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FFS-SU-5216-A

STRUCTURAL WELDING AND INSPECTION FOR OFFSHORE PLATFORMS

APPLICATION: FLOATING AND FIXED PLATFORMS, FPSO

This document is the confidential property of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Neither


the whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to any third
party without the prior written consent of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Neither the
whole nor any part of this document may be reproduced, stored in any
retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic,
mechanical, reprographic, recording or otherwise) without the prior
written consent of Chevron U.S.A. Inc.

Rev

Date

Description

12/08

Initial release
Replaces CIV-SU-1.15-A (1997)

02/09

General revision

JLPY

CWAN

08/09

Errata change - Table 4, item 3,Magnetic


Particle data changed to reference table
footnote 10

JLPY

CWAN

August 2009 (E)

Author

Sponsor
CWAN

20072009 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. All rights reserved.

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CONTENTS

1.0

Scope ..........................................................................................................................3

2.0

References ..................................................................................................................3
2.1 ......Purchaser Documents ......................................................................................3
2.2 ......Industry Codes and Standards .........................................................................3

3.0

Terminology ................................................................................................................5
3.1 ......Acronyms .........................................................................................................5
3.2 ......Definitions .........................................................................................................5

4.0

Technical Requirements ............................................................................................5


4.1 ......Item Definition ..................................................................................................5
4.2 ......Environmental Conditions ................................................................................6
4.3 ......Weld Fabrication Requirements .......................................................................6
4.4 ......Supplier Requirements ...................................................................................17
4.5 ......Documentation Requirements ........................................................................17

5.0

Quality Assurance Provisions ................................................................................18


5.1 ......General Extent of Inspection ..........................................................................18
5.2 ......Inspection Procedures ....................................................................................23
5.3 ......Cleaning and Repairing of Pipe Ends ............................................................25
5.4 ......Tests ...............................................................................................................25
5.5 ......Quality Conformance Inspections ..................................................................25
5.6 ......Welding Repairs .............................................................................................27

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1.0

FFS-SU-5216-A

SCOPE
1. This specification defines minimum technical requirements for welding and welding
inspection of both fixed and floating facilities. Floating, Production, Storage, and Offloading
(FPSO)/ Floating Storage and Offloading (FSO) decks and modules are included. Quality
Assurance Provisions for hulls are also included, except for FPSO/FSO hulls.
2. This specification also applies to shop, yard, and offshore welding.
3. This specification is for both ABS (American Bureau of Shipping) and non-ABS classed
facilities.
a. If non-ABS class facilities are being fabricated, ABS rules are not applicable.
b. If ABS class facilities are being fabricated, ABS rules shall apply.
4. Supplier shall be solely responsible for providing complete and operable packages in full
accordance with all applicable industry codes and standards, government regulations, and
purchaser technical requirements.
5. Any exceptions to the requirements of this specification shall be submitted in writing for
resolution by Purchaser.

2.0

REFERENCES
1. The following documents are referenced herein and are considered part of this specification.
2. Use the edition of each referenced document in effect on the date of the publication of this
specification.
3. Any conflicts between the referenced documents shall be identified to Purchaser in writing for
resolution. In general, when resolving conflicts, the following order of precedence shall apply:
a. Purchase order
b. Purchaser drawings
c. This specification
d. Referenced Purchaser standards
e. Referenced industry codes and standards

2.1

2.2

Purchaser Documents
FFS-SU-5160

Hull Fabrication for Floating Structures

FFS-SU-5215

Structural Steel and Other Materials

Industry Codes and Standards


American Petroleum Institute (API)
RP 2A-WSD

Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed


Offshore Platforms-Working Stress Design

RP 2X

Recommended Practice for Ultrasonic and Magnetic Examination of


Offshore Structural Fabrication and Guidelines for Qualification of
Technicians

Spec 2B

Specification for the Fabrication of Structural Steel Pipe.

Spec 2H

Specification for Carbon Manganese Steel Plate for Offshore Structures

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Spec 2MT1

Specification for Carbon Manganese Steel Plate with Improved Toughness


for Offshore Structures

Spec 2W

Specification for Steel Plates for Offshore Structures, Produced by


ThermoMechanical Control Processing (TMCP)

Spec 2Y

Specification for Steel Plates, Quenched-and-Tempered, for Offshore


Structures

RP 2Z

Recommended Practice for Preproduction Qualification for Steel Plates for


Offshore Structures

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


SFA 5.20

Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
(Identical with AWS Specification A5.20-95)

SFA 5.29

Specification for Low-alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
(Identical with AWS Specification A5.29/A5.29M:2005.)

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code


Section V, Non-Destructive Examination
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
A 36

Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel

E 165

Standard Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination

E 709

Standard Guide for Magnetic Particle Examination

E 1290

Standard Test Method for Crack-Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD)


Fracture Toughness Measurement

American Welding Society (AWS)


A4.3

Standard Methods for Determination of the Diffusible Hydrogen Content of


Martensitic, Bainitic, and Ferritic Steel Weld Metal Produced by Arc
Welding

A5.20

Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

A5.29

Specification for LowAlloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

D1.1

Structural Welding Code-Steel

British Standards Institute (BSI)


BS 5762

Methods for Crack Opening Displacement (COD) Testing

BS 7448-1

Fracture Mechanics Toughness Tests - Part 1: Method for Determination of


KIC, Critical CTOD and Critical J Values of Metallic Materials

BS EN 10225

Weldable Structural Steels for Fixed Offshore Structures - Technical


Delivery Conditions

BS EN ISO 3690

Welding and Allied Processes - Determination of Hydrogen Content in


Ferritic Steel Arc Weld Metal

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3.0

TERMINOLOGY

3.1

Acronyms

FFS-SU-5216-A

ABSAmerican Bureau of Shipping


CECarbon Equivalent
CODCrack Opening Displacement
CTODCrack-Tip Opening Misplacement
FCAW-GFlux Core Arc Welding - Gas Shielded
FCAW-SFlux Core Arc Welding - Self Shielded
FLFusion Line
GMAWGas Metal Arc Welding
GTAWGas Tungsten Arc Welding
HAZHeat Affected Zone
LASTLowest Anticipated Service Temperature
MTMagnetic Particle Technique
PQRProcedure Qualification Record
PTLiquid Penetrant Technique
RTRadiographic Technique
SAWSubmerged Arc Welding
SMAWManual Shielded Metal Arc Welding
UTUltrasonic Technique
WPSWelding Procedure Specification
VTVisual Inspection
3.2

Definitions
JointIntersection where one or more tubular or structural shape stubs are connected. The joint
area shall include stiffeners, diaphragms, and transition pieces, as specified by accepted drawings.
T-junctionPoint where a longitudinal seam weld on a tubular intersects a circumferential weld.
It can be located at either a buttweld between two tubulars or a full penetration weld between a
chord and a brace.

4.0

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

4.1

Item Definition
Structural welding and inspection includes the materials, equipment, workmanship, testing, and
other items required to weld and inspect offshore steel structures.

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4.2

FFS-SU-5216-A

Environmental Conditions
Welding material and procedures shall be suitable for the environmental conditions as specified in
AWS D1.1.

4.3

Weld Fabrication Requirements


4.3.1

General
1. Structural welding shall be in accordance with AWS D1.1 or more restrictive
requirements specified in this document. Welds are subject to review, inspection, and
acceptance by Purchaser representatives, ABS surveyor, and Purchaser-furnished
marine surveyor.
2. Unless otherwise specified, welds shall be full penetration welds.
3. Members shall be well fitted and firmly tacked into place before welding.
a. Tack welding shall be performed according to the same qualified welding
procedure that governs the connection and shall only be performed by qualified
welders.
b. Supplier shall include, as part of the welding procedure specification, a procedure
for repair of wide gaps. This procedure shall be in accordance with AWS D1.1.
c. Buttering members in place is acceptable if welders are qualified in accordance
with Section 4.3.6, item 4 and Figure 2 of AWS D1.1.
4. When welding joints with features (such as special fittings, heavy wall pipe,
appurtenances, and corners) that would make obtaining interpass fusion difficult, the
weld shall be contoured after each pass with a grinder to improve the welders pass-topass accessibility.
5. Acceptable methods of welding are the Shielded Metal Arc (SMAW), Submerged Arc
(SAW), Gas Metal Arc (GMAW), Flux-Cored Arc-Gas Shielded (FCAW-G), and Gas
Tungsten Arc (GTAW) processes.
a. Short circuiting the GMAW-S process shall be used only for welding of the deck
plate and non-critical structural items such as handrails.
b. GMAW-S is also acceptable for root passes in primary (as defined by AWS D1.1)
structural welds, when the remainder of the weld is made from one or both sides
using SAW, FCAW-G, or SMAW.
c. Self Shielded Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW-S) process requires Purchaser
acceptance.
6. Tack welding, seal welding, and welding of temporary attachments (including
scaffolding supports and tie-downs) shall be performed in accordance with the
accepted welding procedures.
7. When weld-through primers are used during fabrication, they shall be included in the
weld procedure qualifications. Use of weld-through primers shall require written
acceptance by Purchaser prior to the start of fabrication.
8. Temporary attachment welds to structural members or deck plate shall be removed by
severing with an oxy-acetylene torch or by carbon air arc gouging the attachment no
closer than 0.12 inches (3 mm) from the surface of the structural member, then ground
flush and inspected using the Magnetic Particle Technique (MT).

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9. When seal welding the deck plate to secondary or primary (as defined by AWS D1.1)
structural members, a small sealer bead size of 1/8 inch (3 mm) shall be used to avoid
excessive distortion. Auto carriage seal welding in 1G or flat position using FCAW-G
or GMAW is preferred when practicable.
10. Fairing or heat straightening deck plate and structural members distorted by welding
is allowed using a procedure accepted by the Purchaser.
4.3.2

Welding Consumables
1. Electrodes with a low hydrogen covering shall be purchased in a hermetically sealed
container.
2. Unless otherwise specified in the manufacturers recommendations, immediately after
opening, electrodes shall be stored in an oven at a temperature of 250F (121C).
a. If electrodes have not been stored, or if the sealed container shows evidence of
damage, the electrodes shall be dried for at least two hours at a temperature
between 450F (232C) and 500F (260C) before being used.
b. Wet electrodes shall be discarded.
3. Low hydrogen electrodes shall be used for SMAW welding.
4. Non-low hydrogen electrodes (e.g., E-6010) may be used for root pass welding on one
sided tubular joints only.
5. Permanent backup bars shall not be used except when specifically accepted by
Purchaser.
6. Backing rings shall be allowed only on structural braces less than 24 inches (610 mm)
in diameter, when qualified and used in accordance with Suppliers accepted welding
procedures.
7. For gas shielded processes (FCAW-G, GTAW, and GMAW), the wind speed adjacent
to the arc shall be a maximum of 5 mph, to allow adequate gas coverage of the molten
puddle.
8. The following requirements apply to FCAW-G:
a. FCAW-G consumables shall be low hydrogen type, as tested and certified by the
consumable manufacturer.
b. Low hydrogen type consumables shall be defined as those with a diffusible
hydrogen content less than 8 ml/100 gm of deposited weld metal (AWS A5.20 and
AWS A5.29 H4 or H8 electrode classification) as measured by the mercury or
gas chromatograph method (BS EN ISO 3690 or AWS A4.3).
c. Flux-cored wire shall be kept clean and dry prior to use and at all times while on
the wire feeder.
d. Wire that shows any signs of rust or contamination shall be discarded.
e. Maximum bead width and layer thickness shall be controlled for all FCAW
welding to ensure adequate toughness of the weld and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ).
1) When impact testing is required, the maximum bead width and layer thickness
shall be qualified as part of the welding procedure and stated on the Welding
Procedure Specification (WPS) and Procedure Qualification Record (PQR).

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2) Maximum bead width and layer thickness for production welding shall be
limited to the maximum qualified for the welding procedure, and in any case,
the maximum bead width shall not exceed 3/4 inch (19 mm).
3) When impact testing is not required, the maximum bead width shall be limited
to 3/4 inch (19 mm).
f.

Maximum wire diameter for out of position welding (3G, 4G, 5G, and 6G) shall be
as in Table 1.
Table 1: Maximum Wire Diameter for Out of Position Welding
Thickness of Thinner
Material Joined

Maximum Wire Diameter


FCAW-G

Less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm)

0.052 inch (1.2 mm)

Greater than or equal to 3/8 inch (9.5 mm)

1/16 inch (1.6 mm)

g. The flat position and horizontal positions (1G and 2G) shall be limited to
3/32 inch (2.4 mm) maximum wire diameter
9. Consumables for the gas-shielded FCAW-G process shall conform to the AWS/ASME
SFA 5.20 or SFA 5.29 classifications: E7XT-1H8, E7XT-1MH8, E7XT-5H8,
E7XT5MH8, E8XT1-XH8, E8XT1-XMH8, E8XT5-XH8, or E8XT5-XMH8.
4.3.3

Welding Procedure Qualifications


1. Qualification tests shall be performed in accordance with AWS D1.1 by an
independent testing laboratory as directed by Purchaser.
2. Weld procedure qualification testing shall be carried out by and at the expense of
Supplier.
3. Purchaser shall witness new weld procedure qualification tests.
4. Where previously qualified procedures are submitted for review and acceptance,
adequate documentation of the results from an independent testing laboratory shall be
included.
5. Actual values of essential variables shall be recorded for each pass as part of the
welding procedure qualification, and the data records shall be submitted with the
qualifications for Purchaser review and acceptance.
6. Welding procedures shall be qualified by nondestructive testing (NDT) and
mechanical testing. Acceptance criteria for welding procedure qualification
nondestructive examination (NDE) shall be in accordance with Table 2.
a. Pre-qualified procedures as defined by AWS D1.1 are not allowed. However,
records of previous qualification for a welding procedure may be submitted for
acceptance in lieu of new qualifications, and may be accepted if each requirement
of this specification is met.
b. Unless otherwise specified, mechanical testing shall include tensile, bend, Charpy
V-notch, hardness, and macrosection tests in accordance with AWS D1.1 and this
specification.

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c. CTOD testing of weld metal shall be required for all welding procedure
qualifications on Type I, I-X, II, and II-X steels (refer to FFS-SU-5215) with
thickness equal to or greater than 2-1/2 inches (63.5 mm).
Table 2:

Weld Flaw Acceptance Levels


Inspection Procedure

Visual

Minimum NDE1 Operator


Qualification2

Acceptance Criteria
AWS D1.1, Paragraph 6.9

AWS Certified Welding


Inspector (CWI)3

Ultrasonic

AWS D1.1 Section 6, Part F or API API RP 2X - T, K, Y Welds


ASNT Level II and tested per
RP 2X
Level C; Other Welds Level A5 API RP 2X

Radiographic

AWS D1.1 Section 6, Part E

AWS D1.1, Paragraph 6.12

ASNT Level II

Magnetic
Particle

ASME Section V, Article 7 Clause


T725.1 or T725.2 and Clause
T731 and T734; or ASTM E 709

AWS D1.1, Paragraph 6.10

ASNT Level II

AWS D1.1, Paragraph 6.10

ASNT Level II

Dye Penetrant4 ASTM E 165


1Or

Purchaser-accepted equal.
shall submit current updated certifications of NDE operators to Purchaser for review.
3Qualified in accordance with AWS D1.1, Paragraph 6.1.4.
4When accepted by Purchaser representative.
5For Hull Structures UT to Level A for both Cyclic and Non-Cyclic Service.
2Supplier

7. For all welding on Type I, I-X, II, and II-X steels (refer to FFS-SU-5215) with
thickness equal to or greater than 2-1/2 inches (63.5 mm). The preheat, heat input, and
interpass temperature shall be within the prequalified ranges in accordance with
API RP 2Z.
8. AWS D1.1 limits on qualified thickness ranges shall be followed except for the
following additional requirements:
a. For welding procedures where CTOD testing is required, the maximum thickness
shall be limited to the thickness of the CTOD test coupon.
b. For T-K-Y connections in a pipe with a wall thickness greater than or equal to
1 inch (25 mm), a large-scale 6GR test shall be required. The test joint shall be
similar to AWS D1.1, Figure 4.27 except for the following changes:
1) Minimum outside diameter shall be 12-3/4 inches (324 mm).
2) Minimum wall thickness shall be 1 inch (25 mm).
3) Minimum length of each pipe nipple shall be 12 inches (305 mm).
9. The following limits for additional essential variables shall apply to all welding
procedures. (A change in an essential variable beyond the specified limits requires a
new qualification.)
a. An increase in the Carbon Equivalent (CE) greater than 0.03 percent versus the
base material used for the procedure qualification for production base material CE
through 0.45. Above 0.45 production base material CE, a new qualification is
required if the procedure qualification CE is exceeded.

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b. A change in the process of manufacture for the base material, outside the
following groups:
1) Quenched and tempered steels (i.e., API Spec 2Y)
2) TMCP or controlled-rolled steels (i.e., API Spec 2W)
3) Normalized or as-rolled steels (i.e., API Spec 2H or 2MT1)
c. An increase of more than 50F (28C) over the maximum interpass temperature
attained on the procedure qualification for Type I, I-X, II, and II-X steels only.
d. A change greater than 25 percent in the heat input of any welding pass from the
average value calculated for the procedure qualification test.
1) Heat inputs for fill passes and cap passes shall be grouped separately in
determining the average heat input qualified.
2) The minimum heat input for the cap pass shall not be less than the lowest heat
input pass adjacent to base metal on the procedure qualification.
e. Any change in the electrode or electrode/flux brand name or place of
manufacture, when the Charpy V-notch impact test temperature is lower than
0F (-18C) (i.e., Type I and I-X steels only).
10. The following limits for additional essential variables shall apply to all welding
procedures where CTOD testing of weld metal is required as part of the procedure
qualification. (A change in an essential variable beyond the specified limits requires a
new qualification.)
a. Any increase in thickness of the base material versus that used for the procedure
qualification.
b. Any increase in the maximum preheat, heat input, or interpass temperature versus
the procedure qualification.
c. Any change in the type of power supply (constant voltage or constant current) or
wire feeder (constant feed or voltage sensing) for flux cored arc welding
(FCAWG) only.
d. Any change in the electrode or electrode/flux brand name or place of manufacture
(i.e., Type I, I-X, II, and II-X steels only).
11. If a temper bead technique is used to control the maximum hardness of the HAZ, then
any change in the bead sequence or placement of the temper bead shall require a new
qualification.
12. Welding procedure qualifications shall include a microhardness traverse of the HAZ,
weld metal, and base metal.
a. Traverses shall be made 0.04 inch (1 mm) below the I.D. and O.D. surfaces and at
midthickness. (See Figure 1.)
b. Hardness impressions shall be spaced 0.08 inch (2 mm) apart except for the HAZ
area where spacing shall be 0.04 inch (1 mm) apart.
c. Hardness values greater than 325 Vickers using a 22 lb. (10 kg) load are not
acceptable and shall require a new procedure qualification.
d. Supplier shall furnish test data to Purchaser representative for acceptance.

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Figure 1:

FFS-SU-5216-A

Base Metal, Weld, and Heat Affected Zone of Typical Weld for Guidance In Making
Microhardness Traverses

Note: Welding procedure qualifications shall include a 10 kg Vickers micro hardness traverse of the
HAZ, weld metal and base metal. Traverses shall be made 1 mm below the I.D. and O.D. surfaces and at
mid-thickness. Hardness impressions shall be spaced 2 mm apart except for the HAZ area where
spacing shall be 1 mm apart.

13. Charpy V-notch impact testing of both the weld metal and heat affected zones shall be
required on all welding procedure qualifications.
a. Testing shall be in accordance with AWS D1.1 Part D, except that notch locations
shall be at the weld center line, fusion line, FL+1 mm, FL+3 mm, and FL+5 mm.
b. Acceptance criteria for both weld metal and HAZ specimens shall be as shown in
Table 3. Projects may change to less stringent requirements as determined by
LAST (Lowest Anticipated Service Temperature).
Table 3:

Acceptance Criteria for Weld Metal and HAZ Specimens

Steel Type
I
I-X
II
II-X
III, IV, V,VI

Test Temp

40F (40C)
40F (40C)
0F (18C)
0F (18C)
32F (0C)

Minimum Average

Minimum Single Value

25 ft-lbs. (34 J)

20 ft-lbs. (27 J)

30 ft-lbs. (41 J)

25 ft-lbs. (34 J)

25 ft-lbs. (34 J)

20 ft-lbs. (27 J)

30 ft-lbs. (41 J)

25 ft-lbs. (34 J)

20 ft-lbs. (27 J)

15 ft-lbs. 20 J)

c. For Type III, IV, and V steels, only weld metal impact tests are required.
d. For Type III, IV, and V steels, a single set of HAZ specimens with the notch
location as shown in AWS D1.1, Part D, Figure 4.40 Zone C shall be tested and
reported for information only.

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14. CTOD toughness of the HAZ shall be prequalified in accordance with API RP 2Z or
BS EN 10225. Provided that the heat input for all welding processes is within the
pre-qualified range, further CTOD testing of the HAZ by Supplier shall not be
required.
15. CTOD testing of weld metal shall be required for all welding procedure qualifications
on Type I, I-X, II, and II-X steels with thickness equal to or greater than
2-1/2 inches (63.5 mm).
a. Weld metal CTOD testing shall be performed on the thickest steel to be welded
for each steel type, using the highest preheat, heat input, and inter-pass
temperature permitted by the welding procedure to be qualified.
b. For plate test coupons, CTOD testing on a 3G position coupon qualifies CTOD
procedure for all other positions.
c. For pipe test coupons, CTOD testing on a 5G position coupon, with CTOD
specimens removed at 3:00 or 9:00 oclock locations, qualifies the CTOD
procedure for all other positions.
d. Except for the CTOD tests, other AWS D1.1 rules apply for qualifying all position
welding.
e. Specimens shall be tested in the as-welded condition with the notch located at the
centerline of the weld.
f.

Tests shall be performed according to ASTM E 1290 or BS 7448-1, although


previously qualified procedures where testing was performed according to
BS 5762 are also acceptable.

g. A minimum of three valid CTOD test results shall be obtained.


16. CTOD specimens shall be tested in the as-welded condition.
a. Test temperature shall be 14 F (10 C).
b. Acceptance criteria for material up to 60 ksi yield strength shall be:
1) 0.010 inch (0.25 mm) for Type I and II plates up to 3 inches (76 mm) thick
2) 0.015 inch (0.38 mm) for Type I and II plates greater than 3 inches (76 mm)
thick
3) 0.012 inch (0.30 mm) for Type I-X and II-X plates up to 3 inches (76 mm)
thick
4) 0.018 inch (0.46 mm) for Type I-X and II-X plates greater than 3 inches
(76 mm) thick
4.3.4

Welding Equipment
1. Condition of Equipment
a. To ensure the production of sound welds, welding machines, line-up clamps,
beveling machines, cutting torches, tools, supplies, and other equipment used in
conjunction with the welding work shall be kept in good mechanical condition.
b. Welding machines shall have adequate controls for making the current
adjustments necessary for all welding requirements.
c. Sufficient meters, portable or permanent, shall be provided to calibrate machines
and to regulate voltage and amperage as needed.

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2. Grounding of Equipment
a. Grounding of welding machines shall be in accordance with API RP 2A-WSD
Section 12.7 and the following:
1) Welding machines shall be individually grounded to the platform or portion of
the platform being welded.
2) Welding cables shall be completely insulated to prevent stray currents.
3) During offshore installation, no welding machine shall be grounded to
floating equipment during welding on the structure and cables shall not be
allowed to hang in the water.
4) Connecting several welding machines to a common ground cable that is
connected to the structure being welded shall control stray currents if
adequately sized and properly insulated from the barge or vessel containing
welding machines.
b. Grounding cable lugs shall be tightly secured to grounding plates.
1) Lug contact shall be thoroughly cleaned to bare metal.
2) One or more cables connected in parallel may be used to meet minimum
cross-section requirements.
3) Ground clamps for pipe shall be designed to prevent arcing on the pipe
material.
c. Ground straps with a cross-section adequate for carrying the maximum possible
short-circuit current shall be installed between the jacket and pile/conductor while
making splices.
4.3.5

Preheat and Interpass Temperatures


1. Welding preheat and interpass temperatures shall be as specified in Suppliers
qualified welding procedure, but shall not be less than the recommended temperatures
in AWS D1.1, Table 3.2.
a. The alternative methods for determining preheat given in AWS D1.1, Annex I
may be used, if accepted by Purchaser in writing.
b. If any metal is damp or less than 50F (10C), a minimum preheat of 100F
(38C) shall be required regardless of thickness.
2. Preheat shall be performed by using oxy-fuel bulbous type torches, induction, or
electric resistance heat. Cutting torches shall not be used for preheating.
3. Maximum interpass temperatures shall not exceed the limit established by the welding
procedure qualification. (See Section 4.3.3, item 9c and item 10b). In cases where the
WPS does not specify a limit, the maximum interpass temperature shall not exceed
500F (260C) without written Purchaser acceptance.

4.3.6

Welder Qualifications
1. Welders shall be qualified by destructive testing; radiography may be performed in
lieu of destructive testing.
2. Records of previously qualified welders may be submitted to Purchaser for acceptance
in lieu of new qualifications, and may be accepted if all of the requirements of this
specification are met.

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3. Welders shall be required to demonstrate their ability to control preheat, heat input,
and interpass temperature in accordance with the WPS, and to comply with written
practices for filler metal handling as a part of the qualification testing.
4. Welders who shall perform buttering of members in place shall be required to
demonstrate their ability by passing a special qualification test (known as the butter
box test) as described in Figure 2 for each welding position required to perform the
required buttering.
5. Welder qualification testing shall be carried out by, and at the expense of, Supplier.
6. Purchaser shall witness the testing.
a. If Purchaser is not satisfied with the results of the qualifying tests, the welder shall
not be employed on Purchaser work.
b. Any welder who fails to qualify shall not be allowed to retest without the written
acceptance of Purchaser.
7. Records of the results of all qualifying tests shall be maintained by Supplier and
submitted to Purchaser.
8. Supplier shall furnish all welding materials, equipment, and labor for the qualifying
tests, including coupon cutting machines and testing equipment.
9. If radiographic testing is performed, radiographs shall be made available for Purchaser
review.
10. Supplier shall remove the following from the project immediately:
a. Any welder who, in the opinion of Purchaser, is not careful, skilled, or
experienced, or who is incompetent or negligent in the proper performance of
duties.
b. Any welder whose cumulative weld reject rate (either radiography or ultrasonic)
exceeds 10 percent, based upon a minimum of 20 welds, shall not be used until
retrained and requalified.
11. Notwithstanding any other radiography requirements of codes or of this specification,
the first five full penetration production welds completed by each welder shall be
subjected to 100 percent testing by radiography or ultrasonic examination.
4.3.7

Weld Identification and Marking


1. Prior to fabrication, Supplier shall establish a comprehensive numbering system that
provides unique identification of each weld and each qualified welder.
2. The numbering system shall be used for identification purposes at each weld, on all
shop drawings, and for indexing all NDT inspection reports and repairs.
3. Prior to commencement of fabrication, Supplier shall supply Purchaser with details of
the identification system, along with any subsequent revisions or modifications.
4. Paint markers or low stress (rounded dot) die stamps shall be used for weld
identification.

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Figure 2:

FFS-SU-5216-A

Butter Box Test Specimen and Requirments

Requirements:
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

A separate butter-box qualification shall be required for each welding position to be used, except that any
other position also qualifies for the 2G welding position. The 1G position is shown. The 2G position would
have the MK 1 plate in the flat position.
The material is ASTM A 36 or better quality.
The material size dimensions are minimum.
A 3-inch (75 mm) wide macro cross section is removed from the approximate center of the weld and both surfaces are polished and etched.
Welder must have at least one start and stop for each pass in the macro section region.

Acceptance Criteria:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

There shall be no cracks.


There shall be complete fusion to base metal and between adjacent layers of weld metal.
Undercut shall not exceed 1/32 inch (1 mm).
The maximum dimension of any slag inclusion shall not exceed 3/32 inch (2.5 mm). The sum of the greatest
dimension of all slag inclusions on each macro etched surface shall not exceed 1/4-inch (6.5 mm).
The maximum dimension of any porosity shall not exceed 1/16 inch (1.6 mm). The sum of the greatest dimension of all porosity greater than 1/32 inch (1 mm) shall not exceed 1/4 inch (6.5 mm).
The combination of the cumulative sums allowed in 4 and 5, above, shall not exceed 1/4 inch (6.5 mm).

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4.3.8

FFS-SU-5216-A

Workmanship
In addition to AWS D1.1, workmanship shall comply with the following requirements:
1. Surfaces of metal to be welded shall be free of fins, tears, cracks, loose scale, slag,
rust, oil, paint, and other defects that would adversely affect the quality or strength of
the weld.
2. Welding shall proceed in a manner that minimizes residual stresses or distortions.
a. The finished structure shall be as free from distortion as much as possible.
b. Supplier shall be responsible for preventing or correcting distortion and for
maintaining alignment within a specified tolerance, by Purchaser-accepted
procedures such as use of strong backs.
c. Purchaser shall be the judge of these factors and shall have the right to delay the
work, if excessive distortion becomes evident, until such time as corrective
methods can be successfully applied.
3. When more than one weld pass is deposited on a joint, each pass shall be thoroughly
cleaned by wire brushing and chipping before the next pass is applied.
4. Welds shall not be quenched or cooled other than by contact with the natural
atmosphere.
a. Welds shall be protected from rapid cooling caused by rain, wind, or inclement
weather.
b. Purchaser shall determine if adequate protection has been provided for welding to
continue.
5. Weld tabs shall be used prior to welding beam flanges to minimize porosity on flange ends.
6. Mouse holes for welding access shall be shown on detail drawings and shall not
exceed specified size. All mouse holes shall be sealed by one of the following
methods:
a. Completely seal welding by returning fillet welds through the opening on small
beams as applicable.
b. Cover both sides with 1/4-inch (6 mm) thick plate, fully seal welded on large
beams and built-up girders.
c. Fill with a joint filler in lieu of welding.
1) This is a less preferred method and is restricted to small size mouse holes.
2) For this option, Supplier must submit a procedure, including product data for
the joint filler compound to be used, for Purchaser acceptance.
3) Joint filler material shall be compatible with surface preparation and painting
procedures.

4.3.9

Safety
1. Safety shall be in accordance with the following:
a. Purchaser HES requirements
b. Good safe practices (AWS D1.1, Section 1.7 and Annex R)
c. OSHA standards
2. Supplier shall provide suitable wind guards and welders platforms when, as judged
by Purchaser, conditions warrant.

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4.4

FFS-SU-5216-A

Supplier Requirements
1. The work shall be performed by Supplier for Purchaser.
2. All welding and inspection shall be in accordance with this specification and referenced
specifications, codes, and standards.
3. Supplier shall keep a competent English-speaking superintendent or foreman on the jobsite at
all times during the performance of the work.
4. Any written or verbal instructions given to the superintendent or foreman by Purchaser shall
be construed as having been given to Supplier.

4.5

Documentation Requirements
Documentation shall be provided in accordance with the specification and the following
requirements:
1. Prior to commencement of fabrication, the proposed welding procedures shall be submitted on
suitable forms for acceptance by Purchaser. Purchaser reserves the right to request further
submission of procedures of any component fabrication.
2. Prior to commencement of fabrication, Supplier shall submit the following documentation to
Purchaser for acceptance:
a. Quality assurance manual
b. Suppliers fabrication and QA/QC organizations, and lines of reporting
1) Inspection subcontracting plan
2) Resumes of inspectors and supervisors
c. NDE procedures (for each NDE method)
1) Details for implementing code requirements
2) Reject rate reporting methods
3) Sample data sheets for all reports
4) UT operator qualification test procedures and test piece design
d. Traceability Procedures
Detailed descriptions, sample drawings and data sheets showing how each piece can be
traced.
e. Welding Control
1) Welding consumables storage control methods
2) Preheat QA methods
3) Field QA methods for proper WPS application
4) Itemized list of inspection hold points for Supplier and Purchaser
5) Notification procedures and sample forms for both hold points and ongoing
inspections
3. Additional information may be requested by Purchaser to demonstrate Supplier(s)
understanding, planning, and readiness to meet code and specification requirements.

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4. Upon completion of fabrication of items covered by this specification, two copies of the
following documentation shall be supplied to Purchaser:
a. Full NDT reports for all welds tested
b. A final identification numbering system, cross-referenced to the NDT reports covered
above
5. During fabrication, Supplier shall submit the following to Purchaser:
a. Daily: A copy of the NDT Reports for the previous day.
b. Weekly: The cumulative weld reject rates by weld process for each welder and for the total
job.
1) Weld reject rates shall be reported independently for radiography and ultrasonic
inspection.
2) The radiography reject rate is the number of films rejected divided by the total number
of films.
3) The ultrasonic reject rate is the length of defect rejected divided by the total weld
length inspected.
5.0

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROVISIONS


Quality assurance provisions shall comply with the following requirements.

5.1

General Extent of Inspection


5.1.1

Extent of Nondestructive Inspection


Supplier shall perform NDT inspections (locations and methods) in accordance with
requirements of Table 4 for all structures except hulls. NDE for hulls shall be per
Table 5.

Table 4:

Extent of Inspection (Except for Hull Structures1,2,3 (1 of 2)


Percent of Total Weld Length4
Visual

Ultrasonic

Magnetic
Particle5

100

100

Radio
graphy

Location/Type of Weld
Tubular Connections
1.

Brace to chord welds, all T, K, or Y


connections

100

2.

Circumferential butt welds

100

3.

Longitudinal butt welds

10

1006,7,8

100

100

10

11

100

10

10

10

100

10

10

10

100

100

100

12

Other Connections
4.

Full penetration welds on launch leg ring


stiffeners, seafastening, longitudinal and
transverse truss connections, launch
lugs, and all padeyes

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Extent of Inspection (Except for Hull Structures1,2,3 (2 of 2)

Table 4:

Percent of Total Weld Length4


Visual

Ultrasonic

Magnetic
Particle5

100

100

5.

Pile offshore girth welds

100

6.

Fillet welds, anode connections, and full


penetration welds at other locations

100

7.

Flange and web splices and flange


intersections

100

8.

Web intersections

100

9.

Floor plates and handrails

100

10.

Girder web to flange connections (full


penetration)

100

100

20

11.

Girder stiffener to flange (full penetration)

100

100

20

100
10013
100

10014

Welder Qualification
1For

Radio
graphy

10014

each weld, applicable spot tests shall be evenly distributed over that welds length.

2Ultrasonic

inspections shall not be allowed where radiographic inspection has been specified unless Purchaser
acceptance is obtained for each case.

3Steel

materials having a thickness greater than or equal to 3/4 inch (19 mm) and that are subject to through
thickness stresses from weld connections, shall be ultrasonically inspected for laminations at the weld location
prior to welding. This may be waived by Purchaser for steels having improved through thickness properties. It may
also be added elsewhere by Purchaser at critical locations that have high through thickness stresses.
4Inspected

welds shall include ends as a minimum for partially inspected welds. Balance of weld length to be
inspected on partially inspected welds shall be applied at random locations along the weld length.

5When accepted in writing by Purchaser on a case-by-case

basis, dye penetrant inspections may be substituted for


magnetic particle inspection in areas where magnetic particle inspection is impossible due to lack of access. .
6Radiography
7Members

of circumferential seams shall include 4 inches (102 mm) of each intersecting longitudinal seam.

with a diameter less than 16 inches (406 mm) that fall under Note 10 shall be 10% inspected.

8Purchaser

shall allow the substitution of ultrasonic and magnetic particle inspection for radiography of full
penetration closing butt joints made from one side.

Node cans and other tubulars fabricated from material Type I or Type I-X.

10
The longitudinal weld on submerged-arc welded pipe shall be magnetic particle tested for a distance of 4 inches
(102 mm) on each end of the pipe. Inspection shall be done on both the inner and outer surfaces of the pipe.
11

Brace end stubs and other tubulars fabricated from material Type II or II-X.

12All

tubulars not covered by Notes 9 and 11.

13

With prior Purchaser acceptance, ultrasonic inspections may be substituted for radiographic inspection of web
splices, flanges splices, and flange intersections made offshore at the installation site.

14 Notwithstanding any other radiography requirements of codes or of this specification, the first five full penetration
production welds completed by each welder shall be subjected to 100 percent testing by radiography or
ultrasonics.

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Table 5:

FFS-SU-5216-A

Extent of Inspection for Hull Inspection Only 1,2,3 (1 of 3)


Percent of Total Weld Length
Magnetic
Particle

Radio
graphy

104

100

100

100

100

100

4. Window, cut-outs, and manway welds


after reinstatement

100

100

5. Welded Connections and Splices not


other covered (Fillet and Groove Welds)

100

Visual

Ultrasonic

1. Welded Connections

100

100

2. Butt Welds

100

3. T-Butt Welds

Location/Type of Weld
General Examination Requirements for
All Steel Areas as Identified as Special
or Primary on Structural Steel
Drawings

105
</=1006

6. Purchasers Option to UT examine


along weld cap for cracks
Examinations for Specific Components
of Special and Primary Steel Areas
Fabricated Structural Pipe and Cones
7. Longitudinal Weld Seams (including the
extreme ends) (Meeting API 2B
requirements)

Ends8 & 10

8. Longitudinal Weld Seams cut and


coped subsequent to original NDE of the
longitudinal Seam Welds
9. Circumferential Weld Seams (Meeting
or exceeding API 2B requirements)

107

100

100

100

1009

Plate Girders and Box Girders and


Rolled Shapes (Additional examinations
shall be performed as specified by
Purchaser to define limits of unacceptable
welding)
10. Flange Splices in Flange Shapes

100

100

100

11. Full penetration welds in flange to web


connections of fabricated girders

100

100

100

12. Fillet weld flange to web connections


in plate girders and box girders

100

13. Straight Beam Lamination checks of


flanges of plate girders for 4 in (101.6mm)
each side of weld

100
10

Web Stiffeners
14. Web Stiffener Fillet Welds including
weld termination points (e.g., cope holes)

August 2009 (E)

100

100

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Table 5:

FFS-SU-5216-A

Extent of Inspection for Hull Inspection Only 1,2,3 (2 of 3)


Percent of Total Weld Length

15. Full Penetration Welds of Stiffeners to


Flange/Web connections

Visual

Ultrasonic

Magnetic
Particle

100

100

100

16. Straight Beam Lamellar Tearing.


Check of both stiffeners and flange
surfaces - 4 in. (100 mm) each side of
weld

Radio
graphy

100

Ring Stiffeners and Bulkheads


17. Fillet welds joining Stiffeners or
Bulkheads to tubular connections and ring
stiffeners to flange, including terminations
points (i.e., cope holes)

100

18. Full Penetration welds in ring,


stiffeners, bulkheads, and their
attachment points

100

19. Straight Beam Lamination/Lamellar


Tearing Check of full length of base metal
of full penetration weld attachment area
before and after attachment

100

100

100

100

Plate Girder, Box Girder, and Beam


Intersections
20. Welds in girder-to-girder, beam-tobeam, and beam-to-girder intersections

100

100

21. Full Penetration welds in girder-togirder, beam-to-beam, and beam-to-girder


intersections

100

22. Straight Beam Lamination/Lamellar


Tearing Check of full length of base metal
area under tee-butt welds in girder-togirder intersections, both before and after
welding

100

Truss and Tubular Joint Connections


23. Welds in chord-to-web connections
and tubular joint connections, including
backup rings, stiffeners, and other joint
stiffening

100

24. Full Penetration welds in cord-to-web


connections and tubular joint connections,
including ring stiffeners and other joint
stiffening

100

25. Straight Beam Lamination/Lamellar


Tearing check of base metal area under
full penetration connection welds and
chord end of brace welds after completion
of welding

August 2009 (E)

100

100

100

100

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FFS-SU-5216-A

Extent of Inspection for Hull Inspection Only 1,2,3 (3 of 3)

Table 5:

Percent of Total Weld Length


Visual

Ultrasonic

Magnetic
Particle

Radio
graphy

Padeyes and Padears


26. Straight Beam Lamination/lamellar
tearing check to be performed of structure
based material for full length of padeye or
padear contact area before welding

100

27. Welds in padeye and padear and in


the attachment weld of padeye and
padear to structure. (Partial Penetration
and Fillets)

100

28. Full Penetration welds in padeye/


padear and full penetration attachment of
padeye/padear to structure

100

100

100

100

Extent of Nondestructive Examination


of Secondary Category Steel
29. All Fillet, Butt, and Groove Welds
30. Full Penetration Butt Welds
1Inspection

2010

100
1011

and NDE Coverage are identified as Special, Primary and Secondary as defined in FFS-SU-5160-A.

* Extent of NED and/or acceptance requirement to be applied is dependent on joint loading type, type of weld, and
welding process used.
* When drawings do not identify the structural category, the Supplier shall obtain clarification from Purchaser or the
Design Engineer regarding the NDE levels to be applied.
* Every assembly, component, connection, and material is subject to visual and/or dimensional inspection and/or
NDE. As a minimum, inspection and NDE shall be performed at the point during fabrication, outlined in Table 6.
For

each weld, applicable spot tests shall be evenly distributed over that welds length, unless specified otherwise
in Table 5. Partially inspected welds shall included ends as a minimum.
3When

reference is made to UT, RT may be substituted for weld joints with a thickness less than or equal to 0.4 in.
(10mm). RT may be substituted for UT for weld joints greater than 0.4 in. (10mm) and less than 1 in (25 mm) with
the prior acceptance of the Purchaser.
4If

UT detects unacceptable defects missed by 100% RT, then 100% UT to be performed on concerned weld.

5PT

may be substituted for MT when approved by Purchaser.

45 degrees, 4 MHz probe Scanning shall be once in each direction covering full weld width. Sensitivity to be to
ASME V scanning sensitivity +6 dB. Any Indications to be reported.
7100%

UT may be substituted for 100% RT.

Min Length 6 in. (150mm) each end of each pipe or cone. Purchaser may also specify two additional 12 in,
(300mm) length locations of each pipe or cone seam.

100% UT can be substituted for 100% RT.

10Extent

of 20% MT Examination.

* For welds greater than 3 feet (1 m) in length, this shall comprise 20% of the length of each weld
* For welds 3 feet (1 m) and less in length, this shall comprise the full length of one weld in every five similar welds.
11Extent

of 10% UT Examination.

* For welds greater than 3 feet (1 m) length this shall comprise 10% of the length of each weld.
* For welds 3 feet (1m) and less in length, this shall comprise the full length on one weld in every ten similar welds.

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Structural Welding and Inspection for Offshore Platforms


Table 6:

FFS-SU-5216-A

Type of Inspection (General) for Hull Structures (FPSO/FSO)


Fabrication Stage

Visual

Dimensional

Fit up for welding

After back gouging

On completion of welding

After removal of defects, prior to repair welding

On completion of repair welding

After toe grinding

After removal of temporary attachments

Table 7:

NDE

Base Metal Flaw Acceptance Level (Hull Components Only )


Minimum NDE
Operator
Qualification 1,2

Examination Type

Inspection
Procedure

Ultrasonic
(straight beam for
laminations)

AWS D1.1
Section 6, Part F or
API RP 2X

Any base metal indication at welded


connection, determined via UT to be a
lamination of transverse dimensions
greater than 0.12 in. (3mm) and/or a
length in excess of 1 in. (25 mm), and
which exhibits a 50% or greater loss in
back reflection, shall be rejected. It shall
be reported to the engineer for disposition

ASNT Level II

Ultrasonic
(straight beam for
lamellar tears)

AWS D1.1
Section 6, Part F or
API RP 2X

Any base metal indication at welded


connection, interpreted as a lamellar tear,
shall be rejected. 3

ASNT Level II

Acceptance Criteria

1Or

Purchaser accepted equal.


shall submit current updated certifications of NDE operators to Purchaser for review.
3Purchaser shall be notified and specific review of the repair shall be obtained prior to starting the repair.
2Supplier

5.1.2

Maximum Weld and Base Material Flaw Size


The acceptable maximum weld flaw size for each area of the structure shall be in
accordance with Table 2 and Table 7 for base metal examinations for hull structures

5.2

Inspection Procedures
5.2.1

NDE Procedures and Operator Qualifications


1. NDE methods, acceptance criteria, and operator qualifications shall be in accordance
with Table 2.
2. Supplier shall submit the NDE procedures to Purchaser for acceptance.

5.2.2

Stages of Inspection
1. As a minimum, the stages of inspection of welded joints by Supplier shall be as
specified in the specifications.
2. Hold points or release points shall be agreed to by Purchaser and Supplier prior to
assembly, welding, NDT, and painting of platform components.
3. Inspection at fit-up prior to first pass shall be visual and dimensional.

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FFS-SU-5216-A

4. Inspection following root pass or back gouging shall normally be visual only, unless
one or more of the other techniques described in Section 5.5.2 are required to explore
the extent of visually observed flaws, or unless previous production performance
indicates that unacceptable flaws may be present.
5. Inspection at weld completion shall be carried out in accordance with Table 4 and
Table 5.
6. With the exception of the shop fabrication of tubular cans, welds shall be
nondestructively examined no sooner than 48 hours after welding, unless otherwise
authorized by Purchaser.
a. In the case of welds whose inspection is critical to the fabrication schedule,
exceptions to the 48-hour wait may be made on a case-by-case basis.
b. Higher temperature preheat or maintaining preheat for a bake period after welding
must be done when exceptions are granted.
c. Supplier shall submit individual exceptions with the reason for minimizing delay
and the proposed preheat procedure for Purchaser representative acceptance prior
to the making of the subject weld.
7. If difficulty is experienced in evaluating defects revealed by radiography, ultrasonic
testing also shall be used to facilitate interpretation or vice versa.
8. Inspection after blasting and/or priming shall be visual.
5.2.3

Weld Profile Control


1. For tubular connections:
a. Where controlled weld profiling has been considered in the fatigue analysis by the
use of the S-N curve X, Section 5.4 of API RP 2A-WSD, a capping layer shall be
applied so that the as-welded surface merges smoothly with the adjoining base
metal and approximates the concave profiles shown in API RP 2A-WSD,
Figure 11.1.3.
b. Fatigue-critical connections where the X curve is used for design shall be clearly
noted on the design drawings.
c. For tubular joints requiring weld profile control, the weld toes on both the brace
and chord side shall receive 100 percent magnetic particle inspection (per
Table 4).
2. For non-tubular connections:
a. Weld profiles shall comply with AWS D1.1-2002, Section 5.24 and Figure 5.4.
b. Final grinding marks shall be transverse to the weld axis.

5.2.4

Arc Strikes and Temporary Weldments


1. Purchaser may require that any welder who continually arc burns the material be
removed from the work by Supplier.
2. Arc strikes not covered by subsequent weld passes shall be ground out and repaired as
necessary in accordance with a procedure acceptance by Purchaser, and inspected by
magnetic particle technique examination (MT).
3. After temporary attachments are removed, the welded areas shall be ground smooth
and inspected by MT before coating.

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Structural Welding and Inspection for Offshore Platforms


5.3

FFS-SU-5216-A

Cleaning and Repairing of Pipe Ends


1. Immediately prior to aligning pipe for welding, the beveled ends of each joint and the area
immediately adjacent to the weld shall be thoroughly cleaned of paint, rust, mill scale, and dirt
by accepted methods to avoid defects in the completed welds.
2. If the ends of pipe are dented so that the ends cannot be correctly aligned and, in the opinion of
Purchaser representative, the dent is minor and the steel not stretched, severed, split, or the
strength of the steel endangered, the pipe may be straightened with a jack or properly applied
impact bronze-faced sledge or flatter.
3. When weld-through primers are used, the weld bevel and adjacent area shall be thoroughly
cleaned (by grit blasting, grinding, power buffing, or Purchaser-accepted equal) prior to primer
application.

5.4

Tests
5.4.1

General
1. Supplier shall furnish all necessary labor and equipment for the transportation and
preparation of pipe, plate, and other materials for testing.
2. Supplier shall be responsible for the cost of all downtime associated with the testing of
welds.

5.4.2

Qualification of NDT Personnel


1. NDT personnel shall have the qualifications required by Table 2 and shall be subject
to Purchaser acceptance.
2. Purchaser reserves the right to retest and reject any and all NDT personnel at any time.

5.4.3

Welding Samples
1. Purchaser reserves the right to test any welding samples as necessary to verify the
quality of the work.
2. Supplier shall be responsible for the cost of cutting and replacing samples found to be
defective.
3. Purchaser shall be responsible for the cost of cutting and replacing samples found not
to be defective.

5.5

Quality Conformance Inspections


5.5.1

General
1. This section defines the minimum technical requirements for the inspection of
offshore platform fabrication.
2. Supplier shall inspect all work during fabrication.
a. Sufficient inspections shall be made by Supplier to ensure that the materials,
fabrication, and testing comply in all respects with the requirements of this
specification. Supplier shall issue an Inspection and Test Plan (ITP) a minimum of
three months prior to start of fabrication.
b. Inspections by Purchaser shall not relieve Supplier from responsibility for
implementing any quality assurance procedures (included in ITP) necessary to
ensure that the requirements and intent of this specification are satisfied.

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FFS-SU-5216-A

3. Purchaser shall notify Supplier before construction begins of the stages of fabrication
at which special examinations shall be made.
a. Supplier shall give at least 24-hour notice to Purchaser before each stage is
reached.
b. Purchaser shall, however, have the right to examine work at any stage, and to
reject defective material or workmanship whenever found.
4. Supplier shall provide safe Purchaser access to the fabrication facility at all times
during work in progress.
a. Purchaser shall be at liberty to inspect the fabrication at any stage and to reject any
part not complying with this specification.
b. When in the opinion of Purchaser, any section requires inspection, Supplier shall
thoroughly clean the section of all excess and waste materials (such as sand, slag,
or welding electrodes) and allow sufficient time for the section to be properly
inspected.
5. Supplier shall have copies of the latest edition of the specifications and codes referred
to in this specification, and make them readily available to inspection personnel
involved in this project.
6. Supplier shall furnish, install, and maintain in a safe operating condition any
scaffolding, ladders, walkways, and lighting necessary for safe and thorough
inspection by Purchaser.
5.5.2

Methods of Nondestructive Inspection of Welds


The following are methods of nondestructive inspection of welds:
1. Visual Inspection (VT)
a. All welds shall be visually inspected at each of the stages listed in Section 5.2.2
b. Weld profile requirements shall be in accordance with Section 5.2.3.
2. Radiographic technique for welding inspection (RT)
a. Supplier shall submit the radiographic examination procedure to Purchaser for
acceptance.
b. Suppliers radiographic examination procedure shall be capable of detecting the
weld flaws permitted by Table 2 and shall comply with the requirements of AWS
D1.1.
c. Cutting of holes for insertion of radiographic or x-ray sources shall not be carried
out without Purchaser acceptance.
3. Ultrasonic Examination (UT)
a. Suppliers ultrasonic examination procedure shall be submitted to Purchaser for
acceptance.
b. As a minimum, Suppliers procedure shall be capable of detecting the weld flaws
permitted by Table 2 in all welds, including joint stub to tubular welds.
4. Magnetic Particle (MT) and Liquid Penetrant (PT) Inspection
Note

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Supplier shall submit the selected inspection procedure to Purchaser for


acceptance.

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5.6

FFS-SU-5216-A

Welding Repairs
1. A weld repair specification, including the method for removal of defects, preparation of weld
area, subsequent nondestructive testing, and the minimum and maximum repair length/depth
shall be prepared by the Supplier and submitted to Purchaser for written acceptance.
2. The weld repair specification shall be accepted before any welding is performed.
3. Supplier shall repair (in accordance with the accepted welding repair specification) or replace
(at no expense to Purchaser) all welds made by Supplier that do not meet the requirements of
this specification or the appropriate codes and standards.
4. Supplier shall be responsible for the cost of testing the repaired portion of the weld.
a. Welds shall be 100 percent visually inspected and nondestructively examined, in
accordance with all of the NDE requirements for the original weld.
b. Additionally, for a repair of length L, the original weld shall be subject to a repeat NDE
for a distance of 0.5L from each extremity of the repair. If further unacceptable defects are
discovered during the additional NDE, the entire weld shall be re-examined.
5. Supplier shall obtain Purchaser acceptance prior to attempting any weld repairs or removal of
defects except those in the cover pass (cap repairs).
6. If, in Purchasers considered opinion, the proposed repair of a defect would be either nonproductive or would be detrimental to the completed facility, Supplier shall not repair the
defect but cut out the weld and redo the work.
7. For all repairs to welds in Type I, I-X, II, and II-X steels, the repair procedures shall be
qualified.
8. Application of the repair procedures shall be limited by the same essential variables as
specified in Section 4.3.3 for all other welding procedures including item 10
9. The following is recommended for repair welding procedure qualification test coupons on
tubular members (qualification on tubular members qualifies for plate repairs). Other
proposals may be submitted to Purchaser for acceptance.
a. One coupon is required for each cycle of weld repair.
b. Three tubular diameters or 24 inches (610 mm), whichever is less, is required on each side
of the joint to simulate member restraint. If plate coupons are proposed to Purchaser,
sufficient restraint must be added to the repair qualification coupon assembly.
c. The tubular member test position shall be 5G with vertical up weld progression.
d. Weld repair areas and mechanical tests shall be taken at the 3 oclock or 9 oclock
positions.
e. The original weld shall be removed to 50 percent of the coupon thickness by gouging or
grinding.
1) The location of the excavation area shall include base metal and weld metal of the first
weld (or first repair weld).
2) The centerline of the excavation shall be at the approximate quarter point of the
original weld (or first repair weld).

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f.

FFS-SU-5216-A

Repair welding procedure qualifications shall include a microhardness traverse of the


HAZ, repair weld metal, and original weld metal.
1) Traverses shall be made 0.04 inches (1 mm) below the O.D. surfaces and at midthickness that includes repair weld metal depth. (See Figure 1.)
2) Hardness impressions shall be spaced 0.08 inches (2 mm) apart except for the HAZ
area where spacing shall be 0.04 inches (1 mm) apart.
3) Hardness values greater than 325 Vickers using a 22 lb (10 kg) load, are not
acceptable and shall require a new repair procedure qualification.
4) Supplier shall furnish test data to Purchaser representative for acceptance.

g. Charpy V-notch impact testing of HAZ, repair weld metal, and original weld metal shall
be required on all repair welding procedure qualifications.
1) Testing shall be in accordance with AWS D1.1 Part D, except that notch locations
shall be at the repair weld centerline, fusion line (at base metal and at original/repair
weld dilution zone), FL+1 mm, FL+3mm, and FL+5 mm.
2) Acceptance criteria for repair weld metal, original weld metal, and HAZ specimens
shall be the same as Section 4.3.3, item 13.
3) CTOD testing of repair weld metal is not required if weld metal CTOD testing has
already been performed provided the consumable brand and place of manufacture has
not changed.

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