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ALS Chemex is the Minerals Division of ALS, a global company, which in addition to providing services for

mining and exploration companies, operates Environmental, Oil, Food and Pharmaceutical laboratory
divisions. The ALS group of companies is owned by Campbell Brothers Limited, a publicly listed Australian
company (ASX code CPB on the Australian Stock Exchange).
ALS Chemex was formed in 1999 through the acquisition of Chemex Labs and the subsequent merger of
Chemex laboratories with the existing ALS Mineral laboratories. Since that time the operations have been
fully integrated to the point where we can now present a single Schedule of Services to the mining and
exploration industry. These services are now provided from our locations in North and South America,
Australia, Asia and Africa. This worldwide coverage puts us in a unique position to be able to provide you
with the same consistency of service no matter where your projects may be situated.
The combined expertise of ALS Chemex has enabled us to put together a very comprehensive list of
services. Innovative new packages allow you to tailor our services to your exploration and mining needs.
The services for exploration geochemistry have been expanded to include the most comprehensive range of
total, partial and selective leach multi-element packages commercially available. With state-of-the-art
equipment we have pushed sensitivities to the lowest practical levels, while resisting the temptation to list
artificially low sensitivities that only reflect instrument capabilities for ultra-pure solutions, rather than the
complex matrices that are obtained from the digestion of geological materials.
In order to provide you with the lowest possible price in each geographic region where we operate, we have
produced a number of different Fee Schedules. These Fee Schedules can be obtained by contacting the
nearest ALS Chemex office, and will also be available on-line at our global website www.alschemex.com.

Published April 1, 2001


ALS Chemex
All Rights Reserved

Corporate Office
212 Brooksbank Avenue
North Vancouver, BC, Canada V7J 2C1

Table of Contents
SAMPLE TRACKING SYSTEM ...........................................................................4
QUALITY ASSURANCE.......................................................................................4
SAMPLE PREPARATION ....................................................................................5
SAMPLE PREPARATION PACKAGES ........................................................................ 5
SAMPLE PREPARATION PROCEDURES.................................................................... 5
Drying ........................................................................................................................ 5
Crushing .................................................................................................................... 6
Splitting...................................................................................................................... 6
Pulverization .............................................................................................................. 6
Screening .................................................................................................................. 7
Miscellaneous Procedures......................................................................................... 7
SAMPLE STORAGE...................................................................................................... 7

PRECIOUS METALS............................................................................................9

ISO 9002 Certified By


KPMG in

Canada

USA

Mexico
Additional ISO 9002
certification in

Peru

Australia

NATA Registration in
Australia

GOLD ............................................................................................................................ 9
Fire Assay ................................................................................................................. 9
Aqua Regia Digestion .............................................................................................. 10
Cyanide Leach......................................................................................................... 10
SILVER........................................................................................................................ 11
Trace level............................................................................................................... 11
Ore grade ................................................................................................................ 11
Concentrates ........................................................................................................... 11
Bullion...................................................................................................................... 11
PLATINUM, PALLADIUM AND OTHER PRECIOUS METALS ................................... 11
Trace level............................................................................................................... 11
Ore grade ................................................................................................................ 11

COPPER.............................................................................................................12
COPPER IN GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS ................................................................... 12
COPPER CATHODES ................................................................................................. 12

EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY ....................................................................13


ULTRA-TRACE LEVEL METHODS USING ICP-MS AND ICP-AES ........................... 13
Aqua Regia Digestion .............................................................................................. 13
Four acid near-total digestion ................................................................................ 14
Fusion (Lithium metaborate) .................................................................................... 14
TRACE LEVEL METHODS USING CONVENTIONAL ICP-AES ANALYSIS .............. 15
Aqua Regia Digestion .............................................................................................. 15
Four acid near-total digestion ................................................................................ 15
ADD-ON METHODS TO AN AQUA-REGIA GOLD DIGESTION ................................. 16
SINGLE ELEMENT METHODS ................................................................................... 17
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy ............................................................................. 17
ICP-MS Multi-Acid Digestion (HF-HNO3-HClO4)................................................. 18
Pressed Pellet Wavelength Dispersive XRF............................................................. 18
Individual Methods - Various Techniques................................................................. 18
WHOLE ROCK GEOCHEMISTRY............................................................................... 19
RARE EARTH GEOCHEMISTRY ................................................................................ 19
GEOCHRONOLOGY ................................................................................................... 20
U Pb dating........................................................................................................... 20
Pb isotopic analyses. ............................................................................................... 20
SELECTIVE LEACH GEOCHEMISTRY ...................................................................... 21
Non-Proprietary Methods......................................................................................... 22
Proprietary Methods ................................................................................................ 23
Regoleach ........................................................................................................... 23
MMI Mobile-Metal-Ion Leaches ....................................................................... 23
HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY ........................................................................................... 24
DIAMOND EXPLORATION GEOCHEMISTRY ............................................................ 25

EVALUATION OF ORES AND HIGH GRADE MATERIALS .............................26


MINE PLANNING AND OPERATION ................................................................27
ON-SITE MINE LAB SERVICES.................................................................................. 27
OFF-SITE GRADE CONTROL AND METALLURGICAL SERVICES .......................... 27
ACID GENERATION POTENTIAL EVALUATION ....................................................... 28
Static Tests (Acid Base Accounting) ........................................................................ 28
Kinetic Tests (Humidity Cells) .................................................................................. 28

COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL MINERAL ANALYSIS................................29


MINERAL CONCENTRATE ANALYSIS (BUYER/SELLER) ....................................... 29
MINERAL SANDS ANALYSIS..................................................................................... 29
INDUSTRIAL MINERALS ............................................................................................ 30

Sample Tracking System


ALS Chemex has developed a unique sample tracking system that is an integral part of the companys new
Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). This system utilizes bar coding and scanning
technology that provides, for the first time by any laboratory, complete chain of custody records for every
stage in the sample preparation and analytical process.
Upon receipt of samples at any of the ALS Chemex worldwide locations, a bar code label is attached to the
original sample bag. This label is then scanned and the weight of sample recorded together with information
such as date, time, equipment used and operator name. The scanning process is repeated for each
subsequent activity performed on the sample from sample preparation to analysis through to the storage or
disposal of the pulp and reject material. Sample labels are also scanned at the shipping and destination
locations whenever samples are transported locally or internationally between ALS Chemex facilities. The
system has also been designed to accept client supplied bar coded labels that are attached to the sample
bags in the field.
The benefits to our clients of this system are:
Complete traceability of the sample through the entire laboratory process.
Sample integrity is guaranteed by scanning the sample label at every stage.
Record of every sample weight submitted to the laboratory from the field.
Full computer generated audit report available on request to complement property evaluation audits.
Two variants exist depending on whether samples are received with or without bar code labels.
Code
LOG-21
LOG-22

Description

Application

Log sample in tracking system.

All samples.

Samples received with bar code labels attached.


Samples received without bar code labels attached.

Quality Assurance
ALS Chemex laboratories operate according to the guidelines set out in ISO/IEC Guide 25 - "General
requirements for the competence of calibration and testing laboratories". The ALS Chemex quality system is
implemented across all laboratory sites. QA staff control monthly inter-laboratory test programs covering both
gold and base metal determinations and monitor the quality control data generated by the laboratories.
Regular internal method audits are also undertaken to ensure compliance with documented procedures.
Each laboratory employs a comprehensive quality control program covering both sample preparation and
analysis. Sample preparation procedures include the use of a barren wash of sample preparation equipment
between sample batches and, where necessary, between highly mineralized samples. Quality assurance of
the analytical process requires the use of appropriate reference materials to monitor accuracy and replicate
analyses to monitor precision. ALS Chemex maintains an extensive library of international and in-house
standards. For large projects ALS Chemex will prepare a standard from the client's own material to ensure a
matrix match.

Sample Preparation
The purpose of sample preparation is to produce a
homogeneous sub-sample that is fully representative of
the original field material, and at the same time, suitable
for laboratory analysis. Our staff ensure that this purpose
is achieved by 1) strict adherence to standard operating
procedures, 2) by using state-of-the-art sample
preparation equipment and dust collection systems, and
3) by maintaining strict sample tracking and quality
control systems. To assist clients in selecting the best
procedures, we recommend they discuss their sample
preparation requirements with our staff. Below are the
most commonly used procedures.
Sample Preparation Packages
The packages described below are used to produce a sub-sample ready for analysis.
Code

Description

Application

PREP-21

Log sample in tracking system, dry and pulverize


entire sample to better than 85% passing 75 micron.

Rock chip or drill sample with a


maximum particle size of 20 mm.

PREP-22

Log sample in tracking system, dry, coarse crush and


pulverize entire sample to better than 85% passing 75
micron.

Rock chip or drill sample with a


particle size greater than 20 mm.

PREP-31

Log sample in tracking system, dry, fine crush entire


sample to better than 70% -2 mm, split off up to 250 g
and pulverize split to better than 85% passing 75
micron.

Rock chip or drill sample.

PREP-41

Log sample in tracking system, dry, and dry-sieve


sample to -180 micron (80 mesh). Plus fraction is
retained unless disposal is requested. Applicable to
samples < 1 kg.

Soil or sediment sample up to 1kg.

Sample Preparation Procedures


The following procedures are used either separately or combined in a package in order to meet specific
sample preparation requirements. Most of these procedures are charged out on a per kg or per pound basis.

Drying
Drying charges are applied only to samples that are excessively wet.
Code

Description

Application

DRY-21

Drying of excessively wet samples in drying ovens.

Default drying procedure for most


rock chip and drill samples.

DRY-22

Drying of excessively wet samples in drying ovens


that are controlled to a maximum temperature of
60 C.

Most soil and sediment samples


that are analyzed for volatile
elements.

DRY-23

Air-drying of samples.

Samples that will be analyzed


using selective leach procedures.

Excellence in Analytical Chemistry


5

Crushing
Samples that are too coarse to be put directly into a large pulverizing mill, or where the particle size needs to
be reduced before we are able to take a representative split for further pulverization, are crushed using jaw
and/or rolls crushers.
Code

Description

Application

CRU-21

Coarse crushing of rock chip and drill samples to 70%


nominal -6 mm.

Used when the entire sample will


be pulverized, but the material is
too coarse for introduction in the
pulverizing mill.

CRU-31

Fine crushing of rock chip and drill sample to better


than 70% -2 mm.

Standard prep for samples where


a representative split will be
pulverized.

CRU-32

Fine crushing of rock chip and drill sample to better


than 90% -2 mm.

Samples that exhibit coarse gold


effects.

Splitting
Some samples require the division of one or more size fractions into representative splits.
Code

Description

Application

SPL-21

Split sample using a riffle splitter.

Standard splitting procedure.

SPL-22

Split sample using a rotary splitter.

Premium splitting procedure.

Pulverization
All pulverization procedures make use of flying disk or ring and puck style grinding mills. Unless otherwise
indicated, all pulverization procedures guarantee that for most sample types at least 85% of the material will
be pulverized to better than 75 micron (200 Mesh).
Code

Description

Application

PUL-31

Pulverize a split of up to 250 g to better than 85%


passing 75 micron.

Default procedure for samples that


are finely crushed and split prior to
pulverization.

PUL-32

Pulverize a 1000 g split to better than 85% passing


75 micron.

Pulverization of 1 kg split.

PUL-21

Pulverize the entire sample to better than 85% passing


75 micron.

Appropriate for samples < 2.5 kg .

Our sample preparation


procedures, together with our
Quality Control Program, ensure
that prepared samples are
homogeneous and fully
representative of the original field
material.

Screening
For some sample types, one or more particular size fractions need to be separated from the bulk sample.
Other mesh sizes, as well as multiple screening procedures are also available.
Code

Description

Application

Dry screening to 180 micron (80 mesh).

Standard preparation for soil and


sediment samples.

SCR-41
SCR-42

Save plus and minus fraction


Save only minus fraction

SCR-43

Dry screening to 500 micron (35 mesh).

Remove coarse fraction.

SCR-45

Dry screening to 840 micron (20 mesh).

Remove coarse fraction.

SCR-31

Wet screening to 75 micron (200 mesh) and save only


minus fraction.

Accurate separation of the 75


micron fraction.

Miscellaneous Procedures
Code

Description

Application

Compositing of 2 or more pulp samples, including


homogenizing of the composite pulp.

The volumetric is the standard


procedure. The gravimetric is
used when the density of the
samples varies greatly.

CMP-21
CMP-22

Volumetric procedure
Gravimetric procedure

WSH-21

Wash crushers with barren material after every


sample.

As required. (The standard no


charge procedure uses barren
material between every batch.)

WSH-22

Wash pulverizers with silica sand after every sample.

As required. (The standard no


charge procedure uses silica sand
between every batch.)

TRA-21

Transfer sample to drying tray or new sample bag.

Samples requiring tray drying or


re-bagging.

Sample Storage
Materials that have been submitted for analysis are retained at our laboratories for a limited time only. The
prepared master pulps are stored free of charge for 90 days from the time that we issue the final certificate of
analysis. Coarse and fine reject fractions are stored free of charge for the first 90 days, except for large reject
fractions (>3 Kg) which are stored for a nominal charge. Monthly charges will be levied for storage of all
sample types beyond the first 90 days.
Code

Description

Application

STO-21

Storage for the first 90 days of large (>3 Kg) remaining


fractions from crushing (coarse reject fraction) or
pulverization (fine reject fraction).

All larger (> 3 Kg) rock chip, drill


and soil or sediment samples.

STO-22

Monthly storage of remaining fraction of sample from


crushing (coarse reject fraction) or pulverization of
greater than 500 g sample (fine reject fraction) after the
first 90 days.

Storage of remaining sample after


the first 90 days from the issue
date of the final certificate of
analysis.

STO-23

Monthly storage of master pulps after the first 90 days.

Longer term storage of pulps

STO-24

Monthly storage of screening reject fractions after the


first 90 days.

Longer term storage of screening


reject fractions.

RET-21

Handling and retrieval of archive samples.

Archived samples.

DIS-21

Disposal of pulps and coarse fractions.

Pulps and coarse fractions.

RTN-21

Return of samples to client.

Returned samples.

Sample Pick-Up Services


Sample transport/pick up services can be arranged from any of our locations. Please contact your nearest
ALS Chemex office for details.
Code

Description

Application

PKP-21

Sample pick-up service.

All sample types.

Sample Dispatch
Samples can be dispatched to any of the addresses listed in the back cover. Free pre-addressed adhesive
labels and sample submission booklets are available on request. We also offer advice on shipping samples
to any of our labs by surface carrier, air cargo courier and air cargo.
To expedite sample processing and therefore delivery of results, please clearly mark sample bags using
waterproof ink. In addition to marking the outside of the bag, the use of assay tags inside sample bags is
strongly encouraged. Fill out and enclose the sample submittal form with each sample shipment. Include
your return address, billing instructions and the type of analyses required for the enclosed samples. Retain a
copy of the sample submittal form as a field record. Clearly mark all international sample shipments to our
offices in the Americas as "GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS - NO COMMERCIAL VALUE".
For sample
shipments to our offices in Australia, mark as GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS, but indicate a nominal dollar
value, such as US$25.00
On-site Sample Preparation
For remote project locations, ALS Chemex can also assist by installing a fully supervised on-site sample
preparation facility. This will ensure that the samples you submit for assay are representative of the actual
material recovered from your drill holes and delivered to the preparation facility. We will prepare your
samples according to mutually agreed upon procedures, pack the pulps to ensure that they are tamper proof
and air freight them to the ALS Chemex laboratory of your choice. Residual material will be correctly labelled
for future reference and records will be provided to ensure that an accurate audit trail exists.
The size of the sample preparation facility and the equipment to be installed will depend on the metal(s)
being sought, the type and size of the samples being submitted and the expected sample throughput.
Location may also have a bearing on the type of facility and on the equipment to be installed. These details
can be decided upon consultation with appropriate ALS Chemex management.

With high capacity sample


preparation facilities in all the
primary mineral exploration areas
in the world, ALS Chemex can
provide you with high quality
service no matter where your
exploration programs take you.

Precious Metals Analysis Methods


The selection of the best method for the accurate determination of a precious metal is highly dependent on
the nature of the sample and the objective of the analytical result. The methods described below are effective
alternatives for the determination of gold, silver and platinum group metals.
Gold
Fire Assay Fusion
For fully quantitative total gold contents, the fire assay procedure is still the preferred choice by laboratories
all over the world. Typically the samples are
mixed with fluxing agents including lead oxide,
and fused at high temperature. The lead oxide is
reduced to lead, which collects the precious
metals. When the fused mixture is cooled, the
lead remains at the bottom, while a glass-like
slag remains at the top. The precious metals are
separated from the lead in a secondary
procedure called cupellation. The final technique
used to determine the gold and other precious
metals contents of the residue can range from a
balance (for very high grade samples), to AAS,
ICP-AES or ICP-MS.
Method code

Description

Au-MS21
Au-MS22

Trace level
Au by fire assay and ICP-MS.
30 g nominal sample weight.
50 g nominal sample weight.
Au by fire assay, solvent extraction and AAS.
30 g nominal sample weight.
50 g nominal sample weight.

0.001 - 1

Au-AA21
Au-AA22

Au by fire assay and AAS.

0.005 - 10

Au-AA23
Au-AA24

Range (ppm)
0.001 - 2

30 g nominal sample weight.


50 g nominal sample weight.
Ore grade
Au by fire assay and AAS.

0.01 - 100

Au-AA25
Au-AA26

30 g nominal sample weight.


50 g nominal sample weight.
0.05 - 1,000

Au-GRA21*
Au-GRA22*

Au by fire assay and gravimetric finish.


30 g nominal sample weight.
50 g nominal sample weight.
Au by 1,000 g screen fire assay. Duplicate assays on undersize, and
assay on entire oversize fraction. Calculate and report total gold
content, individual assays and weight fractions.

0.05 - 1,000

Au-SCR21*
Au-SCR22*

Dry screening to 100 micron.


Wet screening to 75 micron.

Au-GRA23*

Concentrates
Au by fire assay and gravimetric finish. 30 g nominal sample weight.

1 - 15,000

Au-GRA24*

Bullion (fineness)
Au in bullion samples by fire assay and gravimetric finish.

Fineness 1-1,000

*Ag can be an add-on to gravimetric procedures at an additional cost.


At your option, precious metals reporting units can be specified as ppb, ppm, g/t or oz/t (except for bullion assays).

Aqua Regia Digestion


Aqua-regia digestion is usually quite suitable for the determination of gold in soil and stream sediment
programs. If this digestion procedure is used to measure the acid extractable gold contents of rock chips and
other more mineralized materials, roasting of samples containing sulfides and/or carbon prior to analysis is
recommended. One advantage of aqua-regia gold analysis is that it is relatively simple and very economical
to add an additional suite of elements by running the digestion liquor by AAS or ICP-AES (see page 16).
Method code

Description

Range (ppm)

Super trace level


Au by ZARG (Zeeman Aqua Regia Gold) using Zeeman furnace AAS.

0.0001 - 0.1

Au-ZF41
Au-ZF42

25 g nominal sample weight.


50 g nominal sample weight.

Au-GF41
Au-GF42

Trace level
Au by aqua-regia digestion, extraction and graphite furnace AAS.
25 g nominal sample weight.
50 g nominal sample weight.

Au-AA41
Au-AA42

Ore grade
Au by aqua-regia digestion, solvent extraction and AAS.
25 g nominal sample weight.
50 g nominal sample weight.

0.001 - 1

0.01 - 100

Samples containing sulfidic, carbonaceous or organic material require the roasting procedure RST-21 as an
additional preparation step prior to the aqua-regia digestion.

Cyanide Leach
Cyanide leach procedures are used in grass roots exploration where cyanide extractable gold from a very
large sample can sometimes detect small gold anomalies that otherwise would go unnoticed, and in mine
development and exploration to establish potential gold cyanide extraction efficiency.
Method code

Description

Range (ppm)

Au-AA11*

Trace level
Au by cyanide leach, extraction and AAS.
500 g nominal sample weight.

0.001 - 10

Au-AA12*

Au by cyanide leach, extraction and AAS.


1,000 - 3,000 g nominal sample weight.

0.0001 10

Au-ZF13*

Au by cyanide leach, carbon stripping and Zeeman furnace AAS.


3,000 - 10,000 g nominal sample weight.

0.00005 1

Au-AA13*

Ore grade
Au by cyanide leach and AAS. 30 g nominal sample weight.

0.03 50

Au-AA14

Au by cyanide leach and AAS. 1,000 g nominal sample weight.

0.01 200

Au-AA15

Au by accelerated cyanide leach using Leachwell reagent and AAS.


1,000 - 3,000 g nominal sample weight.

0.01 300

* The following additional elements can be also reported upon request:


Ag, Cu and Pd by method Au-AA11 and Au-AA12; Pt and Pd by method Au-ZF13; and Ag and Cu by
method Au-AA13.

Metallurgical Samples
Method code

Description

Range (ppm)

Au-AA16

Cyanide liquors
Au in liquor by extraction and AAS.

0.01 - 50

Au-AA27

Au in liquor by evaporation in a lead boat, fire assay and AAS.

0.01 - 50

Au-AA44

Carbons
Au by ashing, aqua-regia digestion and AAS. Duplicate analysis.

1 - 1,000

10

Silver
Method code

Description

Range (ppm)

Ag-AA45

Trace level
Ag by aqua-regia digestion and AAS.

0.2 - 100

Ag-AA61

Ag by HF-HNO3-HClO4 digestion, HCl leach and AAS.

0.5 - 100

Ag-AA46

Ore grade
Ag by aqua-regia digestion and AAS.

1 - 1,500

Ag-AA62

Ag by HF-HNO3-HClO4 digestion, HCl leach and AAS.

1 - 1,000

Ag by fire assay and gravimetric finish.

5 3,500

Ag-GRA21*
Ag-GRA22*
Ag-GRA23*
Ag-GRA24*

30 g nominal sample weight.


50 g nominal sample weight.
Concentrates
Ag by fire assay and gravimetric finish.
Bullion
Ag in bullion samples by fire assay and gravimetric finish.

1 - 15,000
Fineness 1-1,000

*Au can be an add-on to gravimetric procedures.

Platinum, Palladium and other Precious Metals


Method code

Description

Range (ppm)

Trace level
Pt, Pd and Au by fire assay and ICP-MS.

Pt
Pd
Au

(0.0005 - 1)
(0.001 - 1)
(0.001 - 1)

PGM-MS23
PGM-MS24

30 g nominal sample weight.


50 g nominal sample weight.

Rh-MS25

Rh by fire assay, gold collection and ICP-MS.


30 g nominal sample weight.

0.001 - 1

PGM-MS26

Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Rh, Ru and Au by fire assay with


nickel sulfide collection and ICP-MS. 30 g nominal
sample weight.

Pt
Pd
Ir
Os

(0.002 - 1)
(0.002 - 1)
(0.002 - 1)
(0.002 - 1)

Pt
Pd
Au

(0.05 - 100)
(0.05 - 100)
(0.05 - 100)

Note: Au is not quantitative by this method.

PGM-MS27

Ore grade
Pt, Pd and Au by fire assay and ICP-MS. 30 g
nominal sample weight.

Rh
Ru
Au

(0.002 - 1)
(0.002 - 1)
(0.005 - 1)

At your option, precious metals reporting units can be specified as ppb, ppm, g/t or oz/t (except for bullion assays).

Using proprietary custom designed fire assay systems, ALS Chemex has sufficient capacity to
provide superb turnaround times for any size project, anywhere in the world. However, if your project
requires on-site fire assay services we can work with you to design a highly efficient semi-automatic
system that will minimize in-the field labour expenses, while maximizing efficiency and throughput.
From design, construction, on-site training or on-site management, ALS Chemex has the experience
and the resources to assist you with your on-site analytical requirements.

11

Copper Analysis Methods


The methods described below are commonly used when copper is the main target commodity.
Complementary multi-element methods and packages can be found elsewhere in this Service Schedule. We
would be pleased to discuss the specific analytical requirements for your projects.
Copper in Geological Materials
Method code

Description

Range (ppm)

Cu-AA45

Trace level
Cu by aqua-regia digestion and AAS.

1 - 10,000

Cu-AA61

Cu by HF-HNO3-HClO4 acid digestion, HCl leach and AAS.

1 - 10,000

See pages 13-15 for multi-element methods that include Cu at trace and ultra-trace levels
Cu-AA46

Ore grade
Cu by aqua regia digestion and AAS.

100 ppm - 30%

Cu-AA62

Cu by HF-HNO3-HClO4 acid digestion, HCl leach and AAS.

100 ppm - 30%

Cu-ICP81

Cu by sodium peroxide fusion and ICP-AES.

50 ppm - 30%

Cu-AA04

Cu (nonsulfide) by citric acid leach and AAS.

100 ppm - 10%

Cu-AA05

Cu (nonsulfide) by sulfuric acid leach and AAS.

10 ppm - 10%

Cu-AA17

Cu by cyanide leach and AAS.

100 ppm - 10%

Cu-PKG06

Cu sequential analysis. Cu results are reported for sulfuric acid soluble,


cyanide soluble, and total.

Cu-VOL61
Cu-ELE61

Concentrates
Cu by HNO3-HCl-HClO4-H2SO4 acid digestion, formation of iron
complex and volumetric finish.

100 ppm - 100%

Cu by HNO3-HCl-HClO4-H2SO4 acid digestion and electrogravimetric


finish.

100 ppm - 100%

Copper Cathodes
Method code

Description

Lower reporting limit (ppm)

ME-PKG07

Cu plus 21 elements in
copper cathodes, according
to BSI 7317.

Cu
Ag
As
Bi
C
Cd

(0.01%)
(0.3)
(0.2)
(0.1)
(2)
(0.2)

Cl
Co
Cr
Fe
Mn
Ni

(5)
(0.8)
(1.0)
(0.5)
(0.4)
(0.8)

O2
Pb
P
S
Sb
Se

(2)
(0.3)
(1)
(1)
(0.2)
(0.1)

Si
Sn
Te
Zn

(2)
(0.2)
(0.1)
(1)

In addition to copper cathode analysis, physical inspection of copper cathodes is also available.
Please contact the nearest ALS Chemex office for details.

12

Exploration Geochemistry

The effectiveness of a geochemical exploration program is largely


dependent on the availability of analytical methods that properly meet the
requirements of the problems at hand. Element coverage, detection
limits, reliability and cost are often the main factors considered by
explorationists when choosing an analytical method for a given sample
type.
ALS Chemex offers a wide range of multi-element and single-element
methods that can satisfy the requirements of todays exploration
geochemistry, both technically and economically. The analytical methods
described in this section include different sample decomposition
procedures, such as aqua-regia and multi-acid digestions, fusions and
selective leaches. The instrumental analytical techniques comprise
inductively coupled plasma with atomic emission spectroscopy or mass
spectroscopy, atomic absorption, x-ray fluorescence and infrared
spectroscopy.

Ultra-Trace Level Methods Using ICP-MS and ICP-AES


Suitable for exploration samples such as soils, sediments and weakly mineralized rock or drill samples when
ultra-low detection limits are required.

Aqua Regia Digestion


Quantitatively dissolves base metals for the majority of geological materials, and may provide anomaly
enhancement in some geological environments. Major rock forming elements and more resistive metals are
only partially dissolved.
Method code
ME-MS41

50 elements by aqua regia digestion and a combination of ICP-MS and


ICP-AES.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Ag
(0.01 - 100)
Cu
(0.2 - 10,000)
Na* (0.01% - 10%)
Ta* (0.01 - 500)
Al*
(0.01% - 15%)
Fe
(0.01% - 15%)
Nb* (0.05 - 500)
Te* (0.01 - 500)
As
(0.1 - 10,000)
Ga* (0.05 - 10,000)
Ni
(0.2 - 10,000)
Th* (0.2 - 500)
B*
(10 - 10,000)
Ge* (0.05 - 500)
P
(10 - 10,000)
Ti*
(0.01% - 10%)
Ba* (0.2 - 10,000)
Hf* (0.02 - 500)
Pb
(0.2 - 10,000)
Tl*
(0.02 - 10,000)
Be* (0.05 - 100)
Hg
(0.01 - 10,000)
Rb* (0.1 - 500)
U
(0.05 - 10,000)
Bi
(0.01 - 10,000)
In*
(0.005 - 500)
Re* (0.001 - 50)
V
(1 - 10,000)
Ca* (0.01% - 15%)
K*
(0.01% - 10%)
S*
(0.01% - 10%)
W* (0.05 - 10,000)
Cd
(0.01 - 500)
La* (0.2 - 10,000)
Sb* (0.05 - 10,000)
Y*
(0.05 - 500)
Ce* (0.02 - 500)
Li*
(0.1 - 500)
Sc* (0.1 - 10,000)
Zn
(2 - 10,000)
Co
(0.1 - 10,000)
Mg* (0.01% - 15%)
Se
(0.2 - 1,000)
Zr*
(0.5 - 500)
Cr* (1 - 10,000)
Mn (5 - 10,000)
Sn* (0.2 - 500)
Cs* (0.05 - 500)
Mo (0.05 - 10,000)
Sr* (0.2 - 10,000)
For elements marked with * digestion will be incomplete for most sample matrices.

13

Ultra-Trace Level Methods (continued)

Four acid near-total digestion


Quantitatively dissolves nearly all elements for the majority of geological materials. Only the most resistive
minerals, such as Zircons, are only partially dissolved using this procedure.
Method code
ME-MS61

47 elements by HF-HNO3-HClO4 acid digestion, HCl leach and a


combination of ICP-MS and ICP-AES.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Ag
(0.02 - 100)
Cu
(0.2 - 10,000)
Na
(0.01% - 10%)
Ta
(0.05 100)
Al
(0.01% - 25%)
Fe
(0.01% - 25%)
Nb
(0.1 - 500)
Te
(0.05 - 500)
As
(0.2 - 10,000)
Ga
(0.05 - 500)
Ni
(0.2 - 10,000)
Th
(0.2 - 500)
Ba
(0.5 - 10,000)
Ge
(0.05 - 500)
P
(10 -10,000)
Ti
(0.01% - 10%)
Be
(0.05 - 1000)
Hf
(0.1 - 500)
Pb
(0.5 - 10,000)
Tl
(0.02 - 500)
Bi
(0.01 - 10,000)
In
(0.005 - 500)
Rb
(0.1 - 500)
U
(0.1 - 500)
Ca
(0.01% - 25%)
K
(0.01% - 10%)
Re
(0.002 - 50)
V
(1 - 10,000)
Cd
(0.02 - 500)
La
(0.5 - 500)
S
(0.01% - 10%)
W
(0.1 - 10,000)
Ce
(0.01 - 500)
Li
(0.2 - 500)
Sb
(0.05 - 1,000)
Y
(0.1 - 500)
Co
(0.1 - 10,000)
Mg (0.01% - 15%)
Se
(1 - 1,000)
Zn
(2 - 10,000)
Cr
(1 - 10,000)
Mn (5 - 10,000)
Sn
(0.2 - 500)
Zr
(0.5 - 500)
Cs
(0.05 - 500)
Mo (0.05 - 10,000)
Sr
(0.2 - 10,000)
To include Hg by AAS (0.01 - 100 ppm) in the suite of elements above,
please request method code ME-MS61m instead of ME-MS61.

Fusion (Lithium metaborate)


For quantitative results of all elements, including those encapsulated in resistive materials
Method code
ME-MS81

38 elements by lithium meta-borate fusion and ICP-MS.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Ag
(1 - 1000)
Ga
Ba
(0.5 - 10,000)
Gd
Ce
(0.5 - 10,000)
Hf
Co
(0.5 - 10,000)
Ho
Cr
(10 - 10,000)
La
Cs
(0.1 - 10,000)
Lu
Cu
(5 - 10,000)
Mo
Dy
(0.1 - 1,000)
Nb
Er
(0.1 - 1,000)
Nd
Eu
(0.1 - 1,000)
Ni

(1 - 1,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(2 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)
(5 - 10,000)

Pb
Pr
Rb
Sm
Sn
Sr
Ta
Tb
Th

(5 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.2 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 10,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(1 - 1,000)

Tl
Tm
U
V
W
Y
Yb
Zn
Zr

(0.5 - 1,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.5 - 1,000)
(5 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(5 - 10,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)

With more than ten ICP-MS instruments installed


in our laboratories, ICP-MS analysis has become
an affordable technique for the analysis of the
large number of samples that are typically
generated in geochemical exploration programs.

14

Trace Level Methods using conventional ICP-AES analysis


The economical approach towards multi-element geochemistry. Suitable for exploration samples such as
soils, sediments and weakly mineralized rock or drill samples.

Aqua Regia Digestion


Quantitatively dissolves base metals for the majority of geological materials, and may provide anomaly
enhancement in some geological environments. Major rock forming elements and more resistive metals are
only partially dissolved.
Method code
ME-ICP41

34 elements by aqua-regia acid digestion and ICP-AES.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Ag
(0.2 - 100)
Co
(1 - 10,000)
Mn (5 - 10,000)
Sr* (1 - 10,000)
Al*
(0.01% - 15%)
Cr* (1 - 10,000)
Mo (1 - 10,000)
Ti*
(0.01% - 10%)
As
(2 - 10,000)
Cu
(1 - 10,000)
Na* (0.01% - 10%)
Tl*
(10 - 10,000)
B*
(10 - 10,000)
Fe
(0.01% - 15%)
Ni
(1 - 10,000)
U
(10 - 10,000)
Ba* (10 - 10,000)
Ga* (10 - 10,000)
P
(10 - 10,000)
V
(1 - 10,000)
Be* (0.5 - 100)
Hg
(1 - 10,000)
Pb
(2 - 10,000)
W* (10 - 10,000)
Bi
(2 - 10,000)
K*
(0.01% - 10%)
S
(0.01% - 10%)
Zn
(2 - 10,000)
Ca* (0.01% - 15%)
La* (10 - 10,000)
Sb
(2 - 10,000)
Cd
(0.5 - 500)
Mg* (0.01% - 15%)
Sc* (1 - 10,000)
For elements marked with * digestion will be incomplete for most sample matrices.
To include Hg by AAS (0.01 - 100 ppm) in the suite of elements above,
please request method code ME-ICP41m instead of ME-ICP41.

Four acid near total digestion


Quantitatively dissolves nearly all elements for the majority of geological materials. Only the most resistive
minerals, such as Zircons, are only partially dissolved using this procedure.
Method code
ME-ICP61

27 elements by HF-HNO3-HClO4 acid digestion, HCl leach and


ICP-AES.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Ag
(0.5 - 100)
Cd
(0.5 - 500)
Mn (5 - 10,000)
Sb
(5 - 10,000)
Al
(0.01% - 25%)
Co
(1 - 10,000)
Mo (1 - 10,000)
Sr
(1 - 10,000)
As
(5 10,000)
Cr
(1 - 10,000)
Na
(0.01% - 10%)
Ti
(0.01% - 10%)
Ba
(10 - 10,000)
Cu
(1 - 10,000)
Ni
(1 - 10,000)
V
(1 - 10,000)
Be
(0.5 - 1000)
Fe
(0.01% - 25%)
P
(10 - 10,000)
W
(10 - 10,000)
Bi
(2 - 10,000)
K
(0.01% - 10%)
Pb
(2 - 10,000)
Zn
(2 - 10,000)
Ca
(0.01% - 25%)
Mg (0.01% - 15%)
S
(0.01% - 10%)
To include Hg by AAS (0.01 - 100 ppm) in the suite of elements above,
please request method code ME-ICP61m instead of ME-ICP61.

For most analytical methods the purpose of sample decomposition is to properly


destroy the solid-phase system of the geological sample, allowing the release of the
elements of interest into a liquid solution. Therefore, the suitability of a sample
decomposition procedure for a given sample type depends on the sample
mineralogical composition and texture, as well as on the intended use of the
analytical results. Our staff would be pleased to discuss your specific requirements.

15

Add-on Methods to an Aqua-Regia Gold Digestion


Following an aqua-regia gold digestion, an aliquot can be removed from the resultant liquor and analyzed by
ICP-AES or AAS to give additional information for acid extractable elements. The methods below are cost
effective ways of obtaining additional multi-element data in conjunction with gold when ultra low detection
limits are not crucial.
Method code
ME-AA43

15 elements from an aqua-regia gold digestion and AAS.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Ag
(0.2 - 100)
Cd
As
(5 - 10,000)
Co
Bi
(2 - 10,000)
Cu
Ca
(0.01% - 15%)
Fe
Method code
ME-ICP43

(0.1 - 200)
(1 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.01% - 15%)

Mg
Mn
Mo
Ni

(0.01% - 15%)
(5 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)

Pb
Sb
Zn

(1 - 10,000)
(5 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)

17 elements from an aqua-regia gold digestion and ICP-AES.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Ag
(0.2 - 100)
Co
As
(1 - 10,000)
Cu
Bi
(2 - 10,000)
Fe
Ca
(0.01% - 15%)
Mg
Cd
(1 - 10,000)

(1 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.01% - 15%)
(0.01% - 15%)

Mn
Mo
Ni
P

(5 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(10 - 10,000)

Pb
S
Sb
Zn

(1 - 10,000)
(0.01% - 10%)
(2 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)

Inductively Coupled Plasma with Mass Spectrometry and/or Atomic Emission Spectroscopy are the
analytical techniques of choice for multi-element analysis at ultra-trace and trace levels.

16

Single Element Methods


These methods are effective options when analytical results for one or only a few elements are required. You
can put together your own package of relevant elements for your exploration program.

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Aqua Regia Digestion

Ag
As
Bi
Ca*
Cd
Co
Cu
Fe
Mg*
Mn
Mo
Ni
P
Pb
S*
Sb*
Zn

Description
Silver
Arsenic
Bismuth
Calcium
Cadmium
Cobalt
Copper
Iron
Magnesium
Manganese
Molybdenum
Nickel
Phosphorus
Lead
Sulfur
Antimony
Zinc

Grassroots exploration
Method code
Range (ppm)
Ag-AA45
0.2 - 100
As-AA45
1 - 10,000

Cd-AA45
Co-AA45
Cu-AA45
Fe-AA45

0.1 - 200
1 - 10,000
1 - 10,000
0.01% - 15%

Mn-AA45
Mo-AA45
Ni-AA45

5 - 10,000
1 - 10,000
1 - 10,000

Pb-AA45

1 - 10,000

Sb-AA45
Zn-AA45

5 - 10,000
1 - 10,000

Geochemical characterization
Method code
Range (ppm)
Ag-AA47
1 - 100
As-AA47
2 - 10,000
Bi-AA47
5 - 10,000
Ca-AA47
0.01% - 15%
Cd-AA47
1 - 10,000
Co-AA47
5 - 10,000
Cu-AA47
2 - 10,000
Fe-AA47
0.01% - 15%
Mg-AA47
0.01% - 15%
Mn-AA47
5 - 10,000
Mo-AA47
5 - 10,000
Ni-AA47
5 - 10,000
P-AA47
10 - 10,000
Pb-AA47
10 - 10,000
S-AA47
10 - 10,000
Sb-AA47
5 - 10,000
Zn-AA47
5 - 10,000

*Depending on matrix, elements marked with * are more likely to represent only the acid leachabe fraction

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Multi-Acid Digestion (HF-HNO3-HClO4)

Ag
Al
As
Ba
Bi
Ca
Cd
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
K
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Ni
P
Pb
S
Sb
Sr
Ti
V
W
Zn
Zr

Element
Silver
Aluminum
Arsenic
Barium
Bismuth
Calcium
Cadmium
Cobalt
Chromium
Copper
Iron
Potassium
Magnesium
Manganese
Molybdenum
Sodium
Nickel
Phosphorus
Lead
Sulfur
Antimony
Strontium
Titanium
Vanadium
Tungsten
Zinc
Zirconium

Grassroots exploration
Method code
Range (ppm)
Ag-AA61
0.5 - 100

Ba-AA61

10 - 10,000

Ca-AA61

0.01% - 15%

Co-AA61
Cr-AA61
Cu-AA61
Fe-AA61

2 - 10,000
2 - 10,000
1 - 10,000
0.01% - 15%

Mg-AA61

0.01% - 15%

Mo-AA61

2 - 10,000

Ni-AA61

2 - 10,000

Pb-AA61

2 - 10,000

Sr-AA61

1 - 10,000

V-AA61

5 - 10,000

Zn-AA61

5 - 10,000

17

Geochemical characterization
Method code
Range (ppm)
Ag-AA63
1 - 100
Al-AA63
0.01% - 25%
As-AA63
5 - 10,000
Ba-AA63
10 - 10,000
Bi-AA63
5 - 10,000
Ca-AA63
0.01% - 25%
Cd-AA63
5 - 500
Co-AA63
5 - 10,000
Cr-AA63
5 - 10,000
Cu-AA63
5 - 10,000
Fe-AA63
0.01% - 25%
K-AA63
0.01% - 10%
Mg-AA63
0.01% - 15%
Mn-AA63
5 - 10,000
Mo-AA63
5 - 10,000
Na-AA63
0.01% - 10%
Ni-AA63
5 - 10,000
P-AA63
10 - 10,000
Pb-AA63
5 - 10,000
S-AA63
0.01% - 5%
Sb-AA63
5 - 1,000
Sr-AA63
10 - 10,000
Ti-AA63
0.01% - 10%
V-AA63
10 - 10,000
W-AA63
10 - 10,000
Zn-AA63
5 - 10,000
Zr-AA63
20 - 10,000

ICP-MS Multi-Acid Digestion (HF-HNO3-HClO4)


As
Bi
Ga
Ge
Sb
Se
Sn
Ta
Te
Tl
W

Element
Arsenic
Bismuth
Gallium
Germanium
Antimony
Selenium
Tin
Tantalum
Tellurium
Thallium
Tungsten

Method code
As-MS62
Bi-MS62
Ga-MS62
Ge-MS62
Sb-MS62
Se-MS62
Sn-MS62
Ta-MS62
Te-MS62
Tl-MS62
W-MS62

Range (ppm)
0.5 - 10,000
0.02 - 2,500
0.1 - 2,500
0.1 - 2,500
0.1 - 2,500
1 - 2,500
0.5 - 2,500
0.2 - 500
0.05 - 2,500
0.05 - 2,500
0.1 - 2,500

Pressed Pellet Wavelength Dispersive XRF


As
Ba
Ce
La
Nb
Rb
Th
U
W
Y
Zr

Description
Arsenic
Barium
Cerium
Lanthanum
Niobium
Rubidium
Thorium
Uranium
Tungsten
Yttrium
Zirconium

Method code
As-XRF05
Ba-XRF05
Ce-XRF05
La-XRF05
Nb-XRF05
Rb-XRF05
Th-XRF05
U-XRF05
W-XRF05
Y-XRF05
Zr-XRF05

Range (ppm)
5 - 5,000
10 - 10,000
10 - 10,000
10 - 10,000
10 - 10,000
2 - 10,000
4 - 10,000
4 - 10,000
10 - 10,000
2 - 10,000
10 - 10,000

Individual Methods - Various Techniques

Hg
pH
eH
U
LOI
F
Br
Cl
I

Description
Mercury / cold vapor
Soil pH (1:1 ratio)
Soil Conductivity
Uranium / DNC-NAA
LOI at 1000 oC
Fluorine / electrochem.
Bromine / NAA
Chlorine / NAA
Iodine / NAA

Method
code
Hg-CV41
OA-ELE05
OA-ELE06
U-DNC05
OA-GRA05
F-ELE81
Br-NAA05
Cl-NAA06
I-NAA07

Range (ppm)
0.01 - 100
0.2 - 1,000
0.01% - 100%
20 - 10,000
0.5 - 10,000
100 - 10,000
20 - 10,000

For most analytical methods the purpose of sample decomposition is to properly


destroy the solid-phase system of the geological sample, allowing the release of the
elements of interest into a liquid solution. Therefore, the suitability of a sample
decomposition procedure for a given sample type depends on the sample
mineralogical composition and texture, as well as on the intended use of the
analytical results. Our staff would be pleased to discuss your specific requirements.

18

Whole Rock Geochemistry


The analysis of all the major oxides in a geological matrix
is referred to as whole rock analysis, because the
expectation is that for non-mineralized rocks, the sum of
the major oxides should be close to 100% of the total
composition of the sample. XRF is a non-destructive
instrumental technique widely used for whole rock
analysis. For high precision whole rock analysis we use
XRF (code ME-XRF06) or ICP-AES (code ME-ICP06) and
report the major and minor elements as oxides. Loss on
Ignition is also reported. In addition to the major and minor
oxides, a number of add-on options are also available with
whole rock analysis.

Method code Description

Elements and Ranges (%)

Whole rock analysis.


ME-XRF06

All elements by lithium


meta or tetra borate
fusion* and XRF.

ME-ICP06

Si
Al
Fe
Ca
Mg
Na
K

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
MgO
Na2O
K2O

(0.01 - 100)
(0.01 - 100)
(0.01 - 100)
(0.01 - 100)
(0.01 - 100)
(0.01 - 100)
(0.01 - 100)

Cr
Cr2O3
(0.01 - 100)
Ti
TiO2
(0.01 - 100)
Mn MnO
(0.01 - 100)
P
P2O5
(0.01 - 100)
Sr
SrO
(0.01 - 100)
Ba
BaO
(0.01 - 100)
Loss on Ignition (0.01 - 100)

All elements by lithium


meta or tetra borate
fusion* and ICP-AES.
* For samples that are high in sulfides, we may substitute a Na2O2 fusion in order to obtain better results.
The following options are available as add-ons to whole rock analysis:

Method code

Element or
Parameter

Description

Range (%)

C-IR07

Total carbon by Leco furnace.

0.01 - 50

C-GAS05

Inorganic carbon by HCl leach and Leco-gasometric


finish.

0.2 - 50

Fe-VOL05

FeO

Ferrous iron by HCl-HF acid digestion and titrimetric


finish.

0.01 - 100

OA-IR05

H2O

Moisture water by Leco furnace and Infrared


Spectroscopy.

0.01 - 100

OA-IR06

H2O

Water of crystallization by Leco furnace and Infrared


Spectroscopy.

0.01 - 100

Total sulfur by Leco furnace and Infrared Spectroscopy.

0.01 - 50

S-IR08

Rare Earth Geochemistry


ICP-MS has made it possible to determine rare earth elements to detection limits that allow the geologist to
measure the degree of rare earth fractionation in a rock, thus assisting him or her in determining its genesis.
In order to help you interpret the data, we can provide chondrite normalized rare earth plots.
Method code
ME-MS82

17 elements by lithium metaborate fusion and ICP-MS.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Ce
(0.5 - 10,000)
Ho
Dy
(0.1 - 1,000)
La
Er
(0.1 - 1,000)
Lu
Eu
(0.1 - 1,000)
Nd
Gd
(0.1 1,000)

(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)

Pr
Sm
Tb
Th

19

(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(1 - 1,000)

Tm
U
Y
Yb

(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.5 - 1,000)
(0.5 - 1,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)

Geochronology
We are pleased to offer a new and exciting service to our clients in 2001. Geochronology is becoming ever
more useful in the overall picture for mineral exploration as well as in its traditional use in research and
academia. We can now offer U-Pb dating and Pb isotopic analyses at very competitive rates and attractive
turnaround times through a mutually exclusive contract with the Geochronology Laboratory at the University
of British Columbia, a facility with more than 20 years of experience and expertise providing radiogenic age
and isotopic data to the mining, exploration and geological communities.
The selection of specific isotopic systems is crucial for
your overall dating strategy and we recommend that
clients contact us for a consultation prior to submitting
samples. We also have information on our website that
will assist you in choosing the right method for your
particular application. Sampling strategy design and
data interpretation of regional isotopic data sets are
also available on a consulting basis.

Method code

Description

GMS01

U - Pb age determination.

GMS02

Pb isotopic analysis (galena).

GMS03

Pb isotopic analysis (trace).

U Pb dating.
U-Pb geochronology of zircons and other accessory minerals is generally accepted as the best method for
determining precise, absolute crystallization ages for a wide variety of volcanic and plutonic rocks. The U-Pb
method is extremely robust, and it is usually possible to obtain the original crystallization age of rock units
despite strong weathering, hydrothermal alteration, or metamorphism. The range of application of this
technique includes dating most intermediate to felsic intrusive and extrusive rocks, some mafic intrusive
rocks and regional metamorphic events. In some cases it is also possible to obtain U-Pb ages for perovskite
from kimberlite samples, or hydrothermal minerals such as rutile or cassiterite. For specialized U-Pb dating
investigations such as these we highly recommend discussions of sampling strategy prior to submitting
samples. As some samples have complex isotopic systematics, we will choose the number of individual
zircon fractions required to produce an acceptable date for each sample submitted. Accessory phases such
as titanite and monazite may also be analyzed. This service includes all mineral separation. For samples
which do not yield datable minerals, cost will be for mineral separation only. A table of analytical data, a U-Pb
concordia plot or U-Pb isochron diagram of the data and a brief age interpretation are distributed to the
client.

Pb isotopic analyses.
Common lead studies have applications in both igneous petrology and mineral deposit studies. Lead isotopic
studies well constrained by geology can provide important information regarding the relative age and
source(s) of metals in a deposit, can relate different mineral occurrences within a district or link various styles
of mineralization to genetically related magmatic suites. Lead isotopic signatures may also be used on a
reconnaissance scale to isotopically fingerprint specific styles of mineralization. We offer two types of
common lead analysis:
Galena Pb analyses (model ages meaningful for some styles of syngenetic mineralization may be
calculated)
trace Pb isotopic analyses on materials including (but not limited to) whole rocks, feldspar separates,
soils, nongalena sulphide or sulphosalt samples, and other minerals containing lead (some minerals
pose problems during dissolution refer to our website for details).
A table of data is distributed to the client and consulting services such as geological interpretation of the data
are also available.

20

Selective Leach Geochemistry


As mineral exploration continues in mature terrain, the best potential often lies beneath deep overburden.
Conventional geochemical methods for the analysis of soils or sediments are based on the premise that the
chemistry of the soils or sediments is indicative of the bedrock chemistry. In residual soils, conventional
digestion and analysis will reveal geochemical anomalies from the bedrock. However, if the soils or
sediments are derived from exotic overburden, the bulk chemistry of the soil will not reflect that of underlying
bedrock.
It is now widely agreed that many trace elements are mobile in the weathering environment, even moving
upwards through deep glacial deposits, lake sediments, or alluvium. While research continues and there are
many models/theories as to how this migration happens, there are many documented cases of a
geochemical response over deeply buried mineralization. The mobile elements can be scavenged by the
various phases in the surficial material. Cation exchange, chelation, and adsorption are all mechanisms that
can trap or concentrate the mobile elements. Many times these subtle anomalies are detectable using an
ultratrace aqua-regia ICP-MS/ICP-AES package, such as ALS Chemexs ME-MS41. It is true, however, that
strong acid digestions are less selective and the bulk chemistry of the overburden may mask the subtle trace
anomalies. The concept in applying selective leaches is to leach the samples in a very weak solution that
attacks only a targeted phase in the soil, such as oxyhydroxides, organics, or carbonates, thus bringing the
mobile elements into solution. In some cases, these anomalies may be detected even with a simple
deionized water leach, effectively rinsing off the water-soluble components of the sample.
The majority of our analytical methods are based on strong acid attacks or fusions, which are highly effective
in dissolving entire samples. Other less aggressive attacks such as the aqua-regia digestion tend to leave
the sample matrix substantially unaffected while dissolving trace elements of potential interest. However,
over the years, explorationists have experimented with a wide variety of weaker leaches, many of which
have been effective in selectively dissolving specific components of the sample matrix. Some of these
selective leaches target exchangeable metals, carbonate minerals, sulfide minerals, manganese oxides, iron
oxides or organically-bound metals. The attack and dissolution of specific components of the matrix also
liberate any trace elements associated with that component.
The use of selective leaches often reveals greater geochemical contrasts between background and
anomalous concentrations than do more aggressive leaches; for example, such an approach can enhance
the dispersion train of an element in sediments, thus permitting an explorationist to detect a deposit from a
much greater distance. These selective leaches are most appropriate for use with samples collected from the
weathering zone, in particular soils, lake and stream sediments.
ALS Chemex offers the widest variety of selective leaches in the industry. We have long recognized that
there is no such thing as a magic solution that is applicable in all geological environments. We have
geochemists on staff who can discuss your needs for particular exploration projects, and assist you with
orientation surveys, final method selection, sampling protocols and even get you started on data reduction.
In the following two pages you can find the description of non-proprietary and proprietary methods, covering
leaches based on cold and hot hydroxilamine hydrochloride, sodium pyrophosphate, Regoleach and MMI.

ICP-MS provides the ultra-trace detection limits that are necessary for selective leach geochemistry.
21

Non-Proprietary Methods
Cold hydroxylamine hydrochloride
The cold hydroxylamine leach has been used extensively by explorationists because it is selective for
manganese oxides, long known to be powerful scavengers of heavy metals of geochemical significance.
Manganese forms several oxidation states and exists in a variety of amorphous and crystalline forms. As a
result manganese oxide has an extraordinarily high cation exchange capacity, accommodating many
different trace elements on its surfaces. This leach does not dissolve crystalline iron oxides but does dissolve
very small amounts of amorphous hydrous iron oxide.
Hot hydroxylamine hydrochloride
The hot hydroxylamine leach, which combines a higher concentration of hydroxylamine with elevated
temperature (60C) and a reducing acid environment, is capable of effectively dissolving amorphous
hydrous iron oxide while leaving crystalline iron oxide substantially intact (typically <1% dissolution). As
amorphous hydrous iron oxide is a much more effective scavenger than crystalline forms of iron oxide, this
leach can be quite informative about metal ion mobility.
Sodium Pyrophosphate
Organic matter in soils and sediments is capable of forming chelation complexes with metals. A solution of
neutral (pH 7) sodium pyrophosphate liberates these organically-bound heavy metals. Variations in the
concentrations of organically-bound metals such as copper, zinc, cobalt, nickel, iron and aluminum have
been used as indications of buried mineral deposits. Extraction with pyrophosphate does not attack sulfides
nor does it dissolve significant amounts of amorphous iron oxides.
Method code

Description

Lower reporting limit (ppm)

ME-MS05

Cold leach with 0.1M


hydroxylamine in
0.01M nitric acid and
ICP-MS.

ME-MS06

Hot leach with 0.25M


hydroxylamine in
0.25M hydrochloric
acid and ICP-MS.

ME-MS07

Leach with sodium


pyrophosphate 0.1M
and ICP-MS. Na and
P are not available
by this method.

Ag
Al
As
Au
B
Ba
Be
Bi
Br
Ca
Cd
Ce
Co
Cr
Cs
Cu

(0.002)
(1)
(0.1)
(0.05)
(2)
(0.05)
(0.05)
(0.005)
(2)
(10)
(0.01)
(0.005)
(0.05)
(0.05)
(0.005)
(0.05)

22

Dy
Er
Eu
Fe
Ga
Gd
Ge
Hf
Hg
Ho
I
In
K
La
Li
Lu

(0.005)
(0.005)
(0.005)
(5)
(0.05)
(0.005)
(0.1)
(0.01)
(0.1)
(0.005)
(0.1)
(0.005)
(5)
(0.005)
(0.05)
(0.005)

Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Nb
Nd
Ni
P
Pb
Pr
Rb
Re
Sb
Se
Sm
Sn

(1)
(0.1)
(0.01)
(10)
(0.01)
(0.005)
(0.05)
(5)
(0.1)
(0.005)
(0.01)
(0.001)
(0.005)
(0.5)
(0.005)
(0.05)

Sr (0.05)
Ta (0.01)
Tb (0.005)
Te (0.05)
Th (0.01)
Ti (1)
Tl (0.005)
Tm (0.005)
U
(0.005)
V
(0.05)
W (0.01)
Y
(0.005)
Yb (0.005)
Zn (0.2)
Zr (0.05)
Final pH

Proprietary Methods
Regoleach

Regoleach is a unique development by ALS Chemex and Rutherford Mineral Resource


Consultants, which unlike other weak leaches, selectively solubilizes gold as well as base
metals and pathfinder elements. The combination of a large sample mass (50 - 100 g)
combined with ICP-MS technology enables multi-element determinations at the ppb level,
and the generation of meaningful data for precious metals.
Method code

Description

Lower reporting limit (ppm)

ME-MS08

Regoleach
and ICP-MS.

Ag
As
Au
Ba
Bi
Ca
Cd

(0.005)
(0.005)
(0.001)
(1)
(0.005)
(1)
(0.005)

Ce
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Hg
K

(0.1)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(5)
(0.005)
(1)

La
Mg
Mn
Mo
Na
Nb
Ni

(0.1)
(1)
(1)
(0.01)
(1)
(0.01)
(0.01)

Pb
Pt
S
Sb
Se
Sn
Sr

(0.01)
(0.001)
(1)
(0.005)
(0.005)
(0.005)
(1)

Te
Tl
U
W
Zn

(0.005)
(0.005)
(0.01)
(0.005)
(0.05)

MMI Mobile-Metal-Ion Leaches


MMI analysis is performed by ALS Chemex under a licensing arrangement with
Wamtech Pty Ltd, owners of the technology. In the right geological environment
the MMI Process enables the detection of deeply buried mineralization using a
surface soil medium, through the dissolution and subsequent measurement of
mobile metal ions, which are loosely attached to the surface soil particles. MMI
uses proprietary leach reagents suitable for the extraction of the target elements.
Method code

Description

Lower reporting limit (ppm)

ME-MS09

MMI-A leach for base metals (ICP-MS).

Cu
Pb

(0.01)
(0.01)

Zn
Cd

(0.02)
(0.001)

ME-MS10

MMI-B leach for precious metals (ICP-MS).

Au
Ag
Pd

(0.0001)
(0.0001)
(0.0001)

Ni
Co

(0.003)
(0.00025)

ME-MS11

MMI-C leach for base metals in carbonates


(ICP-MS).

Cu
Pb

(0.01)
(0.01)

Zn
Cd

(0.02)
(0.001)

ME-MS12

MMI-D for kimberlites/ diamond host rocks


(ICP-MS).

Ni
Co
Pd
Nb

(0.003)
(0.00025)
(0.0001)
(0.0001)

Cr
Mg
Y
Rb

(0.001)
(0.01)
(0.0001)
(0.0001)

ME-MS13

MMI-F for pathfinder elements (ICP-MS).

As
Sb
Hg

(0.001)
(0.001)
(0.003)

Mo (0.005)
Se (0.002)
Fe (0.1)

ME-MS15

MMI-G for granophile and pegmatophile


elements (ICP-MS).

U
Th
Pb

(0.001)
(0.001)
(0.01)

Ta
Sn
W

23

(0.0002)
(0.0002)
(0.0002)

Hydrogeochemistry
The methods below are used for the geochemical analysis of ground water samples during mineral
exploration. These methods are not suitable for water samples with high metal content or for environmental
samples. In order to check for possible sample contamination, we suggest the use of a trip blank, i.e., a
distilled water sample that travels to the sampling site and is sent together with the actual water samples to
the lab.
Method code
ME-PKG05

21 elements in water by ICP-AES and AAS.

Elements and Lower Reporting Limits (


g/l)
Ag
(10)
Cd
(1)
Fe
Al
(10)
Co
(10)
Hg
As
(1)
Cr
(10)
Li
Ba
(1)
Cu
(10)
Mn
Be
(1)

Method code
ME-MS14

(10)
(1)
(10)
(10)

Mo
Ni
Pb
Se

(50)
(10)
(50)
(1)

Sr
Ti
V
Zn

(1)
(10)
(10)
(1)

Pb
Pr
Rb
Sb
Sc
Se
Sm
Sn
Sr
Ta
Tb

(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.1)
(0.1)
(0.1)
(0.1)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.01)

Te
Th
Tl
Tm
U
V
W
Y
Yb
Zn
Zr

(0.1)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.1)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.1)
(0.1)

57 elements in water by ICP-MS.

Elements and Lower Reporting Limits (


g/l)
Ag
(0.05)
Cu
(0.1)
La
As
(0.1)
Dy
(0.01)
Li
B
(10)
Er
(0.01)
Lu
Ba
(0.01)
Eu
(0.01)
Mg
Be
(0.1)
Fe
(10)
Mn
Bi
(0.01)
Ga
(0.01)
Mo
Ca
(50)
Gd
(0.01)
Na
Cd
(0.01)
Hf
(0.01)
Nb
Ce
(0.01)
Hg
(0.2)
Nd
Co
(0.1)
Ho
(0.01)
Ni
Cr
(0.1)
In
(0.01)
P
Cs
(0.01)
K
(50)

(0.01)
(10)
(0.05)
(0.5)
(0.1)
(1)
(50)
(0.01)
(0.01)
(0.1)
(100)

Hydro geochemistry requires the use of


ultra-sensitive measurement equipment
such as ICP-MS and Zeeman Graphite
Furnace systems

24

Diamond Exploration Geochemistry

Method code
ME-MS63

25 elements by double HF-HNO3-HClO4 acid digestion, HCl leach and a


combination of ICP-MS and ICP-AES.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Al
(0.01% - 25%)
Fe
Ba
(0.5 - 10,000)
Hf
Ca
(0.01% - 25%)
K
Ce
(0.01 - 500)
La
Co
(0.1 - 10,000)
Mg
Cr
(1 - 10,000)
Mn
Cs
(0.05 - 500)

Method code
ME-MS81d

(0.01% - 25%)
(0.1 - 500)
(0.01% - 10%)
(0.5 - 500)
(0.01% - 15%)
(5 - 10,000)

Na
Nb
Ni
P
Rb
Sr

(0.01% - 10%)
(0.1 - 500)
(0.2 - 10,000)
(10 -10,000)
(0.1 - 500)
(0.2 - 10,000)

Ti
V
W
Y
Zn
Zr

(0.01% - 10%)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 500)
(2 - 10,000)
(0.5 - 500)

40 elements by lithium metaborate fusion and a combination of ICP-MS


and ICP-AES.

Elements and Ranges (ppm)


Al*
(0.01% - 100%)
Fe*
Ba
(0.5 - 10,000)
Ga
Ca* (0.01% - 100%)
Gd
Ce
(0.5 - 10,000)
Hf
Co
(0.5 - 10,000)
Ho
Cr
(10 - 10,000)
K*
Cs
(0.1 - 10,000)
La
Dy
(0.1 - 1,000)
Lu
Er
(0.1 - 1,000)
Mg*
Eu
(0.1 - 1,000)
Na*

(0.01 - 100%)
(1 - 1,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.01% - 100%)
(0.5 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.01% - 100%)
(0.01% - 100%)

Nb
Nd
Ni
P
Pr
Rb
Sm
Sn
Sr
Ta

(1 - 10,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)
(5 - 10,000)
(10 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.2 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 10,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)

Tb
Th
Tm
U
V
W
Y
Yb
Zn
Zr

(0.1 - 1,000)
(1 - 1,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(0.5 - 1,000)
(5 - 10,000)
(1 - 10,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)
(0.1 - 1,000)
(5 - 10,000)
(0.5 - 10,000)

*Elements reported as oxides

Method code

Description

Lower reporting limit (ppm)

ME-MS12

MMI-D for kimberlites/ diamond host rocks


(ICP-MS).

Ni
Co
Pd
Nb

- see page 23 for information about MobileMetal-Ion (MMI) leaches -

25

(0.003)
(0.00025)
(0.0001)
(0.0001)

Cr
Mg
Y
Rb

(0.001)
(0.01)
(0.0001)
(0.0001)

Evaluation of Ores and High Grade Materials


While analytical methods for geochemical exploration are optimized for low detection limits, the assays for
evaluation of ores and high-grade materials are optimized for accuracy and precision at high concentration
levels. The methods described below are suitable for most ores and high-grade materials. Depending on the
purpose of the analytical results, concentrations greater than 15 - 20% may require the use of more
expensive methods, such as titrimetric and gravimetric analysis, in order to achieve the maximum accuracy.
Please contact your nearest ALS Chemex laboratory if you require such type of analysis. For gold and
platinum group metals please see Precious Metals on pages 9-11.
When results for more than one element are required, the most economical solution will be to combine
elements that use the same analytical protocol.

Code

Element or parameter
and description

Range (%)

Element or parameter
and description

Code

Range (%)

Ag-AA46

Ag Aqua regia - AA

1 - 1,500**

Mg-AA62

Mg* HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.01 - 50

Ag-AA62

Ag HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

1 - 1,000**

Mg-ICP81

Mg* Fusion - ICPAES

0.01 - 30

Ag-GRA21

Ag Fire Assay - Grav..

Mn* Aqua regia - AA

0.01 - 50

Al-AA62

Al* HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.01 - 50

5- - 3,500**- Mn-AA46
Mn-AA62

Mn* HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.01 - 50

Al-ICP81

Al* Fusion - ICPAES

0.01 - 30

Mn-ICP81

Mn* Fusion - ICPAES

0.01 - 30

As-AA46

As Aqua regia - AA

0.01 - 30

Mo-AA46

Mo Aqua regia - AA

0.001 - 10

OA-GRA09 B.D. Bulk Density - grav.

0.01 - 20g/cm

Mo-AA62

Mo HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.001 - 10

Ba-XRF07

Ba Pressed pellet - XRF

0.01 - 50

Na-AA62

Na* HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.001 - 30

Bi-AA46

Bi

Aqua regia - AA

0.001 - 30

Ni-AA62

Ni

HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

C-IR07

Total Carbon

0.01 - 50

Ni-ICP81

Ni

Fusion - ICPAES

C-CAL05

Total Organic Carbon

0.05 - 50

P-ICP62

P*

HF-HNO3-HClO4 - ICP

C-GAS05

CO2 Inorganic Carbon (CO2)

Ca-AA62

Ca* HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

Ca-ICP81
Cd-AA46

0.01 - 30
0.005 - 30
0.01 - 50

0.2 - 50

Pb-AA46

Pb Aqua regia - AA

0.01 - 30

0.01 - 50

Pb-AA62

Pb HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.01 - 30

Ca* Fusion - ICPAES

0.01 - 30

Pb-ICP81

Pb Fusion - ICPAES

0.01 - 30

Cd Aqua regia - AA

1 ppm - 10%

Pb-AA06

Pb Nonsulfide - AA

0.01 - 10

Cd-AA62

Cd HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

1 ppm - 10%

S-IR08

Co-AA62

Co HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.001 - 30

OA-CAL06

Co-ICP81

Co Fusion - ICPAES

0.002 - 30

OA-GRA06 SO4 Sulfate Sulfur - grav.

0.01 - 50

Cr-AA81

Cr* Fusion AA

0.01 - 50

S-GRA07

0.01 - 100

Cu-AA46

Cu Aqua regia - AA

0.01 - 30

OA-GRA08 S.G. Specific Gravity - grav.

0.01 - 20g/cm

Cu-AA62

Cu HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.01 - 30

Sb-AA08

Sb KClO3-HCl - AA

0.01 - 20

Cu-ICP81

Cu Fusion - ICPAES

0.01 - 30

Si-AA81

Si* Fusion - AA

0.01 - 100

Cu-AA05

Cu Nonsulfide - AA

0.001 - 10

Sn-XRF08

Sn Pressed pellet - XRF

0.01 - 50

Fe-AA46

Fe Aqua regia - AA

0.01 - 30

Sr-AA62

Sr

0.01 - 20

Fe-AA62

Fe HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.01 - 30

Ti-AA81

Ti* Fusion - AA

0.01 - 50

0.01 - 30

Fe-ICP81
Fe-VOL05

Fe Fusion - ICPAES

0.01 - 50
0.01 - 50

Elemental Sulfur - grav.

HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.05 - 30

V-AA62
W-XRF09

W* Pressed pellet - XRF

0.01 - 50

0.01 - 100

Zn-AA46

Zn

Aqua regia - AA

0.01 - 30

0.01 - 100

Zn-AA62

Zn

HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

0.01 - 30

0.01 - 30

Zn-ICP81

Zn

Fusion - ICPAES

0.01 - 30

Zn-AA07

Zn

Nonsulfide - AA

0.01 - 10

H2O Moisture - Leco

OA-IR06

H2O Crystalline water - Leco


K*

Total Sulfur - Leco


Sulfide Sulfur - calculat.

0.01 - 100

FeO HCl-HF - volumetric

OA-IR05
K-AA62

HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA
o

OA-GRA05 LOI Loss on Ignition-1000 C

0.1 - 100

HF-HNO3-HClO4 - AA

*Element reported as oxide. **Range in ppm.

For most analytical methods the purpose of sample decomposition is to properly


destroy the solid-phase system of the geological sample, allowing the release of the
elements of interest into a liquid solution. Therefore, the suitability of a sample
decomposition procedure for a given sample type depends on the sample
mineralogical composition and texture, as well as on the intended use of the
analytical results. Our staff would be pleased to discuss your specific requirements.

26

Mine Planning and Operation


On-site Mine Lab Services

ALS Chemex has over 20 years experience in the design,


construction and contract management of on-site laboratories.
The on-site facility will vary depending on the requirements of
the operation and will be specifically built to satisfy the
particular site requirements.
ALS Chemex can provide
containerized sample preparation facilities; analytical facilities
housed in relocatable buildings or can fit out an existing onsite structure.
The construction and fit out teams are ALS Chemex
employees so in most cases, additional external contractors
are not required which simplifies and speeds up the entire
process. Whether the facility is to be fitted out on site or
transported to site, once the design is decided upon, ALS
Chemex looks after the entire process.
After on-site
commissioning of the facility, ALS Chemex can either manage
the laboratory or hand over a complete turnkey operation.
For further information regarding the supply and/or
management of on-site facilities, please contact the ALS
Chemex office nearest to you.

Off-site Grade Control and Metallurgical Services


Rapid turnaround and high quality are
prerequisites for grade and plant control
samples. ALS Chemex understands this
and has a proven track record with some of
the largest mining houses around the world
for providing a first class service away from
the mine site. If your mine operation doesnt
warrant an on-site laboratory, mine related
samples could be directed to one of the
specialized mine laboratories in the ALS
Chemex global network.
Grade control samples, carbons, slurries,
plant solutions, bullions, feeds and tails are
separated and processed through specially
designed sections of the laboratory. Special
laboratory procedures are employed to
ensure that different product streams dont
affect each other with the result being the
production of quality data in a timely fashion for decision making purposes at the mine.
For further information regarding the supply of off-site mine related assays, please contact the ALS Chemex
office nearest to you.

27

Acid Generation Potential Evaluation


Natural oxidation of sulfide minerals in rocks and tailings by a combination of chemical and biological
weathering can result in the formation of sulfuric acid, thus lowering pH and causing increased levels of
dissolved trace metals. The rate of acid generation is extremely complex and is affected by such variables as
pH, temperature, humidity, oxygenation, particle size and sulfide mineral species. In addition, the rate of acid
generation is accelerated by certain bacterial species such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The degree of
bacterial action depends in turn upon such factors as pH, population density and growth, and nutrient
concentrations.
Acid-generating minerals include the various mineral forms of pyrite as well as other common sulfide
minerals such as arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite. However other species in the waste rock frequently include
alkaline minerals such as calcite as well. These alkaline minerals can effectively neutralize acid which has
been generated. Numerous tests have been developed to assess the interaction between these acidgenerating and alkaline materials, both in the short term and over extended periods of time. Depending on
the amount of alkaline material present, the sulfuric acid may be partially or completely neutralized. If the
production of sulfuric acid exceeds its neutralization by alkaline materials, then the result is acid rock
drainage.
ALS Chemex offers different methods to assess the acid generating potential of your waste piles, both in the
short term (Static Test) and over extended periods of time (Humidity Cells).
Static Test (Acid-Base Accounting)
Our acid rock drainage static test has been designed to measure the balance between potentially acidgenerating minerals (maximum potential acidity) and acid-neutralizing minerals (neutralization potential) in a
sample. This procedure, known as Acid-Base Accounting (ABA), yields a figure known as Net Neutralization
Potential (NNP), which determines whether a particular sample will theoretically generate acidity over time.
Depending on the parameters included, there are different options of the static test.
Static Test (Acid-Base Accounting).
Parameters
Net Neutralization Potential (NNP)
Maximum Potential Acidity (MPA)
Neutralization Potential & Fizz Rating
Ratio (Neutralization Potential:MPA)
Paste pH
Total Sulfur
HCl-leachable Sulfate
Sulfide
Total Sulfate (Carbonate Leach)
Inorganic Carbon (CO2)

ABAPKG01

ABAPKG02

















Method code
ABAPKG03










ABAPKG04

ABAPKG05





















Kinetic Tests (Humidity Cells)


Kinetic tests are used to further evaluate samples which were identified to have net acid generating potential.
Samples are subjected to chemical weathering under controlled laboratory conditions. Tests are carried out
in humidity cells typically using 7-day test cycles. Weekly analysis of the leachate includes pH, conductivity,
alkalinity, acidity, sulfate and a suite of trace elements.
Method code
ABA-PKG10
pH
Conductivity
Acidity

Kinetic Tests (Humidity Cells)


Parameters
Alkalinity
Sulfate
Trace elements ICP-MS scan

28

Commercial and Industrial Mineral Analysis


Mineral Concentrate Analysis (Buyer/Seller)
ALS Chemex maintains separate laboratory facilities for the testing of mineral concentrates. Other major and
trace elements in concentrates are available by request.
Method
code

Elements

Method description

Au-GRA25

Au

Au in copper concentrates by fire assay ISO 10378 (AS2917.2) in triplicate.

Ag-GRA25

Ag

Ag in copper concentrates by fire assay ISO 10378 (AS2917.2) in triplicate.

Au-GRA26

Au

Au in lead sulfide concentrates by fire assay in triplicate.

Ag-GRA26

Ag

Ag in lead sulfide concentrates by fire assay in triplicate.

Au-GRA27

Au

Au in zinc sulfide concentrates by fire assay in triplicate.

Ag-GRA27

Ag

Ag in zinc sulfide concentrates by fire assay in triplicate.

Cu-VOL64

Cu

Cu in copper sulfide concentrates ISO 10258 (AS2917) in duplicate.

Pb-VOL65

Pb

Pb in lead sulfide concentrates ISO 11441 (AS4030.2) in duplicate.

Zn-VOL81

Zn

Zn in zinc sulfide concentrates ISO 13291 in duplicate.

Mineral Sands Analysis


Method
code

Sample type

Elements/parameters

Method description

ME-ICP82

Analysis of
Production Rutile,
Synthetic Rutile and
Leucoxene.

Any of the following: TiO2, ZrO2,


Fe2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, MgO, MnO,
Nb2O5, P2O5, SiO2, V2O5, Al2O3

Fusion, ICP-AES

ME-ICP83

Analysis of
production Zircon.

Any of the following: ZrO2, TiO2,


Fe2O3, Al2O3, CaO, HfO2, MgO,
P2O5, SiO2

Fusion, ICP-AES

ME-ICP84

Analysis of
production Ilmenite.

Any of the following: TiO2, Fe,


Al2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, MgO, MnO,
Nb2O5, P2O5, SiO2, V2O5, ZrO2

Fusion, ICP-AES

ME-ICP94

Analysis of
Intermediate plant
products.

Any of the following: TiO2, ZrO2,


Fe2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, MgO, MnO,
Nb2O5, P2O5, SiO2, V2O5, Al2O3

Fusion, ICP-AES

Sn-MS85

Various

SnO2

Fusion, ICPMS

Th-MS86

Various

ThO2

Fusion, ICPMS

U-MS87

Various

U3O8

Fusion, ICPMS

As-MS88

Various

As2O3

Fusion, ICPMS

OA-MIN05

Various

Free quartz.

Heavy Media Separation

OA-VOL06

Various

FeO

Acid digest, titration

S-IR09

Various

Fusion, Leco IR spectroscopy

OA-RAD05

Various

Radioactivity

Radiometry

OA-GRA10

Various

Moisture

Gravimetric

OA-GRA

Various

LOI (1050 C)

29

Gravimetric

Industrial Minerals
Method
code

Sample type

Elements/parameters

Method
description

ME-ICP85

Silicates

SiO2, Al2O3, Total Fe as Fe2O3, CaO, MgO,


Na2O, K2O, TiO2, MnO, P2O5, SrO, LOI

Fusion, ICP-AES

ME-ICP86

Limestone, Dolomite,
Magnesite, Magnesia

CaO, MgO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2, LOI

Fusion, ICP-AES

OA-VOL07

Limestone, Dolomite,
Magnesite, Magnesia

Neutralising value

Acid digestion,
titrimetric

ME-PKG82

Limestone, Dolomite,
Magnesite, Magnesia

CaO, MgO, Fe2O3

Acid digestion,
ICP-AES

ME-ICP87

Iron ore

Total Fe, SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, CaO, MgO, MnO,


P, LOI

Fusion, ICP-AES

ME-ICP88

Bauxite

Total Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, LOI

Fusion, ICP-AES

ME-ICP89

Phosphate rock

P2O5, Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2, CaO, MgO, TiO2,


Na2O, K2O, MnO, LOI

Fusion, ICP-AES

ME-ICP90

Manganese Ore

Total Mn, Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, P

Fusion, ICP-AES

ME-PKG84

Barytes

BaSO4, SrSO4, SiO2, Fe, Mn, SG

Fusion, ICP-AES,
Pycnometer

ME-ICP91

Cementitious
Material

CaO, SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, Mn2O3, MgO,


Na2O, K2O, SO3

Fusion, ICP-AES

Cl-VOL66

Cementitious
Material

Chloride content according to AS3583.13

Acid digestion,
titrimetric

ME-PKG85

Silica sand, quartz

SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2

Fusion, ICPAES/ICP-MS

ME-PKG86

Glass sand product

SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, Cr2O3

Fusion, ICPAES/ICP-MS

ME-ICP05

Gypsum

CaSO4.2H20, CaCO3, MgCO3, NaCl, KCl

Acid digestion,
ICP-AES

ME-ICP92

Gypsum

CaSO4.2H20, CaCO3, MgCO3, NaCl, KCl,


SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO, SrO, BaO,
V2O5

Fusion, ICP-AES

ME-MS42

Coal, fly ash

Trace elements - As, Hg, Se, Sb

Acid digestion,
ICP-MS

ME-MS83

Coal, fly ash

Trace elements Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li,


Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y, Zn

Ashing, Acid
Digestion, ICP-MS

ME-MS84

Coal, fly ash

Trace elements B, Cr, Ga, Mo, P, V, W

Ashing, Fusion,
ICP-MS

ME-PKG08

Sulfuric acid

Total acidity, As, Se, Fe, Pb

Titrimetric, ICP-MS

ME-ICP93

Nickel laterites.

Ni, Co, Fe, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O,


K2O, TiO2, P2O5, MnO, Cr2O3, LOI

Fusion, ICP-AES

Excellence in Analytical Chemistry


30

GENERAL CONDITIONS OF SERVICE PROVISION


PRICING
Pricing for the services described in this Schedule will vary by country. Please contact your nearest ALS Chemex
office to obtain a current Price Schedule for the country where you expect to submit samples. Price variations are
designed to reflect the different operating costs and currencies in each country or region.

PAYMENT
Unless otherwise agreed between ALS Chemex and client, but subject to credit approval, payment for all accounts
rendered by ALS shall be within thirty (30) days from the date of invoice. ALS Chemex reserves the right to
discontinue work on behalf of any client failing to observe these terms. If accounts are not paid within the said 30
day period ALS Chemex shall have the right to charge the client interest on the amount of the unpaid account from
the date of payment at the rate of twenty percent (20%) per annum.

DISCOUNTS
Volume discounts are available for projects that will generate a guaranteed minimum number of samples, and are
dependent on the analytical techniques required.

SERVICES
ALS Chemex reserves the right to alter any of the services described in this brochure without notice.

LIABILITY
ALS Chemex provides an analysis service to customers on the following bases:
The service provided is subject to detection limits and confidence intervals inherent in our current methodology.
Because each client is reliant upon assay results for a particular purpose and often in a unique geological or
metallurgical context, it is the clients responsibility to inform him or herself fully as to ALS Chemexs detection
limits and confidence intervals relevant to that particular set of assay results.
The service is provided with due care and skill. However, any liability of ALS Chemex for breach of any condition
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supplied again. The customer releases and exempts ALS Chemex from any other civil liability for any error or
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SAMPLES
Where any analysis is to be performed, neither ALS Chemex nor its agents or subcontractors shall be liable for
any loss, deterioration or destruction of, or damage to, any of the clients samples or property, but at all times the
samples or property shall be at the risk of the client, who shall indemnify ALS Chemex and its agents or
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ALS Chemex undertakes that it will keep confidential all client information and analytical results, and that neither
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CUSTOMS AND QUARANTINE


Customs and quarantine requirements differ around the world. Please contact your nearest ALS Chemex office to
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