Life story of aryabhatta

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Life story of aryabhatta

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(present day Patna) in Bihar, India. His contribution to mathematics, science and

astronomy is immense, and yet he has not been accorded the recognition in the world

history of science. At the age of 24, he wrote his famed Aryabhatiya. He was aware of

the concept of zero, as well as the use of large numbers up to 1018. He was the first to

calculate the value for pi accurately to the fourth decimal point. He devised the formula

for calculating areas of triangles and circles. He calculated the circumference of the earth

as 62,832 miles, which is an excellent approximation, and suggested that the apparent

rotation of the heavens was due to the axial rotation of the earth on its axis. He was the

first known astronomer to devise a continuous counting of solar days, designating each

day with a number. He asserted that the planets shine due to the reflection of sunlight,

and that the eclipses occur due to the shadows of moon and earth. His observations

discount the flat earth concept, and lay the foundation for the belief that earth and

other planets orbit the sun.

Childhood & Early Life

Aryabhatas birthplace is uncertain, but it may have been in the area known in

ancient texts as Ashmaka, which may have been Maharashtra or Dhaka or in

Kusumapura in present day Patna.

Some archaeological evidence suggests that he came from the present day

Kodungallur, the historical capital city of Thiruvanchikkulam of ancient Kerala this theory is strengthened by the several commentaries on him having come

from Kerala.

He went to Kusumapura for advanced studies and lived there for some time.

Both Hindu and Buddhist traditions, as well as Bhskara I, the 7th Century

mathematician, identify Kusumapura as modern Patna.

Kusumapura. Since, the University of Nalanda was in Pataliputra, and had an

astronomical observatory; it is probable that he was its head too.

Direct details of his work are known only from the Aryabhatiya. His disciple

Bhaskara I calls it Ashmakatantra (or the treatise from the Ashmaka).

Aryabhatas 108), because there are 108 verses in the text. It also has 13

introductory verses, and is divided into four pdas or chapters.

Aryabhatiyas first chapter, Gitikapada, with its large units of time kalpa,

manvantra, and Yuga introduces a different cosmology. The duration of the

planetary revolutions during a mahayuga is given as 4.32 million years.

mensuration (ketra vyvahra), arithmetic and geometric progressions,

gnomon or shadows (shanku-chhAyA), simple, quadratic, simultaneous, and

indeterminate equations.

method for determining the positions of planets for a given day, and a sevenday week with names for the days of week.

The

last

chapter

of

the

Aryabhatiya,

Golapada

describes

Geometric/trigonometric aspects of the celestial sphere, features of the

ecliptic, celestial equator, shape of the earth, cause of day and night, and

zodiacal signs on horizon.

He did not use a symbol for zero; its knowledge was implicit in his place-value

system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients.

He did not use the Brahmi numerals, and continued the Sanskritic tradition

from Vedic times of using letters of the alphabet to denote numbers,

expressing quantities in a mnemonic form.

eight, and then add 62,000, the circumference of a circle with a diameter of

20,000 can be approached.

that not only is this an approximation, but that the value is incommensurable

or irrational.

In Ganitapada, he gives the area of a triangle as: for a triangle, the result of a

perpendicular with the half-side is the area. He discussed sine by the name

of ardha-jya or half-chord.

integer solutions to Diophantine equations with the form ax + by = c; he

called it the kuaka (meaning breaking into pieces) method.

provided elegant results for the summation of series of squares and cubes

through well tried formulae.

His system of astronomy was called the audayaka system, in which days are

reckoned from uday, dawn at lanka or equator. His later writings, which

apparently proposed the ardha-rAtrikA, or midnight model, are lost.

He correctly believed that the earth rotates about its axis daily, and that the

apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of

the earth, challenging the prevailing view.

similar to that of someone in a boat going forward sees an unmoving (object)

going backward.

He correctly asserted that the planets shine due to the reflection of sunlight,

and that the eclipses occur due to the shadows of moon and earth, and not

caused by a demon called Rahu!

He correctly deduced that the orbits of the planets are ellipses; this is another

great discovery not credited to him but to Johannes Kepler (a German

astronomer, born AD 1571).

Major Works

astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature,

and has survived to modern times. The Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic,

algebra, and trigonometry.

and influenced several neighboring cultures through translations. Some of his

works are cited by Al-Khwarizmi, and in the 10th century by Al-Biruni.

the Government of Bihar in his honor for the development and management of

educational infrastructure related to technical, medical, management and

allied professional education.

Nainital, India, research in astronomy, astrophysics and atmospheric sciences

is conducted.

Trivia

Named after the great Indian astronomer of the same name, Indias first

satellites image used to appear on the reverse of Indian 2 rupee banknotes.

Named after the great Indian astronomer is the remnant of a lunar impact

crater located in the eastern Sea of Tranquility on the Moon. Submerged by

lava-flow, now only an arc-shaped ridge remains.

Taregana, Bihar.

Some sources suggest that Kerala was Aryabhata's main place of life and

activity but others refute this statement.

have also been the head of the Nalanda university.

Some scholars claim that the Arabic text Al ntf or Al-nanf is a translation of

one of his works.

introductory verses.

Aryabhata did not use the Brahmi numerals; he used letters of the alphabet to

denote numbers.

It is probable that he might have come to the conclusion that 'pi' is irrational.

which literally means "half-chord".

Panchangam (the Hindu Calendar).

He correctly stated that the earth rotates about its axis daily.

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