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By: Rusdi Noor Rosa

STRUCTURE AND
WRITTEN EXPRESSION
Time: 25 Minutes

What is a sentence?

Subject
a. Noun
b. Pronoun
c. Noun Phrase
d. Noun Clause

Predicate
Verb

Verb1

Verbing

Verb

Verb3

Verb2

Can all of
them function
as predicates

Study the following sentences.

John speaks English.


John spoke English.
John spoken English.
John speaking English.

Which of them are correct?

SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Predicate: (Main Verb)
Verb1 and Verb 2
Predicate: Auxiliary Verb
Be
Modals
Perfect
Supportive/Emphatic

Basic Skills in TOEFL Structure


1. Be sure the sentence has a subject and a
predicate
Example:
_____ was backed up for miles on the freeway.
A. Yesterday
B. In the morning
C. Traffic
D. Cars

EXAMPLE
1. Engineers _____ for work on the new space
program.
A. necessary
B. are needed
C. hopefully
D. next month
2. The boy ____ going to the movies with a friend
A. he is
B. he always was
C. is relaxing
D. will be

Basic Skills in TOEFL Structure


2. Be careful of objects of preposition
Preposition: in, at, to, by, behind, on, after,
before.
Example:
With his friend _____ found the movie theatre.
A. has
B. he
C. later
D. when

Basic Skills in TOEFL Structure


3. Be careful of appositives
1.
A.
B.
C.
D.

_____ George, is attending the lecture


Right now
Happily
Because of the time
My friend

2. ______, Sarah rarely misses her basketball shots.


A. An excellent basketball player
B. An excellent basketball player is
C. Sarah is an excellent basketball player
D. Her excellent basketball play

Basic Skills in TOEFL Structure


4. Be careful of present and past participle
1.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The child ____ playing in the yard is my son


now
is
he
Was

2. The packages ___ mailed at the post office will


arrive Monday
A. have
B. were
C. them
D. just

EXAMPLE
Crop rotation _________ of preserving soil
fertility
A. it is one method
B. one method
C. a method is one
D. is one method

EXAMPLE
_________ Indonesian president, is an
intelligent man.
A. The
B. The SBY
C. SBY, the
D. SBY

EXAMPLE
_________ two major art museums, the
Fogg and the Sadler
A.Harvard University has
B. At Harvard University
C. Harvard University, with its
D.There at Harvard University

EXAMPLE
___________ for their strong fiber include
flax and hemp.
A. Plants are grown
B. Plants grown
C. Plants that grow
D. To grow plant

EXAMPLES
The North Pole, ______a latitude of 90 degrees north.
(A) it has
(C) which is having
(B) is having
(D) has

The city of Beverly Hills is surrounded on ______the city


of Los Angeles.
(A) its sides
(C) it is the side of
(B) the sides are
(D) all sides by
______ greyhound, can achieve speeds up to thirty-six
miles per hour.
(A) The
(C) The fastest dog
(B) The fastest
(D) The fastest dog, the

A sentence with more than one clause

1 Subject + 1 Predicate
2 Subjects + 2 Predicates + Conjunction
3 Subjects + 3 Predicates + 2 Conjunctions

CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinate: and, or, but, yet, so
Time:

when, while, before, after, as soon as,


since, until, once, by the time

Cause:

because, as, since, now that,


inasmuch as

Effect:

so, therefore, consequently, hence

Contrast:

though, although, even though


nevertheless, however, meanwhile,
on the other hand

CONJUNCTIONS
Addition:

moreover, besides, furthermore

Condition:

if, unless, providing/provided


that
where, whereever

Place:

Question Words: what, who, where, when, why,


how
Relative Pronoun: who, whom, whose, which, that

Relative Pronoun as Conjunction


Who, Whom, Whose
That
Which

Question Word as Conjunction


What, Whether, Who, Where, When, Why
How
The Order: QW + Subject + Predicate

EXAMPLE
In 1890, Yale University established
Sheffield Scientific School, ____________
A. engineers were educated there
B. where engineers were educated
C. in which were engineers educated
D. where were engineers educated

EXAMPLE
__________ they are tropical birds, parrots
can live in temperature or even cold climates.
(A) Despite
(C) Even though
(B) Nevertheless
(D) But
__________ towards shore, its shape is
changed by its collision with the shallow sea
bottom.
(A) During a wave rolls
(B) As a wave rolls
(C) A wave rolls
(D) A waves rolling

REDUCED CLAUSE
When, Before, After
Verb
Verb-ing
If, Unless
+S+
Tobe
Although, Even though
Example:
If Ali has a lot of money, he will go abroad.
Same subject
If having a lot of money, Ali will go abroad.
When he called me, I was having my dinner.
Different subject
Cannot be reduced

EXAMPLE
1.

People who reverse the letters of words ... to read


suffer from dyslexia.
(A) when trying
(C) when tried
(B) if they tried
(D) if he tries

2.

This exam will be more difficult than usual ... two


chapters instead of one.
(A) as they cover
(C) because covering
(B) if they covered
(D) it covers

INVERSION

S + P P + S (Inversion)
To form interrogative sentence
(Question).
Example:
You are an army. Are you an army?
Where you are from (Incomplete Sentence)
Where are you from?

INVERSION
The Clause begins with Negative
Expressions
(Not only, Never, Nor, Seldom, Hardly,
Rarely, Scarcely, Barely)
Example:
I never visit Bali
Never do I visit Bali

INVERSION
If + S +

were
should
had

Were + S
Should + S
Had + S

Example:
If he had listened to me, he would have been fine.
Had he listened to me, he would have been fine.
If I were rich, I could buy everything.
Were I rich, I could buy everything.

INVERSION
If the sentence begins with adverb of
time
1. The students are in the classroom.
1a. In the classroom are the students.
2. The students are studying in the
classroom.
2a. In the classroom the students are
studying.

EXAMPLE
1.

According to the World Health Organization, ...


any of the six most dangerous diseases to break
out, it could be cause for quarantine.
(A) were
(C) there were
(B) they were
(D) were there

2.

Featured at the Henry Ford Museum ... of antique


cars dating from 1865.
(A) is an exhibit
(C) an exhibit is
(B) an exhibit
(D) which is an exhibit

Problems with Verbs


is, am, are , was, were + Verb-ing (Active)
Verb3 (Passive)
have, has, had + Verb3/been
will/would, can/could, may, must + Verb1
The decision of the judges may hurts many
A
B
C
people
D

Adverb of Time
In 1945, During 1945 = Verb2
Since 1945, During 1945 = have/has + Verb3
From 1945 to 1970 (Repeated Action)
By 1945, Before 1945 = had + Verb3
By 2020 = will have + Verb3
Now, At the moment = is/am/are + Verb-ing

Miscellany Materials

Other, Another + Noun


Others + Noun
Like, Live, Sleeping + Noun
Alike, Alive, Asleep + Noun
My, Your, Her, Our, Their + Noun
Mine, Yours, Hers, Ours, Theirs + Noun