate B- and D- regions (i.e. beam or Bernoulli

and disturbed or discontinuity regions).

2. Develop a STM - a truss system to represent the stress flow

through the D-region and calculate the member forces in the

truss.

3. Design the members of the STM - dimension and design the

truss members to resist the design forces.

4. Iterate to optimise the STM as necessary to minimise strain

energy.

Soil generally fails in shear. At the failure surface, shear stress

reaches the shear strength (tf) of the soil. It the failure surface,

sliding between the particles takes place as shown in Figure 10.1.

The resistance that the soil offers during deformation is mainly due

to the shear resistance between the particles at their contact points

at the failure surface. No crushing of individual particle takes place.

According to Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, the shear strength of

the soil can be expressed as:

where c is the cohesion and is the angle of internal friction of the

soil. is the applied normal stress. The line satisfying the Eq. (2.1) is

called the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelop (as shown in Figure 2.1 with

red color). In Figure 2.2, it is shown that tf is the maximum stress soil

can take without failure under an applied vertical stress (with blue

color). Figure 2.4 shows the Mohr circle of two soil elements one at

the failure surface (red color) and one at any other location (blue

color). The Mohr circle touches the failure envelop incase of soil

element taken from location of failure surface, whereas Mohr circle

of the soil element taken from other than the location of failure

surface is situated below the failure envelop. Keeping 3 constant, if

vertical stress (1) increases the Mohr Circle becomes larger and

finally it will touch the failure envelop and failure will take place (as

shown in Figure 2.4). Figure 2.5 shows the Mohr circle for total

stress and effective stress condition. The Eq. (2.1) represents the

shear strength in terms of total stress (). In terms of effective

stress (' = - u), the shear strength of the soil can be expressed

as:

10

Fig. 2.6 Mohr circles for total stress and effective stress condition

11

CHAPTER 3

STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONSHIPS OF CONCRETE

AND STEEL REINFORCING UNDER DYNAMIC

LOADING

3.1 Material model for concrete

Concrete materials are sensitive to changes in strain rates. Under

dynamic loading rates, both tensile and compressive concrete

strengths significantly increase. In the current study, the strain

effect, which can be accounted by utilizing a Dynamic Increase

Factor (DIF). The DIF values proposed in the literature Fujikake et al.

[Ref 16] are used for both concrete and steel materials. Fig 3.1

shows the constitutive relationships for the stressstrain of concrete

and steel reinforcement [Ref 16].

12

reinforcing steel.

beams.

(3.1)

Where f 'C,dyn = refers to the dynamic concrete compressive strength (MPa), is

the strain rate, f 'C is the static concrete compressive strength (MPa).

(3.2)

3.2. Material model for steel

13

y,dyn

can be

calculated from Eq. (3.3) with consideration of the changes in strain rate .

(3.3)

Where fy refers to the static yield strength of steel reinforcement

3.3 Mechanisms of shear resistance in deep beams

By referring to Fig. 3.2, two stresses are created through the diagonal strut

because of the applied load Vn(Fig. 3.2).

1. Compressive stress f 2 is created through a direction between t aed load and

support. This stress causes the possible formation of a concrete crushing failure

in the diagonal strut, which has to be resisted by the concrete compressive

strength vf 'C [Ref 8].

2. Transverse tensile stress f1 is created in a direction perpendicular to the

diagonal strut. Consequently, the deep beam may fail by concrete splitting,

which can be resisted by the longitudinal steel, transverse reinforcement, and

concrete tensile strength.

The equilibrium forces at the bottom nodal zone (B) of the diagonal strut

(Fig. 3.2) are concluded through the following : 14

(3.4)

s refers to the angle of the inclined strut and is defined by tan s = Zs/a

where a is the distance between the applied load and support, and is the lever

arm of the longitudinal reinforcement to the center of the upper strut (Fig. 3.3)

and can be defined as follows :

(3.5)

where, la and lc are the depth of the top and bottom nodal zones, respectively

(Fig. 3.2).

The compressive stress f2 can be calculated from Eq. (3.4) as follows:

(3.6)

where, Astr is the diagonal strut cross-sectional area (mm 2), and Vn is the

applied load (kN). To determine the principal tensile stress f 1(Fig. 3.2)

perpendicular to the diagonal strut at the bottom nodal zone, first consider a

deep beam [Ref 25]

(3.7)

where Ac is the deep beam cross-sectional area; and kT sin s /(Ac/ sin s) is the

average tensile stress across the diagonal strut due to the component of T in

the principal tensile direction of the bottom nodal zone, T sin s (Fig. 3.3), and

k is the stress distribution factor.

The stress distribution is nonlinear and cannot be determined directly by the

assumptions of the beam theory, therefore assumptions are needed to find the

stress distribution factors (k1and k2), as displayed here. k1and k2 refer to the

stress distribution factors at the bottom and top nodal zones, respectively.

15

Previous studies [Ref 24,29] found that the values of stress distribution factors

k1and k2 of 2 and 0, respectively. This indicated best agreement with

experimental results of RC deep beams under static loading conditions. The

bottom nodal zone experiences a biaxial tension-compression stress state, and

the compressive strength of concrete is reduced due to the softening effect of

the tensile stress. Based on the modified from the Mohr-Coulomb theory[Ref

9], in this study the failure criterion at the bottom nodal zone is assumed as

a linear interactive relationship between f 1and f2, as displayed in the next

section.

3.4 Consideration of concrete softening effect

Three main approaches, which take into consideration the concrete softening

effect

under

biaxial

tensioncompression, are

1. Many of the codes, including [Ref 1,2,6,8], adopt the concrete strength

efficiency factors, thereby resulting in statistical test results. However, an

argument exists

in

evaluating

the

factors.

Moreover,

for

some

specific

defined as empirical values.

2. Function expressions, such as = f (1), are used to consider the influence

of principal strain on the compressive strength [Ref 10,12,15]. This method

seems to be more accurate, but adds complexity because of the simultaneous

application of equilibrium conditions, compatibility equations, and stressstrain

relationships.

3.

Linear

interactive

failure

criteria,

such

as

modified

MohrCoulomb

theory[Ref 24] , are utilized to account for the softening effect directly. Thus,

the relationship Eqn (3.8) is utilized in this research.

(3.8)

where f1and f2= respective principal tensile and compressive stresses at the

nodal zone, and they represent the actual stress

16

represents the maximum compressive capacity in the f 2 direction; and ft = tensile

strength contribution of reinforcement, and concrete, and it represents the

maximum tensile capacity in the f1 direction.

Consequently, Eq. (3.8) is not applicable as the bottom nodal zone experiences

a biaxial compressioncompression stress state. Although there is additional

lateral confinement available at the bottom nodal zone, the authors suggest that

the compressive stress f2 along the diagonal strut should not exceed f'c,dyn. Thus

(3.9)

Furthermore, the top nodal zone also experiences a biaxial compression

compression stress state. Therefore, if the width of the top-loaded region is

comparable to that of the bottom support region, Eq. (3.9) is sufficient to

safeguard failure of the top nodal zone. Thus, no further consideration is given

to the top node.

The denominator term ft in Eq. (3.8) is the combined tensile strength

contribution of reinforcement, and concrete and it is given by

(3.10a)

where As,

and Aw are

respective

total

areas

of

longitudinal

and

web

reinforcement; fy,dyn and fyw,dyn, are respective yield strengths of longitudinal and

web reinforcement, and fct is tensile strength of concrete and is given by

(3.10b)

The first term in Eq. (3.10a) represents the tensile capacity of longitudinal

steel reinforcement and is derived in a similar fashion as the term f1in Eq.

(3.7), except that the full strength of longitudinal reinforcement is used in

place of T. Furthermore, the effect of longitudinal reinforcement (Asf y,dynCos s)

in the f2 direction has been ignored for simplicity. For a deep beam with a very

small a/d ratio, this component will be insignificant, as cos s approaches zero.

17

On the other hand, if the a/d ratio is relatively high, the deep beam is likely

to fail due to excessive tensile stress in the f 1 direction. In this case, failure is

governed by the first term in Eq. (3.8), and thus the term f 'c has little influence

on the ultimate shear strength. Therefore, itis justifiable to neglect the

contribution of longitudinal reinforcement to the compressive capacity in the f 2

direction. The same assumption is made for web reinforcement.

The second term in Eq. (3.10a) represents the tensile capacity of inclined web

reinforcement at an angle w to the horizontal axis in Fig. 3.3. It takes account

of different positions and arrangements of web reinforcement, be it vertical,

horizontal, inclined, or combined. From the geometry of the strut-and-tie model,

the tensile force contribution of web reinforcement in the f 1 direction is

Awfyw,dynsin (s+ w). The positional influence factor dw/d is introduced to account

for different levels of web reinforcement (Ref 25).

For simplicity, the second term in Eq. (3.10a) can be reduced to Asvfyw,dynSin 2

s/2Ac or Ashfyw,dynSin2s /Ac, respectively, where Asv and Ash refer to the total areas

of vertical and horizontal web reinforcement within the distance of spear span.

If the bottom nodal zone is subjected to the biaxial compressioncompression

stress state, the following equation can be derived from Eq. (3.9):

Vn Astrf'C,dynSins

(3.11)

18

consideration the effect of compression softening in RC cracking for tension

compression stress states. Based on the proposed STM, the equation that yields

the concrete strut

effectiveness factor (Fig. 3.4) can be expressed as:

Fc/ Astr = f'C,dyn

(3.12)

Substituting Eqs. (3.6), (3.7) and (3.12) into Eq. (3.8), the following equation

can be obtained:

= 1 kTssin2s / Acft

(3.13)

where Ts refers to the tension force in the bottom steel reinforcement and can

be illustrated as

sEsAs.

represents the contribution of the tension force of the bottom steel resolved in

the direction of the diagonal strut, which negates a certain amount of

compression force in the strut itself. Substituting Eq. (10a) into Eq.(3.13) and

using the relationship between Ts and

s,

= 1 k sEsAssin2s / Acft

(3.14)

where Es and As are respectively the elastic modulus and cross sectional area of

longitudinal reinforcement;

s is

As shown in Eq. (3.11) the effectiveness factor is influenced by many

variables, such as concrete compressive strength steel yield strength, and steel

reinforcement ratios. However, the strut angle s is the main variable that affects

the effectiveness

factor u significantly.

The nominal shear strength Vn can be derived by substituting Eqs. (3.12) and

(3.13) into Eq. (3.1) as follows:

19

Vn= Astrf'C,dynSin s

(3.15)

The cross-sectional area of the strut Astr is calculated by the following:

Astr = bw(laCos s + lbSin s)

(3.16)

where bw is the width of the beam, l a is the bottom tie depth (mm), and l b is

the support-bearing plate width (mm).

T = depth of the top node. l c can be determined considering the limit

equilibrium of the top node. If a stress limit of 0.85f' c is imposed on the top

node, the depth lc can be determined from Eq. (3.17).

lc = Vn/(0.85f'C,dynbwTans)

(3.17)

which makes an iterative approach necessary. The value of the nominal shear

strength Vn can then be calculated by utilizing Eq. (3.15) during the iterations.

Fig. 4.1 displays the iterative steps to calculate the ultimate capacity of RC

deep beams. A MATLAB simulation environmental has been used to simulate

the ultimate shear strength of RC deep beams subjected to dynamic loads. At

least four to five iterations are appropriate to obtain a convergence in the

results.

3.7 Influence of stress distribution factor k on the prediction of ultimate

strength Vn

As displayed in Eq. (3.10a), the maximum tensile strength in the f 1 direction

is:

(3.18)

where, k is the stress distribution factor, and it is assumed that the tensile

stress transverse to the concrete strut is kpt.

The beam ultimate shear strength can be expressed from Eq. (3.15)

20

Vn= Astrf'C,dynSin s

(3.19)

From Eqs. (3.10a) and (3.15), it is observed that for RC deep beams

without transverse reinforcement, and tensile contribution of concrete, the

ultimate beam capacity is not dependent on stress distribution factor k. That

leads to the shear strength V n to be constant along the diagonal concrete strut.

This occurred due to ignored the second and third part of Eq. (3.10a) and

omitting k value. However, for optimal assessing of shear strength, the et of

fct, and transverse reinforcement is taken in consideration. In order to display

the influence of k on the ultimate capacity of RC deep beams, a parametric

study is undertaken. With a longitudinal reinforcement rf 3.26%, and a/d of 1.0,

150 imaginary RC deep beams are examined utilizing the proposed model. In

addition, a wide range of strain rates of (0.004, 0.04, 0.4, and 21/s), and

concrete compressive strength of (20, 40, and 60MPa) have been used in the

analysis. In this study the value of k is assumed equal to 2.5. The influence of

k on the model prediction of the ultimate shear strength Vncan be expressed

by(Vn Vk=2.5)/Vk=2.5, where Vk=2.5 represents the shear strength obtained

using the proposed model with k = 2.5. The plotted curves are shown in Fig.

4.2.

For increasing the strain rates, the ultimate shear strength predicted decreases

quickly with k increasing. Similarly, the ultimate shear strength decreases more

quickly for higher concrete compressive strengths as increasing of k factor

(Fig. 3.4).Generally, for 0 k 2.5, the estimation is smaller than for k =

2.5, and greater when 2.5 k 10. As displayed in Fig. 4.2, the reduction in

the ultimate shear strength is about 5% for k greater than 2.5, thus, it can be

said that k = 2.5 proposed is sufficiently accurate for the proposed model

estimations.

As displayed in Fig. 4.3, the strut effectiveness factor value influenced by

stress distribution factor and the strain rate values. The results indicated an

increasing in the effectiveness factor with decrease in the K factor. Moreover,

there is a decreasingin the strut effectiveness factor value with increase the

strain rates which may be occurring due to the crack growth.

21

CHAPTER 4

COMPARISON OF TEST RESULTS WITH CASE STUDY

Scarce studies have been recorded in literature for RC deep beams subjected to

dynamic loads. Thus, to evaluate the proposed model, a case study [Ref 4] was

employed for verification purposes. This case study dealt with RC deep beams

under dynamic loading conditions.

4.1 Case study description

A total of 12 RC deep beams were tested under point loading [Ref 4]. The

experimental objective was to examine the influence of loading rates on

ultimate shear strength and the behavior of RC deep beams.

22

Fig.4.4 shows the notation utilized to describe the test parameters of each

specimen and the relevant details. All the beam specimens had an overall

depth of h = 250mm with an effective depth and beam width of d = 210mm

and bw= 150mm, respectively (Fig. 4.1). The beam specimens comprised two

22mm bars as flexural reinforcement at top and bottom, whereas 6mm

deformed bars were utilized as web reinforcements. The yield strength of

23

longitudinal and web reinforcement are f y= 371MPa, and fyv= fyh= 442MPa,

respectively. Table 4.1 describes the ultimate capacities of the RC deep beams

according to the test results, and Fig. 4.5 presents the specimen designations.

24

capacity estimations.

25

factor prediction.

4.2 Results Discussion

Table 4.2 demonstrates the statistical analysis of the ultimate

strengths predicted by the proposed model once again match the

experimental results well. The mean value of the prediction is 0.976

with a standard deviation of 0.172 and coefficient of variation of

26

0.176. There is only one beam (Table 4.2) that has inaccurate

prediction. This indicates that the proposed STM model is generally

trustworthy. It is also remarkable that the mean value of the case

study is very close to 1.0 (0.976).

Table 4.1 The ultimate strength of tested beam specimens

Specimen

Strain

rates

(1/s)

Dynamic shear

resistance ( kN )

RC1.9 S0

0.0059

170.1

0.067

246.5

0.59

290.5

3.5

353.6

0.0068

271.9

0.041

300.6

0.48

361.3

3.1

417

0.0027

331.8

0.029

378.2

0.46

420.75

3.7

446.7

RC1.9 S42

RC1.9 S84

27

Specimen

RC1.9 S0

Stra

in

Rat

es

Test

170.1

Predict

286.81

246.5

306.42

290.5

334.35

3.5

353.6

365.71

0.00

68

0.04

1

0.48

271.9

301.71

300.6

318.25

361.3

352.05

417

388.29

331.8

307.14

378.2

328.33

420.75

368.69

446.7

413.47

0.00

59

0.06

7

0.59

RC1.9 S42

Dynamic shear

resistance (kN)

3.1

RC1.9 S84

0.00

27

0.02

9

0.46

3.7

Mean

SD

C.O.V.

0.

59

0.

80

0.

87

0.

97

0.

90

0.

94

1.

03

1.

07

1.

08

1.

15

1.

14

1.

08

0.

97

0.

16

0.

16

6

28

displayed good accuracy and consistency for the values obtained.

This was enough to consider the proposed STM model proper for

assessment of the ultimate strength of RC deep beams under

dynamic loading conditions, and different geometrical and material

(steel and concrete strength) properties.

Fig 4.5 Dimensions of RC deep beams and layout of

reinforcements of the case study

29

CHAPTER 5

PARAMETRIC STUDY

5.1. Numerical simulation case studies

After validating the proposed strut and tie model with the experimental results,

this section displays a parametric examination to present more information

about the behavior of RC deep beams under varying loading rates. Various key

parameters such as shear span to effective depth ratios, longitudinal main

reinforcement ratios, web reinforcement ratios and strain rates, used to study

the response of deep beam specimens. Figs. 13 and 14 illustrate the effect of

shear span to effective depth ratios and the longitudinal reinforcement ratios on

the ultimate strength capacity of RC deep beams, in which there is a

decreasing in the ultimate strength with increase of the shear span to depth

ratio.

The

parametric

study

was

simulated in

the

MATLAB/Simulink

environment.

30

Fig. 5.2. Comparison between the predicted ultimate shear strength and

the experimental.

5.2. Effect of main reinforcement ratio on DIF

A total of 36 experimental RC deep beams were examined to demonstrate the

effect longitudinal reinforcement on DIF of maximum resistance under various

strain rates, as shown in Fig. 15. Three span to effective depth ratios (a/d:

0.95, 1.43 and 1.9) were examined. As displayed in Fig. 15, there is a DIF

increases with the increase of the flexural reinforcement ratio.

5.3. Effect of web reinforcement ratio on DIF

Fig. 11 displays the influence of web reinforcement on DIF of ultimate

capacity of RC deep beam under various strain rates. From the results (Fig.

16), web reinforcement does not have a significant effect on DIF, but the

important effect was on the ultimate strength of the RC deep beam. This is

similar to an observation by Adhikary et al. [4].

5.4. Effect of shear span-to-effective depth ratio on DIF

In this case study, three span-to-effective depth ratios (a/d: 0.9, 1.43 and 1.9)

were investigated. The changing in the ratio was for span length, whereas, the

depth was kept constant for all specimens. Fig. 17 illustrates the influence of

shear span-to-depth ratio on the DIF of ultimate strength of the deep beam

specimens. The results exhibit increasing in DIF with the increase of shear

span-to-depth ratio of all strain rates.

31

of RC deep beams.

longitudinal reinforcement ratio and shear span-to-depth ratio

32

resistance of RC deep beams: (a) a/d:0.95; (b) a/d:1.43; (c) a/d:1.9.

33

resistance of RC deep beams: (a) a/d:0.95; (b) a/d:1.43; (c) a/d:1.9

34

Fig. 5.7. Effect of shear span to effective depth ratios on DIF of ultimate

shear resistance of RC deep beams: (a) rs:0.019; (b) rs:0.024; (c) rs:0.029.

35

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

A simple STM approach is extended to account for the effect of strain rates,

main reinforcement, and web reinforcement on the behavior of RC deep beams.

Linear interactive failure is used to imply the softening effect. Moreover, the

MATLAB SIMULINK software is used in simulating the proposed model. The

experimental results were compared with the predictions of proposed model A

new effectiveness factor for concrete struts was proposed based on the failure

principles

of MohrCoulomb.

The

proposed

STM

exhibits

efficiency

in

assessing dynamic shear resistance for RC deep beams under varying loading

rates, which could be implemented quite satisfactorily. The main conclusions are

presented below.

1) The dynamic shear resistance of RC deep beams increases with

loading rates increase.

2) The analysis results indicated that the web reinforcement does

not have

span-to-depth ratio for all strain rates.

36

REFERENCES

1.

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Concrete (2011), ACI 318 -11and Commentary 318R -11: ACI

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behavior in shear of reinforced concrete deep beams under

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2013.02.016.

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split

hopkinson

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ACI Struct. J. 106 (5) (2009) 717.

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39

40

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