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QUESTION BANK

COURSE : VPE 311- MILK AND MEAT HYGIENE FOOD SAFETY AND
PUBLIC HEALTH
MILK HYGIENE
A. Fill in the blanks.
1. Diseases transmitted by direct or indirect means between man and animals are called ---------------.
2. ------------- is the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the
absence of the disease or infirmity.
3. ------------------is a component of public health activities devoted to the application of professional
veterinary skills, knowledge and resources to the protection and improvement of human health.
4. Sherman classified Streptococci into __________ , _____________ , _________ and ________________
groups.
5. Bacterial growth consists of ___________ , _____________ , _______________ and __________
phases.
6. Milk shows bitter flavour due to products of ____________ decomposition..
7. Gas production by microorganisms results in _____________ defect.
8. Ropy fermentation is caused by ____________.
9. Sweet curdling is caused by _______________.
10. Off-flavours in hydrolytic rancidity is due free fatty acid like ___________ .
11. Malty flavour is caused by _____________

12. __________ and ___________ are used as sanitizers in dairy Industry.


13. _____________ is the specific media used for Coliforms.
14. Fat and SNF percent in toned milk are _______ and __________ respectively.
15. Mastitis is caused by _____________ , _____________ ,

____________ and

______________.
16. In HTST method, milk is heated to ________C for __________ seconds.
17. ___________ , ______________ , _____________ and _____________ are non-specific
factors present naturally as antimicrobial systems in milk.
18. _____________ , ______________ , ______________ and ____________ yeasts are used in
dairy industry.
19. Ketonic rancidity of cream is caused by _____________ .
20. _____________milk powder is highly soluble in water.
21. ______________ micro-organism causes scarlet fever..
22. _____________ and ________________ molds are used as starter cultures in cheese.
23. Bacteria multiply by the process of _______________
24. Organisms growing in the absence of oxygen are known as _____________
25. Oxidation Reduction potential of milk is --------------------------.
26. _____________________ is the disease caused by Coxiella burnetii.
27. ___________ is a thick walled spore formed within a bacterial cell
28. Organisms appearing in different shapes are referred to as ______________
29. ______________ phase is the period of active bacterial growth
30. Sherman classified Streptococci into ____________ groups
31. Thermophilics can survive __________ temperatures.
32. _____________ is an example for Psychrotroph

33. Bacteriphage are _____________ .


34. Bitterness of milk is due to ____________________.
35. Fruity flavor of milk is due to __________________.
36. Red discoloration of milk is due to ______________.
37. Medicinal flavour is caused by _____________
38. Unclean flavour is due to the production of __________.
39. _____________ system is also known as cold sterilization.
40. Early blowing in cheese is caused by ________________
41. Late blowing in cheese is caused by _______________
42. Phenolic flavor of milk is due to _______________.
43. Aflatoxins are produced by ________________
44. Musty potato flavour in milk is due to the microorganism ____________& __________.
45. Septic sore throat is caused by _______________
46. Heat induces ________________ flavour to dairy products.
47. Toxic infection is caused by ________________ and _______________.
48. E.Coli causes __________________ disease in human being.
49. Q fever is caused by __________________
50. Greenish discolouration of milk is due to _____________________.
51. Yellow discolouration of milk is due to _____________________.
52. Blue discolouration of milk is due to _____________________.
53. __________________ process leads to mechanical disruption of the bacteria due to formation of
ice crystals inside and outside the cell.
54. ______________ is the virus infected bacteria

55. Eijkman test is related to ________________ species of bacteria


56. ______________ are the group of tests used to distinguish E.coli and E.aerogeneous.
57. ________________ is the indicator organism for faecal contamination of milk and milk products.
58. ___________ are the bacteria which grow under refrigeration condition.
59. ______________ are the bacteria which grow at 30-32C.
60. _______________ are the bacteria which survive pasteurisation temperature.
61. ______________ milk which remains in the udder after complete milking.
62. Standardized milk have ___________ and ___________ % of fat and SNF.
63. Skimmed milk have __________________% of SNF.
64. As per BIS, the pasteurized milk has ______________ spc/ml of milk.
65. As per BIS, the flavoured milk has ______________ spc/ml of milk
66. As per BIS, the the spore count of sterilized milk is ______________ spore count/ml.
67. Life cycle of bacteriophage involves _____________ and _______________ phases.
68. ________________ bacteria produces nisin.
69. Lactobacillus acidophilus produces ___________ which is antibiotic like substance.
70. _____________ is developed due to decomposition of lecithin to trimethylamine by microbial
activity.
71. Musty taint of butter is due to ___________.
72. Apple like aroma in butter appers due to the growth of __________________.
73. _______________- produces heat stable lipases in milk when stored at low temperatures.
74. Butter discoloured due to surface growth of molds is called as ________________.
75. Slimy cream defect is due to ______________________76. Blackish discolouration of cream is due to ______________.
77. _____________ is the process used to remove 99.98 % of bacteria from milk.

78. _________________ is the pathogenic rickettsiae used as a indicator organism for the selection of
pasteurisation temperatures.
79. Bacillary dysentery is caused by ________________
80. Diptheria is caused by __________________
81. Antharax is caused by ____________________
82. Lactose fermenting yeasts produces _____________ defect in milk and cream.
83. Associate action between two starter bacteria are seen in ______________ product.
84. _______________ are bigger than bacteria.
85. ______________ is the yeast used in brewing and baking industry.
86. _____________ and __________ are the two kinds of virus symmetry.
87. The vegetative body of the fungus is called ________________
88. ________________ Pseudomonas species produces pyoverdin.
89. E.coli are known as _________ group of organism.
90. ________________ bacteria causes split and blow-hole defect in cheese.
91. Eye formation is the typical character of _____________ cheese.

State whether the following are true or false:


1. Direct microscopic clump count is a quicker and less expensive method for counting bacteria.
2. Streptococcus agalactiae is commonly present even in healthy udder.
3. Antiseptic is an agent which prevents the growth of microorganisms either by inhibiting or
killing them.
4. Enterococci can grow at pH 9.6
5. Yeasts are unicellular.
6. Bacteriophages have head and tail
7. Homogenisation is a process of reducing the fat content of milk.
8. LTLT method of pasteurization is a continuous method of processing.
9. Ammonia is used as a refrigerant.
10. Fat containing milk powders are often packed in an atmosphere of inert gases.
11. E.coli is non-motile.
12. Thermoduric microorganisms can multiply even at high temperatures.
13. Sweet curdling is a normal fermentation.
14. Phosphatase test is done to find the efficiency of pasteurization.
15. Chilling of raw milk improves the keeping quality after processing.
16. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses.
17. Yeasts multiply by forming mycelia.
18. HTST method of pasteurization is a continuous process.
19. Strong pre-heat treatment of milk results in soft curd.
20. Hydrolytic rancididy results in liberation of free fatty acids.
20. Starter cultures bring about potential hazards to human health

21. Yeasts are considered to be members of plant kingdom


22. Bergy classified microorganisms according to morphology, oxygen
requirement, grams staining and special groups.
23. Bacilli are spherical in shape
24. Clostridiim sps. are strict anaerobes
25. Fungi consists of hyphae and mycelium
26. An microorganism that uses light energy for meteabolism is
phototrophic in nature
27. The period of adjustment in bacterial growth is known as decline
phase
28. Microenvironment is the immediate surrounding of the bacterial cell
where growth takes place.
29. E.coli is an beneficial organism in dairy industry
30. Immunoglobulins are responsible for immunological protection.
31. Thermoduric microorganisms are those which survive pasteurization but cannot grow at
pasteurization temperatures.
32. Yeasts are bigger than bacteria.
33. Bacillus are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic

34. Violet red bile agar is the selective growth media for Coliforms.
35. Pseudomonas syncyanea causes blue colouration defect.
36. Bacterophage consists of a head and tail.
37. Oxidation involves gain of electrons.
38. Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus is an aroma bacteria.
39. Candida pseudotropicalis is reffered to as false yeast.
40. E.coli produces acid and gas.
41. Mac Conkey agar is used for the isolation of E.coli.
42. L.acidophilus is an aerobic organism.
43. Kefir is a fermented dairy product.
44. Acidophilus milk has health benefits.
45. Fore milk contain bacteria

B. Match the following:

Set 1.
1. Glass bottles

(a) Fortified milk

2. Fat globules are 10000 times higher

(b) Mastitis

3. Freon

(c) Str. lactis var maltigenes

4. Coxiella burnetti

(d) Refrigerant

5. Malty flavour

(e) Homogenisation

6. Alcaligenes viscosus

(f) 63C

7. CMT

(g) Q fever

8. Leuconostoc dextranicum

(h) Aroma bacteria

9. LTLT

(i) Ropy fermentation

10. Vitamin A concentrate

(j) Milk Packing

Set 2
1. Oxidation

a. Sanitizer

2. Mastitis

b. Loss of electrons

3. Mesophilic starter

c. 10 % tartaric acid.

4. Blue colouration

d. Organs of locomotion

5. QAC

e. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis

6. IMVIC

f. Antimicrobial substance

7. Blue veined cheese

g. Eschericia-Aerobacter differentiation

8. Yeasts and Moulds

h. Penicillium species

9. Lactinin

i. Pseudomonas syncyanea

10. Flagella

j. CMT

C. Write short answers


1.

Define Veterinary public health.

2.

What is the mission of veterinary public health.

3.

Direct transmission

4.

Cyclozoonoses

5.

Milk borne zoonoses.

6.

Endospores

7.

Gassy defect

8.

UHT treatment

9.

Soft curd milk

10. Double toned milk


11. Homogenization
12. Dye reduction tests
13. Penicillium species
14. Coliforms
15. Sweet curdling
16. Ropy fermentation
17. Resasurin
18. Alkaline phosphatase
19. Violet red bile agar.
20. Coliforms
21. Psychrotrophs
22. Direct microscopic count

23. Sterilization of media.


24. Thermophilic
26. Anaerobic microorganism
27. Antibiosis
28. .Bacillus
29. Brucella
30. Salmonella
31. Streptococcus
32. Leuconostoc
33. Clostridium
34. Mycobacterium
35. Lag phase
36.Psychrophilics
37. Listeria
38. Violet red bile agar
39. Sterilization
40. Lactobacillus
41. Enterotoxin
42. Micrococci
43. Mordant
44. Bifidus factor
45. Bactofugation
46. Importance-principle uses
47. Yeasts

48. Definition-mode of reproduction of yeasts


49. Metabiosis
50. Definition-example of interaction
51. Bitty cream
52. Abnormal fermentation- cause-appearance.
53. Micro-aerophilics
54. Definition-coliforms-reason- appearance of colonies
55. LP system
56. Expansion- basic principle-uses
57. Sorbates
58. Preservative definition- class-specific action- efficacy against
59. Sweet curdling
60. Basic- due to what- species involved
61. Q fever
62. Description-causative agent-importance-pasteurization
63. Psychrotrophs in milk spoilage
64. Examples-spoilage-defects.
65. Thermal death point
66. Lactic group of microorganisms.
67 Shape of the growth curve
68 OR potential
69. Plague assay
70. Mastitis in cow.
72. Food chain in microbial association.

73. Fruity flavour


74. Bifidobacterium bifidus in infants
75. Early blowing
76. Capsule
77. Candida kefyr
78. Pyoverdin
79. Complement
80. Oxidised flavour
81. Newmans stain
82. COB test
83. Microenvironment
84. Starters
85. Ropy fermentation
86. Bacteriophages
87. Yeasts
88. Specific antimicrobial substances in milk
89. Antiobiosis
90. Thermophilics
91. Aerobic spore formers
92. Aroma bacteria

D. Write short essay


1. Discuss on the various anti-microbial systems present in raw milk.
2. Write about the various abnormal fermentations in milk and its products.
3. Detail about the contamination of milk through various sources and its control.
4. Discuss about the various yeasts and moulds that are encountered in dairy industry.
5. Write in detail about the various problems associated due to psychrotrophs in milk.
6. Discuss in details about the morphology, biochemical and importance of the coliforms in dairy
industry.
7. Write an essay on any three of the following:
8. Write in detail about cleaning and sanitization in dairy industry.
9. Write in detail about HTST method of pasteurization.
10. Write an essay on bacteriophages.
11. What are the various factors affecting the growth of microorganisms. Explain in detail along
with a typical growth curve.
12. Dye that helps in detection of abnormal milk also.
13. Write in detail about the various starter cultures that are used in dairy industry.
14. Explain in detail about the various abnormal flavour fermentations in milk.
15. Discuss the role of coliforms in dairy industry.
16. Write in detail about the various moulds that are encountered in dairy industry with neat
sketches.
17. Write about the various means of contamination of milk and their possible control methods.
18. Detail about the incidence of spores in milk and milk products.

19. Write in detail about the antimicrobial systems that are present in milk.
20. What are the normal and abnormal fermentations. Discuss in detail about any five.
21. Write in detail about the various packaging materials that are used in dairy industry.
22. Explain about the refrigeration cycle with a neat sketch.

Answers for the fill in the blanks.


1. Zoonoses
2. Health
3. Veterinary public health
4. Lactic, Pyogenic, Viridans and Enterococcus
5. Lag, Log, Stationary and Decline.
6. Protein.
7. Frothiness.
8. Bacillus species
9. Aerobic spore forming bacilli
10. Butyric acid
11. Streptococcus lactis var maltigens
12. QAC and chlorine compounds
13. Mac Conkey medium
14. 3.0 and 8.5
15. Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, E.Coli and Corynebacterium
16. 72C for 15 seconds.

17. Lactanins, Lysozyme, Lactoferin and lactoperoxidase.


18. P.Camemberti, P.roqueforti, Geotrichum candidum and Mucor rasmusen
19. Molds
20. Spray dried milk powder
21. Streptococcus species
22. P.Camemberti and P.roqueforti.
23. Binary fission
24. Anaerobic
25. +0.3 volts.
26. Q fever
27. Bacilli
28. Pleomorphic
29. Log
30. Four
31. Pasteurisation.
32. Pseudomonas species
33. Virus infected bacteria.
34. Protein decomposition.
35. Pseudomonas fragi
36. Serratia marcescens
37. Aerobacter aerogenes
38. Dimethyl sulphide
39. LP system.
40. E.coli

41. Clostridia
42. Bacillus circulans.
43. Aspergillus species
44. Pseudomonas taetrolens and Pseudomonas mucidolens
45. Streptococcus species
46. Caramelized flavour.
47. B.cereus and C. perfringens
48. Summer diarrhea
49. Coxiella burnetti
50. Pseudomonas fluorescens
51. Pseudomonas synxantha
52. Pseudomonas syncyanea
53. Freezing
54. Bacteriophage
55. Escherichia
56. IMViC
57. E.coli
58. Psychrotrophs
59. Mesophilic bacteria
60. Thermoduric bacteria
61. Residual milk
62. 4.5 and 8.5
63. 8.7
64. 30,000

65. 50,000
66. 5
67. Lytic and lysogenic
68. Streptococcus lactis
69. Acidophilin
70. Fishiness
71. Achromobacter
72. Flavobacterium lactis
73. Pseudomonas fragi
74. Moldy butter
75. Alcaligenes viscolactis
76. Pseudomonas nigrifaciens
77. Bactofugation
78. Coxiella burnetti
79. Shigella species
80. Corynebacterium diptheriae
81. Bacillus anthracis
82. Frothiness
83. Yoghurt
84. Yeast
85. Saccharomyces species.
86. Helical and Cuboidal
87. Hyphae
88. Pseudomonas fluorescens

89. Pseudo-lactic
90. Lactobacillus fermentum
91. Swiss cheese

State whether the following are true or false:


1.

True.

2.

False.

3.

True

4.

False

5.

True

6.

True

7.

False

8.

False.

9.

True

10.

True

11.

False.

12.

False.

13.

False

14.

True

15.

True

16.

True

17.

False

18.

True

19.

True

20.

False

21.

False

22.

True.

23.

False

24.

True

25.

True

26.

True

27.

False

28.

True

29.

False

30.

False

31.

True.

32.

True

33.

True

34.

True

35.

True

36.

True.

37.

True

38.

False

I.

39.

True

40.

True

41.

True

42.

False

43.

False

44.

True

45.

True

Match the following:


Set 1.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Set 2.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.