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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

SECTION 1-01
LIMITATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page Block
Introduction ................................................................................ 1-01-00
General Limitations .................................................................... 1-01-01
Weight and CG .......................................................................... 1-01-05
Operational Limitations .............................................................. 1-01-10
Supplementary Operational Limitations (*) ................................ 1-01-12
Systems:
Crew Alerting......................................................................... 1-01-30
Electrical ............................................................................... 1-01-32
Fuel ....................................................................................... 1-01-36
APU ...................................................................................... 1-01-38
Powerplant ............................................................................ 1-01-40
Pressurization ....................................................................... 1-01-48
Ice and Rain Protection......................................................... 1-01-50
Ozone Concentration ............................................................ 1-01-52
Navigation, Communication and Autopilot ............................ 1-01-56
FMS ...................................................................................... 1-01-60
Doors (*)................................................................................ 1-01-70
Cat II Operation.......................................................................... 1-01-80

NOTE: Items marked with an asterisk () may not be present in this


manual.

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REVISION 31

1-01-00

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

INTRODUCTION
The airplane must be operated in accordance with the limitations
presented in this Section. These limitations also apply to operations in
accordance with an approved Supplement or Appendix to the AFM,
except as modified by such Supplement or Appendix.
The information contained in this section is derived from the Approved
Airplane Flight Manual.
Flight crewmembers should have all limitations committed to memory
(except tables and charts). Some items may not be included herein, as
they may be identified in a panel/placard or annunciated by some kind
of alarm/warning. Compliance to the Emergency and Abnormal
Procedures will also assure that certain limitations are complied with.
In the event that a limitation in this manual disagrees with the AFM
limitation, the AFM must prevail.
In the event that a placard or instrument marking disagrees with the
limitations shown in this manual, the more restrictive limitation must
prevail.

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1-01-00

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REVISION 13

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

GENERAL
MINIMUM CREW
Minimum Flight Crew .................................................... PILOT AND
COPILOT

KINDS OF OPERATION
This airplane may be flown day and night in the following conditions,
when the appropriate equipment and instruments required by
airworthiness and operating regulations are approved, installed and in
an operable condition:
Visual (VFR);
Instrument (IFR);
Icing conditions.
NOTE: The CAT II operation is not approved for ERJ-140 and
EMB-145 XR Pre-Mod. SB 145-31-0040 airplanes.

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SEATS (NON-AFM)


The maximum number of available seats is 42 on the EMB-135, 49 on
the ERJ-140, and 55 on the EMB-145. It includes 2 seats for pilots, 2
for attendants (1 optional), 1 for cockpit observer, and up to 37
passenger seats on the EMB-135, up to 44 passenger seats on the
ERJ-140, and up to 50 passenger seats on the EMB-145.

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REVISION 26

1-01-01

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

Page

1-01-01

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2 01

REVISION 13

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 LR FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

WEIGHT AND CENTER OF GRAVITY


EMB-145 LR MODEL - TAKEOFF WITH FLAPS 9
APPLICABLE TO AIRPLANES PRE-MOD. SB 145-53-0068.
MAXIMUM WEIGHT
Max. Ramp
Weight (MRW)

Max. Takeoff
Weight (MTOW)

Max. Landing
Weight (MLW)

Max. Zero Fuel


Weight (MZFW)

48722 lb

48501 lb

42549 lb

39462 lb

INFLIGHT LIMITS (FLAPS AND GEAR UP)


TAKEOFF AND LANDING LIMITS

52000
50000

18.4%

16.2%

39.5%

48501 lb

48000
46000

WEIGHT - lb

44000
42549 lb

42000
40000
38000

37698 lb

36000
34170 lb

34000
32000
30000

29542 lb

145FAA108A - 16FEB2006

28000

29542 lb
12%

43%
27337 lb

26000

30%

24000
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

CG POSITION - %MAC

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REVISION 31

1-01-05

Code

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LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 LR FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

APPLICABLE TO AIRPLANES POST-MOD. SB 145-53-0068 OR


EQUIPPED WITH AN EQUIVALENT MODIFICATION FACTORY
INCORPORATED.
MAXIMUM WEIGHT
Max. Ramp
Weight (MRW)

Max. Takeoff
Weight (MTOW)

Max. Landing
Weight (MLW)

Max. Zero Fuel


Weight (MZFW)

50044 lb

49823 lb

43651 lb

40564 lb

INFLIGHT LIMITS (FLAPS AND GEAR UP)


TAKEOFF AND LANDING LIMITS

52000
50000

38.5%

19.0%

16.7%

50044 lb
49823 lb

48000
46000

WEIGHT - lb

44000
42549 lb

42000
40000

39.5%
38482 lb

38000

37698 lb

36000
34170 lb

34000
32000
30000

29542 lb

145FAA108B - 16FEB2006

28000

29542 lb
12%

43%
27337 lb

26000

30%

24000
0

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

CG POSITION - %MAC

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1-01-05

10

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REVISION 31

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 LR FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL
EMB-145 LR MODEL - TAKEOFF WITH FLAPS 22

APPLICABLE TO AIRPLANES PRE-MOD. SB 145-53-0068.


MAXIMUM WEIGHT
Max. Ramp
Weight (MRW)

Max. Takeoff
Weight (MTOW)

Max. Landing
Weight (MLW)

Max. Zero Fuel


Weight (MZFW)

48722 lb

48501 lb

42549 lb

39462 lb

52000
28.6%

50000

39.5%
48722 lb
48501 lb

48000
46000
44000

42549 lb

WEIGHT - lb

42000
40000
38000

37698 lb

36000
34170 lb

34000
32000
30000

29542 lb

145FAA575A- 16FEB2006

28000

29542 lb
43%

12%
27337 lb

26000

30%

24000
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

CG POSITION - %MAC

NOTE: For inflight and landing limits refer to standard CG Envelope.


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REVISION 31

1-01-05

Code

3 08

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 LR FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

APPLICABLE TO AIRPLANES POST-MOD. SB 145-53-0068 OR


EQUIPPED WITH AN EQUIVALENT MODIFICATION FACTORY
INCORPORATED.
MAXIMUM WEIGHT
Max. Ramp
Weight (MRW)

Max. Takeoff
Weight (MTOW)

Max. Landing
Weight (MLW)

Max. Zero Fuel


Weight (MZFW)

50044 lb

49823 lb

43651 lb

40564 lb

54000
30.1%

52000

38.5%
50044 lb

50000

49823 lb

48000
46000
44000
42549 lb

WEIGHT - lb

42000
39.5%

40000
38000

37698 lb

36000
34170 lb

34000
32000

145FAA575B- 09JAN2006

30000

29542 lb

29542 lb

28000

12%

43%

27337 lb

26000

30%

24000
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

CG POSITION - %MAC
NOTE: For inflight and landing limits refer to standard CG Envelope.
Page

1-01-05

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REVISION 31

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 LR FAA

To comply with the performance and operating limitations of the


regulations, the maximum allowable takeoff and landing operational
weights may be equal to, but not greater than, the design limits.
The takeoff weight (weight at brake release or at start of takeoff run) is
the lowest among MTOW and the following weights:
Maximum takeoff weight for altitude and temperature
determined from Maximum Takeoff Weight - Climb Limited
chart.
Maximum takeoff weight, as limited by runway length and
determined from Maximum Takeoff Weight - Field Length
Limited chart.
Maximum takeoff weight, as limited by brake energy and
determined from Maximum Takeoff Weight - Brake Energy
Limited chart.
Maximum takeoff weight, as limited by obstacle clearance,
enroute, and landing operating requirements.
The landing weight is the lowest among MLW and the following
weights:
Maximum approach and landing weight for altitude and
temperature determined from Maximum Landing Weight - Climb
Limited charts.
Maximum landing weight, as limited by runway length and
determined from Maximum Landing Weight - Field Length
Limited chart.

LOADING
The airplane must be loaded in accordance with the information
contained in the Weight and Balance Manual.

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REVISION 31

1-01-05

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LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 LR FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Page

1-01-05

Code

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REVISION 31

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 MP FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

WEIGHT AND CENTER OF GRAVITY


EMB-145 MP MODEL - TAKEOFF WITH FLAPS 9
MAXIMUM WEIGHT
Max. Ramp
Max. Takeoff
Weight (MRW) Weight (MTOW)

46495 lb

46275 lb

Max. Landing
Weight (MLW)

Max. Zero Fuel


Weight (MZFW)

42549 lb

39462 lb

INFLIGHT LIMITS (FLAPS AND GEAR UP)


TAKEOFF AND LANDING LIMITS
54000
52000
50000

39.5%

17.4%
15.3%

48000

MRW

46000

MTOW

44000

MLW

42549 lb

WEIGHT - lb

42000
MZFW

40000
38000

37698 lb

36000
34171 lb

34000
32000
30000

29541 lb

29541 lb

28000
145FAA110 - 04JUL2003

12%

27337 lb

43%

26000
30%

24000
22000
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

CG POSITION - %MAC

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REVISION 26

1-01-05

Code

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LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 MP FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

EMB-145 MP MODEL - TAKEOFF WITH FLAPS 22


MAXIMUM WEIGHT
Max. Ramp
Max. Takeoff
Weight (MRW) Weight (MTOW)

46495 lb

46275 lb

Max. Landing
Weight (MLW)

Max. Zero Fuel


Weight (MZFW)

42549 lb

39462 lb

50000
26%

48000

39.5%
MRW

43%
46000

MTOW

45414 lb

44000

WEIGHT - lb

42000

MLW

40000
MZFW

38000
36000
34170 lb

34000
32000
30000

28660 lb

28660 lb

145FAA576 - 18SEP2003

28000
12%

43%

26455 lb

26000

40%
24000
0

10

30

40

50

60

CG POSITION - %MAC

Page

1-01-05

20

Code

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REVISION 26

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 MP FAA

To comply with the performance and operating limitations of the


regulations, the maximum allowable takeoff and landing operational
weights may be equal to, but not greater than, the design limits.
The takeoff weight (weight at brake release or at start of takeoff run) is
the lowest among MTOW and the following weights:
Maximum takeoff weight for altitude and temperature
determined from Maximum Takeoff Weight - Climb Limited
chart.
Maximum takeoff weight, as limited by (dry or wet) runway
length and determined from Maximum Takeoff Weight - Field
Length Limited chart (if applicable, determined from Takeoff
Distance on Contaminated Runway and Accelerate Stop
Distance on Contaminated Runway charts).
Maximum takeoff weight, as limited by brake energy and
determined from Maximum Takeoff Weight - Brake Energy
Limited chart.
Maximum takeoff weight, as limited by obstacle clearance,
enroute, and landing operating requirements.
The landing weight is the lowest among MLW and the following
weights:
Maximum approach and landing weight for altitude and
temperature determined from Maximum Landing Weight - Climb
Limited charts.
Maximum landing weight, as limited by (dry or wet) runway
length and determined from Maximum Landing Weight - Field
Length Limited chart (if applicable, determined from Landing
Distance on Contaminated Runway charts).

LOADING
The airplane must be loaded in accordance with the information
contained in the Weight and Balance Manual.

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REVISION 26

1-01-05

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LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 MP FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

Page

1-01-05

Code

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REVISION 26

LIMITATIONS
FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS
OPERATIONAL ENVELOPE
40000
-65C

-21.5C
37000 ft

35000

30000

ALTITUDE - ft

25000
ISA + 35C
20000

15000

10000

8000 ft

5000

c
-1000 ft

0
-54C

-40C

52C

-5000
145CTA47 - 08OCT98

-70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10

10 20 30 40 50 60

STATIC AIR TEMPERATURE - C

NOTE: - In the event of a landing below -40C, the airplane may not
takeoff without further maintenance inspection.
- Total Air Temperature in cruise flight above 25000 ft is
limited to -45C. However, if momentary deviations happen
to temperature up to -50C, no maintenance action is
required.
Page

1-01-10

Code

1 01

TEMPORARY REVISION 37.2

AOM-145/1114

TAKEOFF, LANDING

LIMITATIONS
FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS
OPERATIONAL ENVELOPE
40000

-65C

-21.5C
37000 ft

35000

30000

ALTITUDE - ft

25000
ISA + 35C
20000

15000

10000

8000 ft

5000
-1000 ft

0
-54C

-40C

52C

-5000

AOM-145/1114

145CTA47 - 08OCT98

-70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10

10 20 30 40 50 60

STATIC AIR TEMPERATURE - C

TAKEOFF, LANDING

NOTE: - In the event of a landing below -40C, the airplane may not
takeoff without further maintenance inspection.
- Total Air Temperature in cruise flight above 25000 ft is
limited to -45C.
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REVISION 36

1-01-10

Code

1 01

LIMITATIONS
FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

Page

1-01-10

Code

2 01

REVISION 36

AOM-145/1114

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

LIMITATIONS
FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

AIRSPEEDS
LANDING GEAR OPERATION/EXTENDED SPEED (VLO AND VLE)
VLO for retraction ......................................................... 200 KIAS
VLO for extension ......................................................... 250 KIAS
VLE ............................................................................ 250 KIAS
NOTE: - VLO for retraction is the maximum speed at which the
landing gear can be safely retracted.
- VLO for extension is the maximum speed at which the
landing gear can be safely extended.
- VLE is the maximum speed at which the airplane can be
safely flown with the landing gear extended and locked.
MANEUVERING SPEED (VA)
VA ................................................................................ 200 KIAS

AOM-145/1114

NOTE: Maneuvers that involve angle of attack near the stall or full
application of rudder, elevator, and aileron controls should be
confined to speeds below VA. In addition, the maneuvering
flight load factor limits, presented in this Section, should not be
exceeded.

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REVISION 36

1-01-10

Code

3 01

LIMITATIONS
FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

MAXIMUM OPERATING SPEED


APPLICABLE TO ALL MODELS EXCEPT EMB-145 XR MODEL
POST-MOD. SB 145-31-0038
40000

35000

MMO=0.78

30000

ALTITUDE - ft

25000

20000

VMO
15000

10000

0
200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350

AIRSPEED - KIAS

NOTE: The VMO/MMO may not be deliberated exceeded in any regime


of flight (climb, cruise, or descent).
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1-01-10

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REVISION 36

AOM-145/1114

145CTA49 - 27JAN1997

5000

LIMITATIONS
FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

APPLICABLE TO EMB-145 XR MODEL POST-MOD.


SB 145-31-0038 OR WITH AN EQUIVALENT MODIFICATION
FACTORY INCORPORATED

40000

35000

MMO=0.80
30000

ALTITUDE - FT

25000

20000

VMO
15000

10000

AOM-145/1114

145XRCTA003 - 07FEB2003

5000

0
200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350

AIRSPEED - KIAS

NOTE: The VMO/MMO may not be deliberated exceeded in any regime


of flight (climb, cruise, or descent).
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REVISION 36

1-01-10

Code

5 01

LIMITATIONS
FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

FLIGHT CONTROLS
MAXIMUM FLAP EXTENDED SPEED (VFE) - FOR EMB-135,
ERJ-140 AND EMB-145 MODELS, EXCEPT EMB-145 XR

Flaps 9 ......................................................................... 250 KIAS


Flaps 18 ....................................................................... 200 KIAS
Flaps 22 ....................................................................... 200 KIAS
Flaps 45 ....................................................................... 145 KIAS
MAXIMUM FLAP EXTENDED SPEED (VFE) - FOR EMB-145 XR
MODEL

Flaps 9 ......................................................................... 250 KIAS


Flaps 18 ....................................................................... 200 KIAS
Flaps 22 ....................................................................... 200 KIAS
Flaps 45 ....................................................................... 160 KIAS
Above 10000 ft with Yaw Damper disengaged:
Flaps 22 ....................................................................... 180 KIAS
Flaps 45 ....................................................................... 145 KIAS
ELECTROMECHANICAL GUST LOCK

Each time electromechanical gust lock lever is set to unlocked (FREE)


position elevator movement must be checked. This check must be
performed at least 10 seconds after positioning the gust lock lever to
the unlocked (FREE) position by moving the control column from the
full up stop to the full down stop and back to the full up stop position.
MAXIMUM FLAP EXTENDED ALTITUDE

Maximum Altitude for Flap Extension ........................... 20000 ft


PITCH TRIM

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1-01-10

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REVISION 36

AOM-145/1114

Maximum Airspeed after Takeoff/During Climb


without Retrimming..................................................160 KIAS

LIMITATIONS
FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

TAILWIND
Maximum Takeoff and Landing Tailwind Component...... 10 kt

DIRECT VISION WINDOW (AFM PROCEDURES)


Maximum recommended speed to remove direct vision windows is
140 KIAS.

UNPRESSURIZED FLIGHT (NON-AFM)


Maximum altitude for operation after an in-flight depressurization, is
10000 ft MSL unless MEA or otherwise required.
Maximum altitude for dispatch for an unpressurized flight is 10000 ft.

TURBULENT AIR
PROCEDURES)

PENETRATION

SPEED

(AFM

At or below 10000 ft...................................................... 200 KIAS


Above 10000 ft.............................................................. 250 KIAS/0.63M,
WHICHEVER
IS LOWER

MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED CROSSWIND (NON-AFM)


Embraer aerodynamics analysis have resulted in the following
maximum recommended crosswinds for takeoff and landing:
Dry runway............................................................... 30 kt
Wet runway.............................................................. 30 kt
Runway with Compacted Snow............................... 25 kt
Runway with Standing Water/Slush ........................ 20 kt

AOM-145/1114

Runway with Ice (no melting) .................................. 10 kt

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REVISION 36

1-01-10

Code

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LIMITATIONS
FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

MANEUVERING FLIGHT LOAD FACTORS


These corresponding accelerations limit the bank angle during turns
and limit the pull-up maneuvers.

LOAD FACTOR LIMIT

FLAPS UP

Positive
Negative

2.50 g
-1.00 g

FLAPS DOWN
(9,18, 22 and 45)
2.00 g
0g

RUNWAY
Runway Slope ............................................................... -2% TO +2%

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1-01-10

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REVISION 36

AOM-145/1114

Runway Surface Type................................................... PAVED

LIMITATIONS
ANAC/FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

SUPPLEMENTARY OPERATIONAL
LIMITATIONS
OPERATIONAL ENVELOPE
APPLICABLE ONLY TO EMB-145XR AND LR MODELS PROPERLY
EQUIPPED AND APPROVED FOR HIGH ALTITUDE LANDING AND
TAKEOFF OPERATION
40000

-65C

-21.5C
37000 ft

35000
30000

ALTITUDE - ft

25000
ISA + 35C

20000
15000
10000 ft

10000
5000

-1000 ft

145XRFAA100 - 30JUN2003

0
-54C
-5000

-70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10

10 20 30 40 50 60

STATIC AIR TEMPERATURE - C


TAKEOFF, LANDING

NOTE: AOM-145/1114

52

-40C

In the event of a landing below -40C, the airplane may not


takeoff without further hard landing maintenance inspection
(Refer to AMM Task 5-50-02).
Minimum Total Air Temperature in cruise flight above
25000 ft is -45C.
Only APU T-62T-40C14 is allowed for operations on
ground above 8000 ft.
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REVISION 36

1-01-12

Code

1 01

LIMITATIONS
ANAC/FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

Page

1-01-12

Code

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REVISION 36

AOM-145/1114

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING


SYSTEM (EGPWS)
The following limitations are applicable to the Enhanced Ground
Proximity Warning System (EGPWS):
 The Allied-Signal Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
Pilots Guide, Document Number 060-4241-000, March 1997
edition (or later revision of the manual) or certification authority
accepted Operating Manual, must be immediately available to the
flight crew.
 Allied-Signal Application Software version 202 and Configuration
Software version 202 or later must be installed.
 Navigation is not to be predicated on the use of the Terrain
Awareness Display.
 The EGPWS data base, displays, and alerting algorithms currently
do not account for man-made obstructions.
 Pilots should inhibit the Terrain Awareness Alerting and Display
function by pressing the TERRAIN SYS OVRD button when within
15 NM of takeoff, approach, or landing at an airport when any of
the following conditions apply:
- The airport has no approved instrument approach procedure.
- The airport is not included in the Allied Signal data base.
- The longest runway is less than 1070 m (3500 ft) in length.
 Terrain Awareness Alerting and Display functionality must be
manually inhibited when the flight crew knows in advance that:
- An approach to an airport not included in the EGPWS database
will be performed;

- QFE operation is the altimeter operational mode below the


transition altitude on approach into an airport which is more than
200 ft above or below Sea Level (not applicable to EGPWS
software version 216 and on with FMS Honeywell or FMS
Universal Post Mod.SB145-34-0122).

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1-01-30

Code

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TEMPORARY REVISION 37.2

AOM-145/1114

- GPS is failed;

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING


SYSTEM (EGPWS)
The following limitations are applicable to the Enhanced Ground
Proximity Warning System (EGPWS):
The Allied-Signal Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
Pilots Guide, Document Number 060-4241-000, March 1997
edition (or later revision of the manual) or certification authority
accepted Operating Manual, must be immediately available to the
flight crew.
Allied-Signal Application Software version 202 and Configuration
Software version 202 or later must be installed.
Navigation is not to be predicated on the use of the Terrain
Awareness Display.
The EGPWS data base, displays, and alerting algorithms currently
do not account for man-made obstructions.
Pilots should inhibit the Terrain Awareness Alerting and Display
function by pressing the TERRAIN SYS OVRD button when within
15 NM of takeoff, approach, or landing at an airport when any of the
following conditions apply:
- The airport has no approved instrument approach procedure.
- The airport is not included in the Allied Signal data base.
- The longest runway is less than 1070 m (3500 ft) in length.
Terrain Awareness Alerting and Display functionality must be
manually inhibited when below the transition altitude while flying
QFE on approach into an airport which is more than 200 ft above or
below sea level (not applicable to software version 216 and on).
Pilots are authorized to deviate from their current Air Traffic Control
(ATC) clearance to the extent necessary to comply with an EGPWS
warning.
The Terrain Display is intended to be used as a situational tool only
and may not provide the accuracy and/or fidelity on which to solely
base terrain avoidance maneuvering.

Page

REVISION 28

1-01-30

Code

1 01

LIMITATIONS

AOM-145/1114

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL
-

Pilots are authorized to deviate from their current Air Traffic Control
(ATC) clearance to the extent necessary to comply with an
EGPWS warning.

The Terrain Display is intended to be used as a situational tool only


and may not provide the accuracy and/or fidelity on which to solely
base terrain avoidance maneuvering.

In the event that accuracy of the airplane position data from the
FMS becomes inadequate for navigation (Dead Reckoning Mode),
the Terrain Awareness Alerting and Display functions must be
inhibited. This will not affect the basic GPWS functions (modes 1 to
7). If the FMS is restored after a period of inadequacy, the Terrain
Awareness may be enabled by pressing again the TERRAIN SYS
OVRD button.

In case of a conflict between the terrain alerts and an auto-poppedup picture, pilots must check the sweeping marker movement on
the horizontal line below the terrain picture. If the marker is frozen,
the MFD terrain indication must be deselected on MFD bezel
panel.

For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145-31-0009 or S/N 145.118 and on,


in case of a conflict between the terrain alerts and an auto-poppedup picture, pilots must check the MFD 2 terrain information. If the
terrain picture bus fail is not annunciated (TERR amber
annunciation), the MFD 2 must be used as terrain picture
reference.

Page

TEMPORARY REVISION 37.2

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

In the event that accuracy of the airplane position data from the
FMS becomes inadequate for navigation (Dead Reckoning Mode),
the Terrain Awareness Alerting and Display functions must be
inhibited. This will not affect the basic GPWS functions (modes 1 to
7). If the FMS is restored after a period of inadequacy, the Terrain
Awareness may be enabled by pressing again the TERRAIN SYS
OVRD button.
In case of a conflict between the terrain alerts and an auto-poppedup picture, pilots must check the sweeping marker movement on
the horizontal line below the terrain picture. If the marker is frozen,
the MFD terrain indication must be deselected on MFD bezel panel.
For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145-31-0009 or S/N 145.118 and on, in
case of a conflict between the terrain alerts and an auto-popped-up
picture, pilots must check the MFD 2 terrain information. If the
terrain picture bus fail is not annunciated (TERR amber
annunciation), the MFD 2 must be used as terrain picture reference.

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REVISION 24

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

ELECTRICAL
Maximum Load on Main Generator .............................. 400 A
Maximum Load on APU Generator:
Up to 30000 ft .......................................................... 400 A
Above 30000 ft......................................................... 300 A
Maximum Battery Temperature .................................... 70C

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SEPTEMBER 20, 1999

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AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

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SEPTEMBER 20, 1999

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

FUEL
Maximum usable quantity per tank
Unusable quantity per tank
Unusable quantity per tank
(Any electric fuel pump inoperative)

(ER, EP, MP MODEL)


679.8 US Gal
(4600 lb)
7.1 US Gal
(48 lb)
39.3 US Gal
(266 lb)

Maximum permitted imbalance between tanks............. 800 lb


NOTE: - When the EICAS fuel quantity is zero in level flight, any fuel
remaining in the tanks can not be used safely in flight.
- The values above have been determined for an adopted fuel
density of 6.767 lb/US Gal.
- When performing pressure refueling, the usable fuel quantity
in each tank may be reduced by 7.9 US Gal maximum.

FUEL SPECIFICATION
Brazilian Specification ................................................... QAV1
ASTM Specification....................................................... D1655-JET A
AND JET A-1
American Specification ................................................. MIL-T-83133AJP8

NOTE: The use of Red Dye contaminated fuel is restricted to


emergency conditions and must comply with Rolls-Royces
recommendations.

FUEL TANK TEMPERATURE


Minimum ....................................................................... -40C
Maximum ...................................................................... 52C
NOTE: If fuel does not contain an icing inhibitor, the temperature of
fuel leaving FCOC must be above 4C. If this condition is
satisfied, the caution message E1(2) LO TEMP is not
presented (refer to FUEL LOW TEMPERATURE Procedure).

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REVISION 28

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

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REVISION 13

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

FUEL
Maximum usable quantity per tank
Unusable quantity per tank
Unusable quantity per tank
(Any electric fuel pumps inoperative)

(LR MODEL)
844.9 US Gal
(5717 lb)
5.8 US Gal
(39 lb)
53.9 US Gal
(365 lb)

Maximum permitted imbalance between tanks............. 800 lb


NOTE: - When the EICAS fuel quantity is zero in level flight, any fuel
remaining in the tanks can not be used safely in flight.
- The values above have been determined for an adopted fuel
density of 6.767 lb/US Gal.
- When performing pressure refueling, the usable fuel quantity
in each tank may be reduced by 13.2 US Gal maximum.

FUEL SPECIFICATION
Brazilian Specification ................................................... QAV1
ASTM Specification....................................................... D1655-JET A
AND JET A-1
American Specification ................................................. MIL-T-83133AJP8

NOTE: The use of Red Dye contaminated fuel is restricted to


emergency conditions and must comply with Rolls-Royces
recommendations.

FUEL TANK TEMPERATURE


Minimum ....................................................................... -40C
Maximum ...................................................................... 52C
NOTE: If fuel does not contain an icing inhibitor, the temperature of
fuel leaving FCOC must be above 4C. If this condition is
satisfied, the caution message E1(2) LO TEMP is not
presented (refer to FUEL LOW TEMPERATURE Procedure).

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REVISION 28

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AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

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REVISION 13

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

AUXILIARY POWER UNIT


OPERATIONAL LIMITS
APU Model
PARAMETER
TEMPERATURE (3)
ALTITUDE FOR START
OPERATION ALTITUDE
ROTOR SPEED
EGT:
START
CONTINUOUS

T-62T-40C11
MIN
-54C
-

MAX
25000 ft or
30000 ft (2)
37000 ft
108%
884C (1)
680C (6)

T-62T-40C14
MIN
-

MAX
30000 ft
37000 ft
108% (5)
884C
680C (6)

NOTE: 1) May be exceeded up to 925C above 25000 ft during


10 seconds.
2) For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145-49-0010 or equipped with
an equivalent modification factory incorporated. In this case,
the minimum temperature for APU start is -54C up to
30000 ft.
3) Minimum battery temperature for APU start is -20C.
4) Refer to Fuel Tank Temperature limitations for other APU
starting related limits.
5) The APU automatically shuts down at 104% rotor speed.
6) The APU EGT may be exceeded up to 717C for 5 minutes
maximum.

APU STARTER LIMITS


Cooling period between each starting attempt:
Between Three Consecutive Attempts................ 1 MINUTE OFF
Between Two Series of
Three Consecutive Attempts ......................... 30 MINUTES OFF

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REVISION 31

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AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

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REVISION 13

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 A1, A1/2 FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

POWER PLANT
WARNING: ALL FOUR FADECS INSTALLED ON THE AIRPLANE
MUST BE THE SAME PART NUMBER. INCORRECT
ENGINE OPERATION CAN RESULT FROM USING
FADECS WITH TWO DIFFERENT PART NUMBERS.

OPERATIONAL LIMITS (ROLLS-ROYCE AE3007A1)


PARAMETER (5)
N1
N2
ITT:
START
TAKEOFF MODES
CONTINUOUS

MIN
-

MAX
100%
102.4% (8)

800C
948C
901C

OIL PRESSURE:

AT OR ABOVE 88% N2

50 psi (9)

OIL TEMPERATURE
FUEL TEMPERATURE
VIBRATION:

21C (3)
-54C

95 psi (2)(6)
110 psi (2)(7)
95 psi (6)(7)
110 psi (7)
126C
52C

1.8 IPS (4)


1.1 IPS (4)

BELOW 88% N2

LP SPOOL
HP SPOOL

34 psi

NOTE: 1) Takeoff thrust is time limited to 5 minutes.


2) May be exceeded during starts if oil temperature is below
21C. The engine must remain at IDLE until the oil pressure
is less than 95 psi (110 psi for airplanes Post-Mod.
SB 145-73-0022 or equipped with an equivalent modification
factory incorporated).
3) Minimum oil temperature for starting is -40C for lubrication
oil specified by MIL-L-23699D and -54C for lubrication oil
specified by MIL-L-7808K.
4) Vibration in the amber range below 2.5 IPS is time limited to
5 minutes during the takeoff or go-around phases or
10 seconds during the remainder flight phases.
5) Any engine exceedance or peak must be monitored and
logged by the crew.
CONTINUES ON NEXT PAGE
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REVISION 34

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LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 A1, A1/2 FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL
CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS PAGE

6) Operation in oil pressure amber range between 96 and


115 psi is permitted in all operational modes and time limited
to 5 minutes, or between 116 and 155 psi in all operational
modes time limited to 2 minutes. Total time above 95 psi
may not exceed 5 minutes.
7) For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145-73-0022 or equipped with
an equivalent modification factory incorporated the upper
limit of the oil pressure green band is 110 psi. Operation in
oil pressure amber range is permitted between 111 and
115 psi in all operational modes time limited to 5 minutes, or
between 116 and 155 psi in all operational modes time
limited to 2 minutes. Total time above 110 psi may not
exceed 5 minutes.
8) For airplanes Pre-Mod. SB 145-73-0029 the N2 limit is
102.5%.
9) While this is an abnormal condition, operation between
50 and 34 psi is permitted during takeoff and go-around
phases.

STARTER LIMITS
On Ground:
Starting or Dry Motoring ...........................................UP TO 5
MINUTES ON,
5 MINUTES OFF
OR
First to Fourth Cycles ...............................................1 MINUTE ON,
1 MINUTE OFF
Following Cycles.......................................................1 MINUTE ON,
5 MINUTES OFF
In Flight:
Maximum Continuous Operation Time ....................5 MINUTES ON
NOTE: No cool down time is required should an in-flight start be reattempted.

Page

1-01-40

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REVISION 34

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 A1, A1/2 FAA

AUTOMATIC TAKEOFF THRUST CONTROL SYSTEM


(ATTCS)
ATTCS must be operative to select ALT T/O-1 mode.
For airplanes equipped with FADEC versions previous than B8.0:
At least once a week a Thrust Assurance Check must be
performed by selecting maximum takeoff mode during takeoff and
checking engine parameters.
The Thrust Assurance Check is not required if the owner/operator
actively participate in Engine Condition Monitoring, as described
Chapter 5 of the AE3007A Series Engine Maintenance Manual.
For airplanes equipped with FADEC versions B8.0 and on, the Thrust
Assurance Check is not required.

THRUST REVERSER
Thrust reversers are intended for use during rejected takeoff or landing
only. Do not attempt a go-around procedure after deployment of the
thrust reversers following a landing.
Selection of thrust reversers in flight or their preselection before
touchdown is prohibited.

ENGINE WARM-UP
Prior to takeoff, the engines must be allowed to run at low thrust to
stabilize the engine temperatures before takeoff thrust is adjusted.
After start, the engines must run at idle or taxi thrust during at least
4 minutes for cold engines or 2 minutes for warm engines.
NOTE: - To increase N2 above 83% the engine oil temperature must
be at 40C minimum. In lieu of this limit, it is acceptable to
either run the engine for at least 8 minutes or complete a
static run-up to 88% N2, stabilize, and check to ensure that
oil pressure is equal or less than 83 psi.
- The engine is considered cold if it has been shutdown for
more than 90 minutes.

ENGINE COOL DOWN


The engines must run for at least 1 minute at idle or taxi thrust before
shutdown.
Page

REVISION 34

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LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 A1, A1/2 FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Page

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REVISION 34

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 A1P FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

POWER PLANT
WARNING: ALL FOUR FADECS INSTALLED ON THE AIRPLANE
MUST BE THE SAME PART NUMBER. INCORRECT
ENGINE OPERATION CAN RESULT FROM USING
FADECS WITH TWO DIFFERENT PART NUMBERS.

OPERATIONAL LIMITS (ROLLS-ROYCE AE3007A1P)


PARAMETER (5)
N1
N2
ITT:
START
TAKEOFF (1)
CONTINUOUS

MIN
-

MAX
100%
102.4% (8)

800C
948C
901C

OIL PRESSURE:

AT OR ABOVE 88% N2

50 psi (9)

OIL TEMPERATURE
FUEL TEMPERATURE
VIBRATION:

21C (3)
-54C

95 psi (2)(6)
110 psi (2)(7)
95 psi (6)
110 psi (7)
126C
52C

1.8 IPS (4)


1.1 IPS (4)

BELOW 88% N2

LP SPOOL
HP SPOOL

34 psi

NOTE: 1) Takeoff Thrust is time limited to 5 minutes.


2) May be exceeded during starts if oil temperature is below
21C. The engine must remain at IDLE until the
oil pressure is less than 95 psi (110 psi for airplanes
Post-Mod. SB 145-73-0023 or equipped with an equivalent
modification factory incorporated).
3) Minimum oil temperature for starting is -40C for lubrication
oil specified by MIL-L-23699D and -54C for lubrication oil
specified by MIL-L-7808K.
4) Vibration in the amber range below 2.5 IPS is time limited to
5 minutes during the takeoff or go-around phases or
10 seconds during the remainder flight phases.
CONTINUES ON NEXT PAGE
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REVISION 34

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LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 A1P FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL
CONTINUED FROM PREVIOUS PAGE

5) Any engine exceedance or peak must be monitored and


logged by the crew.
6) Operation in oil pressure amber range is permitted between
96 and 115 psi in all operational modes and time limited to
5 minutes, or between 116 and 155 psi in all operational
modes time limited to 2 minutes. Total time above 95 psi
may not exceed 5 minutes.
7) For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145-73-0023 or equipped with
an equivalent modification factory incorporated the upper
limit of the oil pressure green band is 110 psi. Operation in
oil pressure amber range is permitted between 111 and
115 psi in all operational modes time limited to 5 minutes, or
between 116 and 155 psi in all operational modes time
limited to 2 minutes. Total time above 110 psi may not
exceed 5 minutes.
8) For airplanes Pre-Mod. SB 145-73-0027, the N2 limit is
102.5%.
9) While this is an abnormal condition, operation between
50 and 34 psi is permitted during takeoff and go-around
phases.

STARTER LIMITS
On Ground:
Starting or Dry Motoring ...........................................UP TO 5
MINUTES ON,
5 MINUTES OFF
OR
First to Fourth Cycles ...............................................1 MINUTE ON,
1 MINUTE OFF
Following Cycles.......................................................1 MINUTE ON,
5 MINUTES OFF
In Flight:
Maximum Continuous Operation Time ....................5 MINUTES ON
NOTE: No cool down time is required should an in-flight start be reattempted.

Page

1-01-40

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REVISION 34

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 A1P FAA

AUTOMATIC TAKEOFF THRUST CONTROL SYSTEM


(ATTCS)
ATTCS must be operative to select ALT T/O-1 or T/O modes.
For airplanes equipped with FADEC versions previous than B8.0:
At least once a week a Thrust Assurance Check must be
performed by selecting maximum takeoff mode during takeoff and
checking engine parameters.
The Thrust Assurance Check is not required if the owner/operator
actively participate in Engine Condition Monitoring, as described
Chapter 5 of the AE3007A Series Engine Maintenance Manual.
For airplanes equipped with FADEC versions B8.0 and on, the Thrust
Assurance Check is not required.

THRUST REVERSER
Thrust reversers are intended for use during rejected takeoff or landing
only. Do not attempt a go-around procedure after deployment of the
thrust reversers following a landing.
Selection of thrust reversers in flight or their preselection before
touchdown is prohibited.

ENGINE WARM-UP
Prior to takeoff, the engines must be allowed to run at low thrust to
stabilize the engine temperatures before takeoff thrust is adjusted.
After start, the engines must run at idle or taxi thrust during at least
4 minutes for cold engines or 2 minutes for warm engines.
NOTE: - To increase N2 above 83% the engine oil temperature must
be at 40C minimum. In lieu of this limit, it is acceptable to
either run the engine for at least 8 minutes or complete a
static run-up to 88% N2, stabilize, and check to ensure that
oil pressure is equal or less than 83 psi.
- The engine is considered cold if it has been shutdown for
more than 90 minutes.

ENGINE COOL DOWN


The engines must run for at least 1 minute at idle or taxi thrust before
shutdown.

Page

REVISION 34

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LIMITATIONS
EMB-145 A1P FAA

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

INTENTIONALLY BLANK

Page

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REVISION 34

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

PNEUMATIC,
AIR
PRESSURIZATION

CONDITIONING

AND

PRESSURIZATION
Maximum differential pressure...................................... 7.8 psi
Maximum differential overpressure............................... 8.1 psi
Maximum differential negative pressure ....................... -0.3 psi

Page

SEPTEMBER 20, 1999

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

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SEPTEMBER 20, 1999

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION


OPERATION IN ICING CONDITIONS
Maximum Temperature for Anti-icing Operation ...................10C
Minimum Temperature for Manual Anti-Icing Operation .......-40C
Single engine or single bleed maximum altitude operation in icing
conditions ....................................................................15000 ft
Holding configuration:
Landing Gear....................................................................UP
Flaps.................................................................................UP
Minimum Airspeed ...........................................................200 KIAS
NOTE: - There is no temperature limitation for anti-icing system
automatic operation.
- Use Static Air Temperature (SAT) on ground or for takeoff
operations and Total Air Temperature (TAT) for operations in
flight.
- Icing conditions may exist whenever the Static Air Temperature
(SAT) on the ground or for takeoff, or Total Air Temperature
(TAT) in flight, is 10C or below and visible moisture in any
form is present (such as clouds, fog with visibility of one mile or
less, rain, snow, sleet, and ice crystals).
- Icing conditions may also exist when the SAT on the ground
and for takeoff is 10C or below when operating on ramps,
taxi ways, or runways where surface snow, ice, standing
water, or slush may be ingested by the engines, or freeze on
engines, nacelles, or engine sensor probes.
- Notwithstanding ice detector monitoring, the crew remains
responsible for monitoring icing conditions and for manual
activation of the ice protection system if icing conditions are
present and the ice detection system is not activating the ice
protection system.
CAUTION: ON GROUND, DO NOT RELY ON VISUAL ICING
EVIDENCE OR ICE DETECTOR ACTUATION TO TURN
ON
THE
ANTI-ICING
SYSTEM.
USE
THE
TEMPERATURE AND VISUAL MOISTURE CRITERIA AS
SPECIFIED ABOVE. DELAYING THE USE OF THE
ANTI-ICING SYSTEM UNTIL ICE BUILD-UP IS VISIBLE
FROM THE COCKPIT MAY RESULT IN ICE INGESTION
AND POSSIBLE ENGINE DAMAGE OR FLAME-OUT.
DO NOT USE APU BLEED AS PNEUMATIC SOURCE
FOR ANTI-ICING SYSTEM.
Page

REVISION 25

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

WINDSHIELD WIPER OPERATION


Maximum Airspeed for Windshield Wiper Operation ....170 KIAS

Page

1-01-50

Code

2 02

REVISION 24

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

OZONE CONCENTRATION
The tables below show the airplane altitude limitations due to ozone
concentration in atmosphere.
NOTE: - These tables are based on FAA ADVISORY CIRCULAR
120.38.
- The tables show altitude limitations calculated for constant
ozone concentration, cabin stabilized at 8000 ft, and both
recirculation fans turned on.
- For conditions other than those specified in item 2 above, an
optimized flight plan must be approved by regulatory
agencies.
- For longitudes, the following apply:
W
= Western
E

= Eastern

Reference = 100W longitude

Page

JANUARY 21, 2002

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

NORTH AMERICA - MAXIMUM OZONE CRITERIA


FLIGHT
LEVEL

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

LATITUDE

80N

330

330

320

320

340

75N

330

330

330

320

320

340

70N

350

330

330

330

320

340

65N

360 340 330 330 340 330 330 330 330 340 350

60N

55N

50N

45N

40N

35N

FLIGHT
LEVEL

360 350 340 340 330 330 340 330 350 350

JUL

360 350 350 340 340 340 340 350

AUG

360 340 350 340 350

360 360 360

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

LATITUDE

80N

350

75N

360

70N

65N

360

60N

360

55N

50N

45N

40N

35N

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SEPTEMBER 20, 1999

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL
NORTH AMERICA - TWA OZONE CRITERIA

NOTE: Values below are the altitude limitations in which the airplane is
allowed to fly more than 3 continuous hours.
FLIGHT
LEVEL

JAN

FEB

MAR

LATITUDE

80N

290

290

75N

290

290

300

290

70N

APR

MAY

JUN

270

270

270

270

270

270

290

65N

320 310 310 270 310 290 300 270 270 270 310 290

60N

330 310 310 290 310 300 290 270 270 270 310 290

55N

340 310 330 300 310 300 290 290 290 290 310 300

50N

350 320 350 310 320 310 270 290 290 290 310 320

45N

350 330 320 320 320 320 290 310 310 310 330 330

40N

340 350

320 320 330 310 310 330 330 350 350

35N

350

350

350

30N

FLIGHT
LEVEL

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

LATITUDE

80N

270

310

310

310

300

310

75N

290

330

320

310

310

310

70N

290

330

330

320

310

310

65N

310 310 340 340 350 330 330 330 350 310 330 310

60N

310 320 340 350 350 350 330 330 350 310 330 320

55N

310 320 340 350

50N

320 330 340 350

45N

330 350

350 350 350 350 330 350 330


350 350

350

350

40N

350

35N

30N

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SEPTEMBER 20, 1999

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

Page

1-01-52

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SEPTEMBER 20, 1999

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT
RADAR
Do not operate weather radar during refueling, near fuel spills or
people.

ATTITUDE AND HEADING REFERENCE SYSTEM


Airplane must not be moved until all attitude and heading information
presented on PFD is valid.
For the AH-900 AHRS version the following limits are applicable:

Maximum latitude for alignment ..... 7815 Northern and Southern

AHRS alignment will complete only after a valid airplane present


position (latitude and longitude) is received from the FMS.

Time to Alignment:

ALIGNMENT TIME - minutes.....

20

15

10

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

ALIGNMENT LATITUDE - degrees Northern and Southern

Page

REVISION 29

1-01-56

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1 07

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

The airplanes may not be operated within the following North and
South magnetic polar cut-out regions:
MAGNETIC
CUT-OUT
REGIONS

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

North

Between 70N and


82N
North of 82N

South

Between 60S and


82S
South of 82S

Between 80W and


135W
Between 0 and
180W/E
Between 11830E and
160E
Between 0 and
180W/E

NOTE: Within the magnetic polar cut-out regions AHRS heading


data is not available.

INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM

Maximum latitude for alignment......7815 Northern and Southern

IRS alignment will complete only after a valid airplane present


position (latitude and longitude) is received from the FMS.

Time to Alignment:

ALIGNMENT TIME - minutes.....

20

15

10

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

ALIGNMENT LATITUDE - degrees Northern and Southern

Page

1-01-56

Code

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REVISION 29

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

The airplanes may not be operated within the following North and
South magnetic polar cut-out regions:
MAGNETIC
CUT-OUT
REGIONS

North

South

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

Between 70N and


82N
North of 82N
Between 60S and
82S
South of 82S

Between 90W and


120W
Between 0 and 180W/E
Between 120E and
160E
Between 0 and 180W/E

NOTE: Within the magnetic polar cut-out regions IRS heading data is
not available.

INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)


This limitation applies to airplanes equipped with Mod. L of the
Honeywell Primus II NV-850 Navigation Receiver Module
P/N 7510134-831; which is part of the Honeywell Primus II RNZ-851
Integrated Navigation Unit P/N 7510100-831, -832, -833 and -834.
When crossing the Outer Marker on glideslope, the altitude must be
verified with the value on the published procedure.
For airplanes with a single operating glideslope receiver, the approach
may be flown using normal procedures no lower than Localizer Only
Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA).
For airplanes with two operating glideslope receivers, the airplane may
be flown to the published minimums for the approach using normal
procedures if both glideslope receivers are tuned to the approach and
both crew members are monitoring the approach using independent
data and displays.

INTEGRATED STANDBY INSTRUMENT SYSTEM (ISIS)


Maximum duration of ISIS when operating on batteries only is 40
minutes.
NOTE: The maximum duration of battery power can be extended to 45
minutes if the Pitot 3 Sensor Heating Button is turned off when
not operating in icing conditions.
Airplane must not be moved during power-up initialization.
Do not cage attitude in turning flight.

Page

REVISION 26

1-01-56

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3 07

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT
HF

Do not rely on ADF indications shown on PFD while transmitting in


HF.

Do not transmit through HF Radio during airplane fueling.

TRANSPONDER MODE S ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE


For airplanes Post-Mod. SB 145-34-0096 or equipped with an
equivalent modification factory incorporated, the installed Mode S
system satisfies the data requirements of ICAO Doc 7030/4, Regional
Supplementary Procedures for SSR Mode S Enhanced Surveillance in
designated European airspace.
The system is not capable to transmit the Track Angle Rate parameter.

AUTOPILOT
The following limitations are applicable to the Autopilot:

For airplanes Pre-Mod. SB 145-31-0016, the use of the Autopilot


below 1500 ft AGL is only permitted when coupled to the captain's
Flight Director.

Minimum Engagement Height After Takeoff .........500 ft

Autopilot coupled approaches approved down to 200 ft AGL.

Descent below Minimum Descent Altitude on a non precision


approach with autopilot engaged is prohibited.

Single engine go-around with autopilot engaged is prohibited.

Approach mode selection during Localizer capture is allowed only


when airplane is inbound.

NOTE: For EMB-135 and EMB-145 airplanes the coupled go-around


height loss may be 75 ft. For ERJ-140 airplanes the coupled
go-around height loss may be 95 ft.

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

FMZ2000 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


-

The Honeywell Flight Management System (FMS) Pilot's Operating


Manual, Honeywell Publication Number A28-1146-122-00, August
1997 edition (or later revision of the manual) for the software
version NZ4.8, Honeywell Publication Number A28-1146-133-00,
February 1999 edition (or later revision of the manual) for the
software version NZ5.2 or FAA accepted Operating Manual, must
be immediately available to the flight crew whenever navigation is
predicated on the use of the FMS. The software status stated in the
Pilot's Manual must match that displayed on the FMS Control
Display Unit (CDU).
Honeywell software version NZ4.8 (or later approved version) must
be installed.
FMS instrument approaches must be accomplished in accordance
with approved instrument approach procedures that are retrieved
from the FMS navigation data base. The FMS data base must
incorporate the current update cycle.
Use of FMS guidance for conducting instrument approach
procedures is prohibited with the FMS operating in the degrade or
dead-reckoning mode, (DGR or DR annunciation set on PFD).
Operation above 72 30.0' north latitude and below 59 30.0' south
latitude is prohibited due to unreliable magnetic heading.
The pilot must review the complete transition-approach, comparing
the waypoints and altitudes displayed on the FMS with those on the
published procedure prior to activation to insure that the correct
procedure and transition are selected.
The Flight Director must be coupled to the LNAV mode (autopilot
coupled or not coupled), to accomplish GPS only approaches.
When using FMS guidance for conducting instrument approach
procedures that do not include a GPS reference in the title of the
published procedure, the flight crew must verify that the procedure
specified navaid and associated avionics are operational.

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AIRPLANE
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For airplanes equipped with single FMS, when using FMS guidance
for conducting instrument approach procedures, the procedure
navaid must be tuned and valid, and the raw data must be
displayed in the cockpit , under the following conditions:
- For VOR approaches (where the procedure specified navaid is
a VOR only navaid - no DME capability) and NDB approaches,
without GPS (GPS failed or RAIM out of limits or unavailable).
- For any instrument approach (other than a GPS stand alone
approach), outside the Brazilian Airspace, with GPS as the
navigation sensor.
ILS, LOC, LOC-BC, LDA, SDF and MLS approaches, using the
FMS for guidance, are prohibited.
When flying to an airport where GPS (non-overlay) is the intended
approach, prior to dispatch, the crew is required to verify that the
predictive RAIM at the destination ETA is within the approach
criteria. This information (RAIM AVAILABLE), is displayed on the
PREDICTIVE RAIM page, accessed via the GPS STATUS page.
When the approach at the destination is based on GPS and an
alternate airport is required by the applicable operating rules, the
alternate must be served by an approach based on a navigation aid
other than GPS. The navigation aid must be operational and the
aircraft must have operational equipment capable of using that
navigation aid.
IFR non-precision approach approval is limited to published
approaches in the WGS-84 coordinate datum within US airspace.
Approaches to airports in other airspace are not approved unless
authorized by the appropriate governing authority.
The FMS is approved for those oceanic and North Atlantic (NAT)
Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) routes
requiring only a single FMS and a single GPS in accordance with
AC 20-130A.
The pilot must check for leg gaps in the Flight Plan Display on EFIS
and input waypoints to fill in any gaps as necessary.
IFR enroute and terminal navigation is prohibited unless the pilot
verifies the currency of the data base or verifies each selected
waypoint for accuracy by reference to current approved data.
The fuel flow and fuel used presented on the FMS are
supplementary information only. The flight crew must use fuel
information primarily from the MFD and EICAS display.

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JANUARY 21, 2002

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL
-

Coupled FMS vertical guidance is not available. Therefore, during


FMS operation with Autopilot coupled, the pilot must use the Flight
Guidance Controller for vertical control. Advisory vertical guidance
is available only in descent.
During oceanic, North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation
Performance Specification (MNPS), enroute and terminal area
operation with DR or DGR annunciated on the PFD, the flight crew
must verify the FMS position using VOR/DME raw data or other
appropriate means.
The airplane must have other navigation equipment installed and
operating, appropriate to the route of flight.
The FMS missed approaches are prohibited. This limitation is not
applicable for airplanes equipped with NZ4.8 Mod C, NZ5.2 Mod B
or later software version installed.
FMS missed approaches using the CDU Mode Select Button is
prohibited.
NOTE: The NZ4.8 Mod C software version may be identified by
checking if the RTN TO SRVC maintenance page is
available. This page may be accessed by pressing the NAV
mode select button, then NEXT, then selecting the
MAINTENANCE submode through the respective line
select button, and finally pressing the NEXT mode select
button twice. This page is not available for NZ4.8 Mod A.

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REVISION 21

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

NAVIGATION OPERATIONAL APPROVALS


The single Honeywell FMZ2000 Flight Management System, with the
software version NZ4.8 Mod A or Mod C, and the single or dual
Honeywell FMZ2000 FMS software version NZ5.2 Mod B and on have
been demonstrated capable of and have been shown to meet the
requirements for the following operations:
Oceanic and Remote - In accordance with AC 20-130A and
FAA Notice 8110.60 the dual FMS is approved as a two
independent Long Range Navigation (LRN) System on these
routes, provided it is receiving usable signals from the GPS
which meets requirements of AC 90-94 for use as the only LRN
System sensor. The dual FMZ2000 installation with dual GPS
sensors as installed has been found to comply with the
requirements for GPS primary means of navigation in oceanic
and remote airspace, when used in conjunction with Honeywell
Off Line RAIM prediction program. For single FMS installation,
in accordance with AC 20-130A, along routes requiring a single
Long Range Navigation (LRN) System, provided it is receiving
usable signals from the GPS which meets requirements of AC
90-94 for use as the only LRN System sensor on these routes.
North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance
Specification (MNPS) airspace - As defined in AC 91-49 and
AC 91-70, along the special routes requiring a single LRN,
provided it is receiving usable signals from the GPS which
meets requirements of AC 90-94 for use as the only LRN
System sensor on these routes.
Enroute and Terminal - In accordance with AC 20-130A and
TSO C129a C1 provided it is receiving usable signals from:
One VOR/DME or multiple DMEs.
GPS.

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

 Non-Precision Approach - In accordance with AC 20-130A,


TSO C129a C1 and AC 90-94 (Phase II and III overlay
approaches and GPS only approaches), provided:
 The APP annunciation is set on the PFD at the Final
Approach Fix.
 The DGR or DR is not annunciated on the PFD.
 The flight director is coupled to the LNAV mode (GPS only
approaches).
NOTE: AC 90-94 deals with the use of GPS in the US National
Airspace System (NAS) and in oceanic areas. The general
approval to use GPS to fly overlay instrument approaches as
described in the AC, is initially limited to the NAS. Refer to
LIMITATIONS Section of this Supplement, for use of GPS for
non-precision approaches outside the NAS.

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TEMPORARY REVISION 37.2

AOM-145/1114

 RNAV Operation In accordance with AC 90-100A, provided


FMS is receiving automatic update from GPS or DME/DME/IRS.

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

Non-Precision Approach - In accordance with AC 20-130A,


TSO C129a C1 and AC 90-94 (Phase II and III overlay
approaches and GPS only approaches), provided:
The APP annunciation is set on the PFD at the Final
Approach Fix.
The DGR or DR is not annunciated on the PFD.
The flight director is coupled to the LNAV mode (GPS only
approaches).
NOTE: AC 90-94 deals with the use of GPS in the US National
Airspace System (NAS) and in oceanic areas. The general
approval to use GPS to fly overlay instrument approaches as
described in the AC, is initially limited to the NAS. Refer to
LIMITATIONS Section of this Supplement, for use of GPS for
non-precision approaches outside the NAS.

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REVISION 25

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AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

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REVISION 25

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

UNS-1K FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


-

The Universal UNS1 Operators Manual or an Operating Manual


accepted by the Certification Authority must be immediately
available to the flight crew whenever navigation is predicated on the
use of FMS. The software status stated in the Operators Manual
must match that displayed on the FMS Control Display Unit (CDU).

Universal FMS Software version 603.0 (or later approved version)


must be installed.

FMS instrument approaches must be accomplished in accordance


with approved instrument approach procedures that are retrieved
from the FMS navigation data base. The FMS data base must
incorporate the current update cycle.

Instrument approaches must be conducted in the approach mode,


and GPS integrity monitoring (when using GPS for approach
guidance) must be available at the Final Approach Fix, as indicated
to the pilot by the INTEG amber annunciator being off and APP
annunciator displayed on PFD.

Use of FMS guidance for conducting instrument approach


procedures is prohibited with the FMS operating in the dead
reckoning mode (DR annunciation set on PFD).

The pilot must review the complete transition-approach, comparing


the waypoints and altitudes displayed on the FMS with those on the
published procedure prior to activation to insure that the correct
procedure and transition are selected.

VNAV is advisory only, and the aircraft altimeter should be the


primary source of altitude information at all times.

When using FMS guidance for conducting instrument approach


procedures that do not include a GPS reference in the title of the
published procedure, the flight crew must verify that the procedure
specified navaid and associated avionics are operational.

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

For airplanes equipped with single FMS, when using FMS guidance
for conducting instrument approach procedures, the procedure
navaid must be tuned and valid, and the raw data must be
displayed in the cockpit, under the following conditions :
- For VOR approaches (where the procedure specified navaid
is a VOR only navaid-no DME capability) and NDB
approaches, without GPS (GPS failed or RAIM out of limits
or unavailable).
- For any instrument approach (other than GPS stand alone
approach), outside the airspace of countries operating under
FAA jurisdiction, with the GPS as the navigation sensor.

ILS, LDA, SDF and MLS approaches, using the FMS for guidance,
are prohibited.

When conducting FMS guided missed approach procedures,


autopilot coupled operation is prohibited until the flight crew has
established a rate of climb that ensures all altitudes requirements of
the procedure will be met.

When flying to an airport where GPS (non-overlay) is the intended


approach, prior to dispatch, the flight crew is required to verify that
the predictive RAIM at the destination ETA is within the approach
criteria.

When the approach at the destination is based on GPS and an


alternate airport is required by the applicable operating rules, the
alternate airport must be served by an approach based on a
navigation aid other than GPS. The navigation aid must be
operational and the aircraft must have operational equipment
capable of using that navigation aid.

IFR non-precision approach approval is limited to published


approaches within the airspace of countries operating under FAA
jurisdiction. Approaches to airports in other airspace are not
approved unless authorized by the appropriate governing authority.

IFR enroute and terminal navigation is prohibited unless the pilot


verifies the currency of the data base or verifies each selected
waypoint for accuracy by reference to current approved data.

The fuel flow and fuel used presented on the FMS are
supplementary information only. The flight crew must use fuel
information primarily from the MFD and EICAS display.

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JANUARY 21, 2002

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL
-

Coupled FMS vertical guidance is not available. Therefore, during


FMS operation with Autopilot coupled, the pilot must use the Flight
Guidance Controller for vertical control. Advisory vertical guidance
is available only in descent.

During oceanic, North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Performance


Specification (MNPS), enroute and terminal area operation with DR
annunciated on the PFD, the flight crew must verify the FMS
position using VOR/DME raw data or other appropriate means.

The airplane must have other navigation equipment installed and


operating, appropriate to the route of flight.

Operation above 73 north latitude and below 60 south latitude is


prohibited due to unreliable magnetic heading.

FMS PVOR outbound function is prohibited.

FMS missed approach using the CDU Mode Select Buttons is


prohibited.

During FMS Fuel Management initialization, the flight crew must


enter manually the fuel on board data.

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REVISION 24

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

NAVIGATION OPERATIONAL APPROVALS


The Universal UNS-1K Flight Management System, with the version
603.X software, has been demonstrated capable of and has been
shown to meet the requirements for the following operations:
 Oceanic and Remote - In accordance with AC 20-130A, along
routes requiring a Long Range Navigation (LRN) System,
provided it is receiving usable signals from the GPS which
meets requirements of AC 90-94 for use as the only LRN
System sensor on these routes.
 North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance
Specification (MNPS) airspace - As defined in AC 91-49 and
AC 91-70, along the special routes requiring a single LRN,
provided it is receiving usable signals from the GPS which
meets requirements of AC 90-94 for use as the only LRN
System sensor on these routes.
 Enroute and Terminal - In accordance with AC 20-130A and
TSO C129a B1 provided it is receiving usable signals from:
 One VOR/DME or multiple DMEs.
 GPS.
 Instrument Approach - LOC and BC approaches in
accordance with AC 25-15 and RNAV, VOR, VOR/DME, NDB
and GPS approaches in accordance with AC 20-130A,
TSO C129a B1, TSO C115b and AC 90-94 (Phase II and III
overlay approaches and GPS only approaches), provided:
 The APP annunciation is set on the PFD at the Final
Approach Fix.
 The DR is not annunciated on the PFD.
 The flight director is coupled to the LNAV mode (GPS only
approaches).

AOM-145/1114

NOTE: AC 90-94 deals with the use of GPS in the US National


Airspace System (NAS) and in oceanic areas. The general
approval to use GPS to fly overlay instrument approaches
as described in the AC, is initially limited to the NAS. Refer
to LIMITATIONS Section of this Supplement, for use of
GPS for non-precision approaches outside the NAS.
 RNAV Operation - In accordance with AC 90-100A, provided
FMS is receiving automatic update from GPS.

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TEMPORARY REVISION 37.2

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

NAVIGATION OPERATIONAL APPROVALS


The Universal UNS-1K Flight Management System, with the version
603.X software, has been demonstrated capable of and has been
shown to meet the requirements for the following operations:
Oceanic and Remote - In accordance with AC 20-130A, along
routes requiring a Long Range Navigation (LRN) System,
provided it is receiving usable signals from the GPS which
meets requirements of AC 90-94 for use as the only LRN
System sensor on these routes.
North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance
Specification (MNPS) airspace - As defined in AC 91-49 and
AC 91-70, along the special routes requiring a single LRN,
provided it is receiving usable signals from the GPS which
meets requirements of AC 90-94 for use as the only LRN
System sensor on these routes.
Enroute and Terminal - In accordance with AC 20-130A and
TSO C129a B1 provided it is receiving usable signals from:
One VOR/DME or multiple DMEs.
GPS.
Instrument Approach - LOC and BC approaches in
accordance with AC 25-15 and RNAV, VOR, VOR/DME, NDB
and GPS approaches in accordance with AC 20-130A,
TSO C129a B1, TSO C115b and AC 90-94 (Phase II and III
overlay approaches and GPS only approaches), provided:
The APP annunciation is set on the PFD at the Final
Approach Fix.
The DR is not annunciated on the PFD.
The flight director is coupled to the LNAV mode (GPS only
approaches).
NOTE: AC 90-94 deals with the use of GPS in the US National
Airspace System (NAS) and in oceanic areas. The general
approval to use GPS to fly overlay instrument approaches
as described in the AC, is initially limited to the NAS. Refer
to LIMITATIONS Section of this Supplement, for use of
GPS for non-precision approaches outside the NAS.

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REVISION 25

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

DOORS
COCKPIT SECURITY DOOR
On airplanes equipped with a cockpit security door, two crewmembers
must be in the cockpit during all flight phases.
If one of the pilots leaves the flight deck, he must be replaced in the
cockpit by another crewmember.
Positive identification of the person wishing to enter the flight deck
must be obtained before opening the door.
The security cockpit door must be kept closed and locked at all times
during flight except to permit access and egress according to the
operators procedures for opening, closing and locking the door.
Any time that cockpit door is opened in flight, a challenge and
response closing and locking verification procedure must be used to
verify that the door is closed and locked.

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REVISION 25

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

THIS PAGE IS LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY

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REVISION 25

LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

CAT II OPERATION WITH PRIMUS 1000


AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM
MINIMUM EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
The performance of Category II approaches requires that the following
equipment and instruments be in proper operating conditions:
2 Attitude and Heading Reference Systems;
1 Yaw Damper System;
1 Autopilot (not required for EMB-135 and EMB-145XR models);
2 Flight Director Systems;
2 Primary Flight Displays (PFD);
Windshield Wipers;
2 VHF/NAV Systems;
1 VHF/COMM System;
Both Engines;
Cat II Checklist Logic;
1 Electrical Trim System;
1 Radio Altimeter;
1 Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS or EGPWS);
1 Aural Warning Unit (AWU) Channel;
2 Air Data Systems (ADS);
1 Standby Attitude Indicator;
1 Standby Airspeed Indicator;
1 Standby Altimeter.
NOTE: - Cat II operation shall be performed by the pilot who has
the Flight Director coupled to the Autopilot.
- The CAT II operation is not approved for ERJ-140
airplanes and EMB-145XR Pre-Mod. SB 145-31-0040
airplanes.

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REVISION 31

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LIMITATIONS

AIRPLANE
OPERATIONS
MANUAL

AUTOPILOT SYSTEM
Minimum Decision Height (DH) ............................................... 100 ft
NOTE:

Although the radio altitude setting may be adjusted down to


80 ft, if requested by an ILS Cat II Approved Chart, the
Decision Height (DH) is limited to 100 ft above ground level.

Minimum Use Height (MUH) ................................................... 50 ft


Runway Visual Range (RVR) .................................................. 1200 ft
Maximum Tailwind (except for EMB-145XR model) ............... 10 kt
Maximum Crosswind (except for EMB-145XR model)............ 25 kt
Maximum Tailwind (EMB-145XR model) ................................ 9 kt
Maximum Crosswind (EMB-145XR model)............................. 10 kt
NOTE: - Flight Director monitored manual approaches are restricted
to Category I minimums (not applicable to EMB-135 and to
EMB-145XR models).
- Coupled go-around height loss may be 50 ft.

APPROACH AND LANDING FLAPS


CAT II approach and landing must be performed with flaps 22.

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REVISION 25