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Tribe

Where They are Found

Kalmuks

Inhabit the Altai mountains & nearby areas pastroal

Kirghiz

Occupy the Tien Shan & adjacent Pamirs

Gauchos

Cowboys of the pampas of Argentina & Uruguay.

Mestizos

People of mixed white & Indian parentage

Ostyaks

West Siberian tribe

Pygmies

Congo basin Zaire, Congo, Gabon.

Boro

Amazon basin sub group of red Indians.

Semang

Malaysia

Papuans

New Guinea

Bushmen or San

Kalahari Namibia, Botswana, Angola

Bedouins

Nomadic Arabs in Africa & Middle East

Masai

East Africa Kenya, Uganda

Kirghiz

Central Asia. Muslim by faith

Saami or Lapps

Norway, Sweden, Finland Also known as Laplanders

Yuti

Siberia

Chukchi

Far Eastern Siberia

Yakuts

Tundra region of Russia

Aleut

Aleutian Islands

Yuit

Siberia

Inuit

Greenland, Canada & Siberia

Samoyed

West Siberia

Punan

Borneo

Afrikaner/Boer

Dutch race in S. Africa

Afridis

N. West Pakistan

Veddas

Racial stock of Sri Lanka

Bantus

Central & southern Africa Swahili is Bantu derived language.

Berbers

Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia

Maori

New Zealand

Bindibu

Western Australia

Cossacks

Russia around black & Caspian Sea

Magyar

Inhabitants of Hungary

Croats

Croatia

Flemish

Belgium

Finns

European Tundra

Hamites

NW Africa Dark skinned muslims

Hottentots/khoi khoi

Tropical Africa

Kaffris

S. Africa known as martial race

Kikuyu

Kenyas most populous ethnic group

Masuds

Waziristan region, Pakistan

Mestizos

People of mixed Indian & European blood in Latin America

Amerinds

N. America People of mixed European & Indian blood

Mulatto

Mixed European & black blood in South America

Moors

Mixed tribe of Arabs & Berber people of Morocco

Semites

Jews & Ethiopians

Tartar

Turkic people of eastern Europe & central Asia

Zambas

People of African & Native American Indian in S. America

Zulus

People of Bantu family inhabiting South Africa

Akka

Democratic republic of Congo

Oromo or Galla

African people of hamitic origin in Ethiopia & Kenya

Uygur

Turkic people inhabiting NW china & Kazakhstan.

Kubu

Inhabitants of Sumatra

Fulani/Fula

Cattle herders of Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea or Chad

Buryat

Largest ethnic minority in Siberia inhabiting buryat republic.

Aeta

Mongoloid racial stock found in Philippines (indigenous)

Ainu

Caucasoids of Japan.

Yanomamo

Indigenous people of Brazil & Venezuela

Main Capes of the World


Cape

Country

Important

Ocean/Sea

Location

Town
Faria, Cape

Angola

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Howe, Cape

Australia

New South Wales

South Pacific Ocean

Tasman Sea
Leeuwin, Cape

Australia

Indian Ocean

Western Australia

North-West, Cape

Australia

Indian Ocean

Western Australia, Indian


Ocean

Sandy Cape

Australia

Queensland, Australia,
South Pacific

York Cape

Australia

Cod, Cape

Bay of

Pacific Ocean
Bourne

Bay of Funday

North Atlantic Ocean

Frio

S. Atlantic Ocean

S. Atlantic Ocean

Massachusett
s, N.East,
U.S.A.
Frio, Cape

Brazil

Peninsula

Orange Cape

Brazil

Pracuba

Atlantic Ocean

Northern-most point of
Brazilian State Amapa
Ocean

Sao. Roque Cape

Brazil

Ceara-Mirim

Atlantic Ocean

Northernmost point of the


Brazilian State of Amapa

Chidley, Cape

Canada

Chidley town

Labrador Sea

Horn,Cape

Chile

Cape Horn

South Atlantic Ocean

Matapan, Cape

Greece

Farewell, Cape

Greenland

Labrador Sea

North Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Kanniyakumari

India

Kanya

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

(Cape Omorin)

Mediterranean

North Atlantic Ocean

South Atlantic Ocean

Mediterranean Sea

Kumari

Cancun, Cape

Mexico

Cancun

Gulf of Mexico

North Atlantic Ocean

Lucas, Cape San

Mexico

San Lucas

Pacific Ocean

Baja Peninsula, Pacific


Ocean

San Lucas

East, Cape

Mexico

New Zealand

Cabo San

San Lucas Bay,

Lucas

Pacific Ocean
North Island, New
Zealand

Pacific Ocean

North Cape

New Zealand

South Pacific Ocean

Northern Tip of North


Island, New Zealand,
South Pacific Ocean

North Cape

Norway

Vincent Cape

Portugal

Norwegian Sea

Arctic Ocean

York, Cape
Verde, Cape

Senegal

Cape Verde

Dakar, North Atlantic


Ocean

Guardafui, Cape

Somalia

Guuardafui

Arabian Sea

India Ocean

Agulhas, Cape

South Africa

Agulhas

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

Good Hope, Cape

South Africa

Cape of

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

Pacific Ocean

State of Oregon, Pacific

Good Hope
St. Francis, Cape

South Africa

Blanco, Cape

U.S.A.

Port Orford

Ocean

Canaveral, Cape

U.S.A.

Cape

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Canaveral
Hatteras, Cape

U.S.A.

Frisco

Atlantic Ocean

Icy, Cape

U.S.A.

Wainwright

Chukchi Sea

Important Gulf's of the World:


Gulf
Connecting
water-body
Gulf of Oman Arabian Sea

Country
Oman and
Iran

Gulf of Aden
Gulf of
Kachchh
(Kutch)
Gulf of
Khambat
(Cambay)
Gulf of Persia

Arabian Sea
( Indian Ocean)
Arabian Sea (Indian
Ocean)

Yemen

Arabian Sea (Indian


Ocean)

India

Arabian Sea (Indian


Ocean)

Iran, Kuwait,
Oman, Qatar,
Saudi Arabia,
UAE
Australia

Gulf of
Carpentaria
Gulf of
Mexico
Gulf of
Bothnia
Gulf of Riga

Arafura Sea,
(Indian Ocean)
Atlantic Ocean

Gulf of
Martaban
Gulf of
Amundsen
Gulf of
Darien
Gulf of
Honduras
Gulf of Papua

Bay of Bengal
(Indian Ocean)
Beaufort Sea
(Arctic Ocean)
Caribbean Sea
(Atlantic Ocean)
Caribbean Sea
(Atlantic Ocean)
Coral Sea

Gulf of
Joseph
Bonaparte
Gulf of

Indian Ocean

Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea

Indian Ocean

India

Mexico and
USA
Sweden and
Finland
Estonia and
Latvia
Myanmar
Canada
Panama and
Venezuela
Mexico
South Atlantic
Ocean
Western
Australia
India and Sri

Mannar
Gulf of Gabes Mediterranean Sea
Gulf of Lyons

Mediterranean Sea

Gulf of Sirte
Gulf of St.
Lawrence
Gulf of Alaska

Mediterranean Sea
North Atlantic
Ocean
Pacific Ocean

Gulf of
California
Gulf of
Guayaquil
Gulf of
Panama
Gulf of
Thailand
Gulf of
Aqabah
(Aqba)
Gulf of Tatary

Pacific Ocean

Gulf of
Jorge
Gulf of
Matias
Gulf of

Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Red Sea

Sea of Japan
(Pacific Ocean)
San
South Atlantic
Ocean
San
South Atlantic
Ocean
Bo Hai Yellow Sea (Pacific
Ocean)

Lanka
Libya and
Tunisia
France and
Spain
Libya
Canada
Canada and
USA
Mexico
Ecuador and
Peru
Panama
Thailand and
Cambodia
Egypt and
Israel
Russia
Argentina
Argentina
China

12- The Highest Waterfalls of the World

Waterfall

River

1. Angel

2. Tugela

Gauja
(alternatively
as the Kerep
Kerepacupai)
tributary of
River.
Tugela

3.
4.
5.
6.

Jostedal glacier
Monge
Mutarozi
Yosemite

Utigord
Monge
Mutarozi
Yosemite

Total
height
River Venezuela() 979 m
known
River or
a
Carrao

7. Espland
Esplande
8.
Mardola River
Mardalsfoss
en
9. Kukenan Yosemite
National
Park
10.
Arthur
Sutherland
11. Kjell
Myrdal
12. Ribbon Yosemite

Country

Natal
province
(South
Africa)
Norway
Norway
Zimbabwe
California
(U.S.A.)
Norway
Norway

948 m

Venezuela

670 m

New
Zealand
Norway
California

580 m

826
780
762
746

m
m
m
m

725m
705 m

525 m
496 m

Important International Boundary Lines


Durand
Durand Line It is the line demarcating
Line
the boundaries of India and Afghanistan.

Hindenbur
g Line

MasonDixon Line
Marginal
Line

It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer


Durand. India recognizes Durand Line but
Afghanistan does not.
Hindenburg Line It is the boundary
dividing Germany and Poland. The
German marched to this line in 1917
during World War I.
Mason-Dixon Line is a line of
demarcation between four states in the
United State.
Marginal Line was the 320 km line of
fortification on the Russia-Finland border.
Drawn up by General Mannerheim.

Macmahon Macmahon Line was drawn up by Sir


Line
Henry MacMahon, demarcating the
frontier of India and China. China did not
recognize the MacMahon line and crossed
it in 1962.
Medicine
Medicine Line is the border between
Line
Canada and the United States.
OrderOrder-Neisse Line It is the border
Neisse
between Poland and Germany running
Line
along the Oder and Neisse rivers;
adopted after the Poland Conference
( August 1945 ) after the World War II.
Radcliffe
Radcliffe Line was drawn up by Sir Cyril
Line
Radcliffe, demarcating the boudary
between India and Pakistan. Siegfried
Line is the line of fortification drawn up
by Germany on its border with France.
17th
17th Parallel defined the boundary
Parallel
between North Vietnam and South
Vietnam before two were united.

24th
Parallel

26th
Parallel
30th
Parallel
33rd
Parallel

35th
Parallel

36th
Parallel
36o30'
Parallel

37th
Parallel

24th Parallel is the line which Pakistan


claims for demarcation between India
and Pakistan. This, however, is not
recognized by India
26th Parallel south is a circle of latitude
which crosses through Africa, Australia
and South America.
30th Parallel north is a line of latitude
that stands one-third of the way between
the equator and the North Pole.
33rd Parallel north is a circle of latitude
which cuts through the southern United
States, parts of North Africa, parts of the
Middle East, and China.
35th Parallel north forms the boundary
between the State of North Carolina and
the State of Georgia and the boundary
between the State of Tennessee arid the
State of Georgia, the State of Albama,
and the State of Mississippi.
36th Parallel forms the southermost
boundary of the State of Missouri with
the State of Arkansas.
36o30' Parallel north forms the
boundary between the Tenessee and the
Commonwealth of Kentucky between the
Tennessee River and the Mississippi
River, the boundary between Missouri
and Arkansas west of the White River,
and the northermost boundary between
the Texas and the Oklahoma.
37th Parallel north formed the southern
boundary of the historic and extralegal
Territory of Jefferson.

38th
Parallel
39th
Parallel
40th
Parallel
41st
Parallel

42nd
Parallel
43rd
Parallel

The
Parallel
44o north
45th
Parallel no
rth

49th
Parallel
Zambezi
River

38th Parallel is the parallel of latitude


which separates North Korea and South
Korea.
39th Parallel north is an imaginary
circle of latitude that is 39 degrees north
of Earth's equatorial plane.
40th Parallel north formed the original
northern boundary of the British Colony
of Maryland.
41st Parallel north forms the northern
boundary of the State of Colorado with
Nebraska and Wyoming and the southern
boundary of the State of Wyoming with
Colorado and Utah.
42nd Parallel north forms most of the
New York - Pennsylvania Border.
43rd Parallel north forms most of the
boundary between the State of Nebraska
and the State of South Dakota and also
formed the northern border of the
historic and extralegal Territory of
Jefferson.
The Parallel 44o north is an imaginary
circle of latitude that is 44 degrees north
of the Earth's equatorial plane.
45th Parallel north is often the halfway
point between the Equator and the North
Pole. The 45th parallel makes up most of
the boundary between Montana and
Wyoming.
49th Parallel is the boundary between
USA and Canada.
Zambezi River the boundary proceeds
eastwards in a straight line to a point on

the international boundary between


Zambia and Zimbabwe

Q) What is Island?
An island can be defined as a piece of land that is surrounded by water.
An island in a lake or river may be called an eyot or holm. A group of
geologically or geographically related islands is called an archipelago.
1. Greenland : The largest island in the world, lying to the northeast of
North America and mostly within the Arctic Circle. Its total population is
about 60,000. Its capital is Nuuk (Godithab). It was discovered and
named by the Norse explorer Eric the Red in 986 A.D. and settled in
coastal pockets by Norse colonies. Only five per cent of its area is
habitable. The economy of Greenland is largely based on inshore and
deep-water fishing.
2. New Guinea: New Guinea, the second largest island of the world is
an island of the east Malay Archipelago to the north of Australia. It is
divided between the independent state of Papua-New Guinea in the
east and the Indonesian province of West Irian in the west.
3. Kalimantan: A region of Indonesia, comprising the southern part of
the island of Borneo. It comprises of the Saba province of Malaysia, the
country of Brunie and the Kalimantan province of Indonesia.
4. Madagascar: The fourth largest island in the world, Madagascar,
lies in the Indian Ocean, off the east coast of Africa from which it is
separated by the Mozambique Channel. Antananarivo is its capital.
Rich in mica, graphite, and chromite, its chief exports include vanilla,
coffee, clove and sugar.
5. Baffin: This is the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest in
the world. It is situated at the mouth of Hudson Bay. The western part
largely remain covered with ice with extensive glaciers. Coastal fishing
stations include Frobisher Bay, Cape Dyer, and Cane Dorset.
6. Sumatra: It is the seventh largest island of the world, separated
from the Malaya Peninsula by the Strait of Malacca. Its largest city and

port is Medan. It produces rubber and timber for export and its oil and
other minerals provide three-quarters of Indonesian's income.
7. Honshu: It is the largest of the four main islands of Japan. Tokyo,
Yokohama, Osaka, and Nagoya are situated in this island. The highest
mountain of Japan (Mt. Fuji - 3776 m), and the largest Lake Biwa lie on
this island.
8. Great Britain (Britain): England, Wales, and Scotland considered
as a unit is known as Great Britain. The name is also often used loosely
to refer to the United Kingdom.
9. Victoria: An island in the Canadian Arctic. It is the 9th largest island
in the world. The surrounding region is administered and supplied from
Cambridge Bay on the island's south-east coast.
10. Ellesmere: It is the northern most island of Canadian Arctic and
the third largest island in Canada. It was discovered in 1616 by William
Baffin. Fort Conger was the base from which Robert Peary led the first
expedition to reach the North Pole in 1909
11. Sulwasi: Formerly known as Celebes, it is one of the four large
islands of Indonesia. It is situated between Borneo and Maluku islands.
In Indonesia, only Sumatra, Borneo, and Papua are larger in territory
12. South New Zealand: Lying in the south Pacific, it is the largest
island of New Zealand. It is dominated by the Southern Alps which
stretch along its western coast and rise to 3764 m at Mt. Cook, New
Zealand's highest peak. It was sighted by the Dutch navigator Tasman
in 1642, and named after the Netherlands province of Zeeland
13. Java: It is an island of Indonesia. With a population of about 137
million, it is the most populous island of the world. It is the home of to
60 per cent of Indonesia's population. Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
is located along the west Java. Formed mostly as the result of volcanic
events, Java is the thirteenth largest island in the world and the 5th
largest island in Indonesia. Its highest elevation (Semeru) is 3676 m.
14. North Island of New Zealand: Lying in the South Pacific, it is the
second largest island of New Zealand. Active volcanism occurs in the
central region of North Island, with many hot springs, and geysers.

15. Luzon: It is the largest and economically and politically important


island of Philippines. Manila, the capital of Philippines, is located on this
island.
16. Newfoundland: The 16th largest island in the world,
Newfoundland lies at the mouth St. Lawrence River, Canada. It was
explored by John Cabot in 1497. It is a former colony of United
Kingdom. It became the tenth province to the Confederation on 31st
March, 1949, named simply as Newfoundland.
17. Cuba: Cuba, the largest island of Antilles, lies in the Caribbean Sea
has a rainy, tropical climate. Sugarcane is the main crop of Cuba which
occupies about 60 per cent of the cultivated land. Cubans call
themselves 'Afro-Latin-Americans. Population of mixed descent
(Mulattos) is 51 per cent, whites 37 per cent and blacks 11 per cent.
Spanish is the main language. Havana, the capital and largest city of
Cuba, is located on this island.
18. Iceland: Located between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean,
Iceland is an enormous plateau with an average altitude of 500 metres.
Reykjavik is the capital and primate city of the country. About 96 per
cent of Icelanders are the descendants of Norwegian, Scottish and Irish
immigrants and are Protestants by faith.
19. Mindanao: It is the second largest and easternmost island of
Philippines. The island of Mindanao is called The Land of Promise.
Mindanao is the only area of Philippines with a significant Muslim
population. A guerrilla war is ongoing on this island.
20. Ireland: An island of the British Isles lying west of Great Britain.
Four - fifths of it is occupied by the Irish Republic, and remainder by
Northern Ireland. Its economy rely heavily on agriculture, especially
beef production and dairy farming, settled by Celts. Most of the people
are Christians by faith.
21. Hokkaido: Formerly known as Ezo or Yezo, it is the second largest
island of Japan. The Tsugaru Starit separates Hokkaido from Honshu,
although the two islands are connected by the underwater railway.

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10
)
11
)
12
)
13
)
14
)
15
)

MAJOR LAKES (by size)


Caspian Sea, AsiaEurope 371,000 sq km
Superior, North America 82,100
sq km
Victoria, Africa 69,500 sq km
Huron, North America 59,600 sq
km
Michigan, North America 57,800
sq km
Tanganyika, Africa 32,900 sq km
Baikal, Asia 31,500 sq km
Great Bear, North America 31,300
sq km
Aral Sea, Asia 30,700 sq km

Malawi, Africa 28,900 sq km


Great Slave, Canada 28,568 sq km
Erie, North America 25,667 sq km
Winnipeg, Canada 24,387 sq km
Ontario, North America 19,529 sq
km
Balkhash, Kazakhstan 18,300 sq
km

DEEPEST LAKES (by greatest depth)


1) Baikal, Russian Fed. 5,315 ft
2) Tanganyika, Africa 4,800 ft
3) Caspian Sea, Asia-Europe 3,363 ft
4) Malawi or Nyasa, Africa 2,317 ft

5)
Na
me
1
2

3
4
5

Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan 2,303 ft


Deepest
point (km)
Mariana
Trench
Philippine
Trench

Ocean
11.0 km
10.4 km

Bonin
Trench
New Britain
Trench

9.99 km

Kuril Trench

9.75 km

9.94 km

Pacific Ocean
(near Japan)
Pacific Ocean
(near the
Philippine
islands)
Pacific Ocean
(near Japan)
Pacific Ocean
(near New
Guinea)
Pacific Ocean
(near Russia)

1.
Mid-Indian Ridge: Mountain range in the middle of the Indian
Ocean that separates the African and Australian-Indian plates. Ridge
about 7,000 mi long, located in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean; some
of its mountains reach the surface, forming islands such as Iceland.
2.
Southwest Indian Ridge: Ridge separating the African and
Antarctic plates; it joins the Mid-Indian and Southeast Indian ridges off
the coast of Madagascar.
3.
Puerto Rico Trench: Trench located off the coast of Puerto Rico,
on the boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; it
features the deepest point in the Atlantic Ocean (27,493 feet).
4.
Peru-Chile Trench: Trench (26,460 feet) bordering South
America; the worlds longest trench (3,700 mi), it is located on the
boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate.
5.
Pacific-Antarctic Ridge : Mountain range separating the Pacific
and Antarctic plates; it joins the eastern Pacific Ridge off the coast of
South America.

6.
East Pacific Ridge: Ridge that marks the boundary between the
Pacific and Cocos Islands plates to the north, and the Pacific and Nazca
plates to the south.
7.
Aleutian Trench: Trench (25,600 feet) extending from Alaska to
the Kamchatka Peninsula; it results from the Pacific Plate sliding
beneath the North American Plate.
8.
North America: Its area (9.3 million mi2) represents about 16%
of the worlds land; the Central American isthmus is an extension of
North America.
9.
Ryukyu Trench: Trench (24,629 feet) located near the Ryukyu
Islands; it marks the boundary between the Philippine Plate and the
Eurasian Plate.
10. Japan Trench : Trench (27,929 feet) located east of Japan, on the
boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Eurasian Plate; this zone is
marked by intense seismic activity.
11. Kuril Trench: Trench (34,587 feet) located northeast of Japan; it
results from the Pacific Plate sliding beneath the Eurasian Plate.
12. Mariana Trench : Cavity located near the Mariana Islands,
where the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Plate converge; it is the
worlds deepest trench (about 36,000 feet).
13. Philippine Trench: Trench bordering the eastern Philippines,
reaching depths of 34,578 feet; it results from the Philippine Plate
sinking beneath the Eurasian Plate.
14. Kermadec-Tonga Trench : Cavity located north of New Zealand,
where the Pacific Plate meets the Australian-Indian Plate; it reaches
depths of 35,702 feet.
15. Southeast Indian Ridge: Ridge separating the Antarctic Plate
from the Australian-Indian Plate; its topography is more regular than
the topography of the Southwest Indian and Mid-Indian ridges.
16. Java Trench : Trench located south of Indonesia, between the
Australian-Indian and the Eurasian Plates; it is the deepest point in the
Indian Ocean (24,440 ft).

VOLCANOES
Volcano is an opening or vent through which magma, molten rock, ash,
and volatile erupt on to the Earth's surface. It is conduit or pipe which
rises from below the crust and vents to surface of the Earth. Volcanoes
tend to be conical in shape but can have a variety of forms, depending
on the nature of the erupted material (particularly its viscosity), the
character of recent eruptive activity, and the extent of post-erupted
modification by erosion. Most of the volcanoes are concentrated at
convergent and divergent plate boundaries but others, located in the
interior of plates, are associated with hot spots.
TYPES

OF

VOLCANIC

ERUPTION

1. Icelandic: Fissure eruption; releasing free flowing (fluidal) basaltic


magma; quiet, gas-poor, great volumes of lava issued; flowing as
sheets over large areas to build up plateaux (Columbia-USA, the Lava
Plateau of India, etc).

2. Hawaiian: Fissure, caldera, and pit crater eruption; mobile lavas


with some gas; quiet to moderately active eruptions; occasional rapid
emission of gas charged lava; produces fire fountains; only minor
amount of ash; builds up lava domes.
3. Stambolian: Strato cone (summit craters); moderate; rhythmic to
nearly continuous explosions; resulting from spasmodic gas escape;
clots of lava ejected; producing bombs and scoria; periodic more
intense activity with outpourings of lava; light-coloured clouds (mostly
steam); each upward only to moderate height.
4. Vulcanian: Stratocone (central vent); associated lavas more
viscous; lavas crust over in vent between eruptions; allowing gas buildup below surface; eruption increase in violence over longer periods of
quiet until lava crust is broken up; clearing vent; ejecting bombs,
pumice, and ash; lava flows from top of the flank after main explosive
eruption; dark ash-laden clouds, convulated, cauliflower-shaped, rises
to moderate heights more or less vertically, depositing tephra along
flanks of volcano.
5. Vesuvian: More paroxysmal than strambolian or vulcanian types;
extremely violent explosive of gas-charged magma from stratocone
vent; eruption occurs after long interval of quiescence or mild activity;
vent tends to be emptied to considerable depth; lava ejects in
explosive spray (glow above vent), with repeated clouds (cauliflower)
that each great heights and deposits tephra.
6. Pilian: More violent form of vesuvian eruption; last major phase is
uprush of gas that carries clouds rapidly upward in vertical column for
miles; narrow at base but expands outward at upper elevations; clouds
generally low in taphra.
7. Pelean: Results from high-viscosity lavas, delayed explosiveness;
conduit to strato volcano usually blocked by dome or plug; gas (some
lava) escapes from lateral (flank) openings or by destruction or uplift of
plug; gas, ash, and blocks move downslope in one or more blasts as
nuee-ardentes of glowing avalanches, producing directed deposits.
8. Katmaian: Variant of pelean eruption characterised by massive
outpourings of fluidised ash flows; accompanied by widespread

explosive tephra; ignimbrites are common end products; also hot


springs and fumaroles.
CLASSIFICATION OF VOLCANOES: Volcanoes may be classified on
the basis ofmaterial erupted and the periodicity.
Material Erupted
(i)
Basalt Cone: Basalt cones are rare. They are likely to be low
rather than high cones because of the fluidity of basaltic lava. The
Rangitoto (New Zealand) and Skjaldbreit (Iceland) are the most
suitable examples of basalt cone volcanoes.
(ii)
Basalt Dome: The Hawaiian volcanoes are an excellent
example of basalt dome volcanoes. Mt. Etna and several volcanoes of
Iceland are included in this category.
(iii)
Ash and Cinder Cones: Ash and cinder cones are built
where eruptions are explosive type with a predominance of pyroclastic
material. Growth of an ash or cinder cone begins around a crater. They
may be a few hunder metres in height.
(iv)
Composite or Strato Cone: The strato volcanoes are
characterised by alternating sheets of lava and pyroclastic material. Its
structure attests to alternating periods of explosive and quiet
eruptions. Lava intruded into fissures, solidifies to form dykes if
injected between layers of fragmental ejecta it forms sills. Most of the
largest volcanoes of the world fall in this category. The Fujiyama of
Japan, Vesuvius of Italy, Popocateptl of Mexico, Cotopaxi and
Chimbrazo of Equador, and Mayon of Philippines are some of the good
examples of composite or strato volcanoes.
Periodicity:
(i)
Active Volcanoes: Volcanoes which constantly eject lava,
gases, ashes, cinder, pumice, etc. are known as active volcanoes
(Figure 1.24). There are about 600 active volcanoes in the world, most
of them being in the Pacific Ocean around the "ring of fire". Mt. St.
Helens (USA), Stamboli and Mt. Etna (Mediterranean Sea), and
Pinatubo (Philippines) are some of the examples of active volcanoes.
The Stramboli volcano emits so much fire that it has been termed as
the Lighthouse of the Mediterranean Sea.

(ii)
Dormant Volcanoes: A volcano which, though not extinct,
has not been known to erupt within the historic period. The Kilimanjaro
volcano is one of the best examples of a dormant volcano.
(iii)
Extinct Volcano: A volcano that functioned in the distant
geological past and the remains of which occur in an area where there
is no longer any active vulcanicity is known as an extinct volcano.
Distribution of Volcanoes in the World
About 15% of worlds active volcanoes are found along the
constructive or divergent plate margins, whereas 80% volcanoes are
associated with the destructive or convergent plate boundaries.
1.The Circum-Pacific belt or the Ring of Fire. It extends across the
Kamchatka Peninsula, Kurile Islands, the Islands of Japan, Philippines,
New Guinea, New Zealand and the Soloman Islands. It also passes
through the Antarctica and the western coast of America.
2.The Mid-Continent belt includes volcanoes of Alpine mountain chain,
the Mediterranean Sea and the fault zone of eastern Africa. E.g.
Stromboli, Vesuvius, Etna, Kilimanjaro, etc.
3.The Mid-Atlantic belt in which the volcanoes are fissure eruption
type. E.g. Iceland, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Azores, etc.
Ring of Fire & Volcanoes:

The large series of volcanoes (some active) encircling thePacific


Ocean are referred to as being part of the Ring of Fire, and notorious
for frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
The Ring of Fire, coinciding with the edges of one of the world's main
tectonic plates, (the Pacific Plate) contains over 450 volcanoes and is
home to approximately 75% of the world's active volcanoes.
Nearly 90% of the world's earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire;
most recently, the devasting quakes in Chile, Japan and New Zealand.
Volcanoes and Earthquakes of note:
1.
Christchurch Earthquake, New Zealand
2.

Mount Saint Helens, Washington, USA

3.

Mount Pinatubo, Philippines

4.

Mt. Fuji, Japan

5.

Paricutin Volcano, Mexico

6.

Santiago Earthquake, Chile

7.

Sendai Earthquake, Japan

Volcanoes in India: Barren Island, one of the most easterly of the


Andaman Islands, is the only confirmed active volcano in India. The
island along with the rest of the Andaman's is the Andaman & Nicobar
Islands, and lies some 135 kms northeast of the territory's capital, Port
Blair. The first recorded eruptions of the volcano dates back to 1787.
Since then, the volcano has erupted more than six times.
Name
Barren Island
Baratang
Narcondam

Elevation(mtrs)

Last eruption

354

2013

Stratovolcano

28

2005

Mud volcano

710

holocene

Stratovolcano

Deccan Traps

Important Points on Volcanoes:

65 Mil. years

Type

1.
Tamu Massif is largest volcano on the earth lies in Pacific Ocean,
is a recent discovery in 2013.
2.

South America has the most volcanoes.

3.
The most active volcanoes, however are located in Asia. This is
because of the tectonic plates activity.
4.
Australia is the only continent without any active volcanoes.
However, there is one active volcano on Australian territory, that being
Big Ben on McDonald Island in the sub-Antarctic territory of Heard &
McDonald Island.
Active Volcanoes of the World Continent Wise:
Africa

Kilimanjaro in Tanzania is Africa's tallest peak at 5895 m


(19,340 ft). It has a series of concentric summit craters apparently less
than 10,000 years old and may have last erupted less than 2000 years
ago. The name Kilimanjaro means "shining mountain"

Ol Doinyo Lengai ("Mountain of God" in the Masai tongue), in


Tanzania, is the only volcano on Earth that erupts natrocarbonatite
lava.

Mount Cameroon The only volcano outside of Europe to have


records of an eruption before the Common Era in 5 BC. It remains
active today, with its most recent eruption in 2000.
Asia
Indonesia - With 167 known active volcanoes, Indonesia is the world's
most volcanic country by far.

Mount Semuru

Mount Bromo in East Java is known for its unreal scenery,


especially with Mount Semeru, Indonesia's third highest active volcano
nearby.

Krakatoa in West Java famously exploded so violently in 1883


that the sound was heard 5,000 km away and global temperatures
dipped by over a degree.

Mount Batur in Bali is a very accessible active volcano which


takes just 2 hours to climb.

Mount Merapi is perhaps Indonesia's single most active volcano


(no mean feat). It looms large over the major cities of Yogyakarta
and Solo, and the very popular temples of Borobudur and Prambanan.

Mount Rinjani in Lombok is Indonesia's second highest volcano


with a stunning crater lake. For much of 2009 the summit of the
mountain was closed to the public due to eruptive activity.

Mount Tambora in Sumbawa is one for the truly adventurous.


Only about 50 visitors a year make it to this very remote volcano. In
1814 Tambora was 4,200 metres high. It erupted with such force the
following year that 1,400 metres was lost from its top.

Mount Aso on the island of Kyushu in Japan, is one of the largest


active volcanoes in the world with the largest caldera.

Mount Fuji in central Japan near Tokyo, is Japan's highest and


most beautiful volcano. It is also the most climbed mountain in the
world because so many people climb it to view the sunrise from its
summit crater.

Mayon Volcano, near Legazpi City in the Philippines, described


as the world's most perfect volcano cone. Mayons last fatal eruption
was in 1993.
Europe

El Teide in Tenerife, is the highest active volcano in the Canary


Islands at 3715 m (12,188 ft). A flank vent at El Teide was observed
erupting by Christopher Columbus and his crew in 1492.

Vesuvius near Naples in Italy is an active (but presently


"dormant") volcano. It has not been smoking since it last erupted in
1944, but it is still very closely monitored because of its seriously
hazardous proximity to Naples, which is southern Italy's largest city.

Stromboli in the Aeolian Islands of Italy and Mount Etna in Sicily,


Italy are two of Italy's most active volcanoes. At 3350 m (10,991 ft),
Etna is Europe's highest volcano. Stromboli has been in near
continuous activity since at least the time of the Ancient Greeks and
has been billed as the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean".

Nisyros in the Greek Dodecanese islands is mildly active with


smoking fumaroles. It is possible to walk into the crater floor for a
closer look.

Santorini in the Aegean Sea, is probably Greece's most famous


volcano because of its eruption that destroyed the Minoan civilization
over 3,600 years ago. It is still active, for it last erupted in 1950 out of
Nea Kameni ("New Burnt" in Greek), an island made up of lava flows in
the middle of the caldera bay.
North America and Caribbean

Mount St. Helens, in Washington State, USA, is famous for its


May 18, 1980 eruption. Since late 2004, it has been erupting once
again, but not nearly as violently - this time, a new lava dome is slowly
being extruded in its crater.

Popocatepetl, near Mexico City, often has a volcanic plume


above its crater which is 5,450m high. The name means "smoking
mountain" in the native Nahuatl language.

Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, previously considered


dormant, began erupting again in 1995, forcing the closure of the
southern half of the island (including its capital and airport in 1997). It
is still active, though mostly a nuisance seeping lava and spewing ash
into the air.
South and Central America

Cotopaxi in Ecuador, often misquoted as being the highest


volcano in the world ( despite its elevation of 5911 m (19, 393 ft), it
does not even make the top ten list of highest active volcanoes - see
this list here), is still one of South America's most spectacular
volcanoes.

Arenal in Costa Rica can be viewed lighting up the night sky with
its highly frequent eruptions.
Volcan Masaya in Nicaragua, near Managua.
Volcan Santa Maria and Volcan Santiaguito in Guatemala, near
Quetzaltenango.

Volcan de Fuego and Volcan Pacaya in Guatemala, near Antigua


Guatemala.

Volcan Atitlan, Volcan San Pedro and Volcan


Guatemala, on the southern shores of Lake Atitln.

Toliman

in

Volcan Lascar in the Atacama Region of northern Chile.


Oceania

Hawaii

Kilauea in the Big Island of Hawaii, has been erupting


continuously out of its flank vent, known as Pu'u O'o ("Hill of the O'o
bird" in the native Hawaiian language) since 1983.

Mauna Loa, also in Hawaii, is the state's highest historically


active volcano and is topped by the Moku'aweoeo Caldera. It is also the
largest volcano by volume in the world. Don't be fooled by its gentle
slopes - with its highest point at 4170m/13,683 ft), the altitude can be
hard on inexperienced hikers and its summit is often covered in snow
during the winter.

Mauna Kea is the highest volcano in Hawaii at 4205 m (13,796


ft), and is pockmarked with cinder cones. Its high elevation is also a
magnet for astronomers with their giant telescope facilities - and even
skiers.

Haleakal ("House of the sun" in Hawaiian), is the tallest volcano


on the island of Maui, and is renowned for its erosional crater and the
cinder cones nestled inside.

New Zealand

Mount Ruapehu, Mount Ngauruhoe and Mount Tongariro in New


Zealand's Tongariro National Park. Ruapehu, New Zealand's highest
volcano, has a crater lake that forms and fills when the volcano is not
erupting.

White Island, also in New Zealand, is the most active volcano in


that country and is a volcanic island in the Bay of Plenty southeast of
Auckland. Organized tours are operated out to this volcano.
Papua New Guinea

Mount Tavurvur is a very active volcano right next to the city of


Rabaul on the island of New Britain.

Top-20 Mountains of the World - Decreasing Order


Mountain
Height Country
Continent
Everest
8848
Nepal/Tibet Asia
K-2/Mount Godwin
8611
Pakistan
Asia
Austen
Kangchenjunga
8586
Nepal/India Asia
Lhotse
8511
Nepal
Asia
Makalu
8463
Nepal/Tibet Asia
Cho Oyu
Dhaulagiri
Manaslu
Nanga Parbat
Annapurna
Gasherbrum I
Broad Peak
Gasherbrum II
Xixabangma Feng
(Gosainthan)
Distaghil Sar
Kunyang Chhist
Nanda Devi
Aling Kangri
Rakaposhi
Batura
Namjagbarwa Feng
Kamet

8201
8167
8163
8125
8091
8068
8047
8035
8012

Nepal/Tibet
Nepal
Nepal
Pakistan
Nepal
Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan
China/Nepal

Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia

7885
7852
7816
7815
7788
7785
7756
7756

Pakistan
Pakistan
India
Tibet
Pakistan
Pakistan
Tibet
India

Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia

Mountains of the World - Continent Wise - Highest Mountains


Mountain
Kilimanjaro
Batian Peak (Mt
Kenya)
Margherita Peak
Mt Baker
Mt Emin
Mt Gessi
Mt Savoia
Meru
Karisimbi

Height
5895
5201

Country
Tanzania
Kenya

Continent
Africa
Africa

5119
4844
4792
4717
4627
4565
4507

Zaire/Uganda
Zaire/Uganda
Zaire/Uganda
Zaire/Uganda
Zaire/Uganda
Tanzania
Rwanda/Zair
e

Africa
Africa
Africa
Africa
Africa
Africa
Africa

Mountain
Everest
K-2/Mount Godwin
Austen
Kangchenjunga
Lhotse
Makalu
Cho Oyu
Dhaulagiri
Manaslu
Nanga Parbat
Annapurna

Height
8848
8611

Country
Nepal/Tibet
Pakistan

Continent
Asia
Asia

8586
8511
8463
8201
8167
8163
8125
8091

Nepal/India
Nepal
Nepal/Tibet
Nepal/Tibet
Nepal
Nepal
Pakistan
Nepal

Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia
Asia

Mountain
Elbrus
Rustaveli
Dykh-Tau
Kazbek
Monte Bianco
Monte Rosa

Height
5633
5201
5198
5047
4807
4634

Dom

4545

Weisshorn
Cervino
(Matterhorn)

4505
4478

Mountain

Country
Russia
Georgia
Georgia
Georgia
France/Italy
Italy/Switzerlan
d
Switzerland/Ital
y
Switzerland
Italy/Switzerlan
d
Height

Country

Continent
Europe
Europe
Europe
Europe
Europe
Europe
Europe
Europe
Europe

Continent

McKinley
Logan
Citlaltepetl (el Pico de
Orizaba)
Popocatepetl
Foraker
Ixaccihuatl
Lucania
Steele
Mt Blackburn
Mt Bona

6194
5951
5754

Alaska
Canada
Mexico

North America
North America
North America

5452
5303
5286
5228
5074
5037
5006

Mexico
Alaska
Mexico
Canada
Canada
Alaska
Alaska

North America
North America
North America
North America
North America
North America
North America

Mountain
Naga Pulu
Giluwe

Height
4862
4368

Country
Indonesia
Papua New Guinea

Continent
Oceania/Australia
Oceania/Australia

Kinabalu
Mt Victoria

4094
4038

Malaysia
Papua New Guinea

Oceania/Australia
Oceania/Australia

Kerintji
Mt Hagen

3809
3778

Indonesia
Papua New Guinea

Oceania/Australia
Oceania/Australia

Cook
Rinjani
Semeru
Puncak Jaya

3764
3727
3677
503

Oceania/Australia
Oceania/Australia
Oceania/Australia
Oceania/Australia

Mt Wilhelm

451

New Zealand
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia/ New
Guinea
Papua New Guinea

Mountain
Aconcagua

Height
6962

Bonete

6872

Huascaran

6768

Llullaillaco 6723
Yerupaja

6617

Sajama

6542

Illimani

6439

Country
Argentina

Oceania/Australia

Continent
South
America
Argentina
South
America
Peru
South
America
Argentina/Chile South
America
Peru
South
America
Bolivia
South
America
Bolivia
South

Ancohuma

6427

Bolivia

Huantsan

6395

Peru

Huandoy

6395

Peru

Mountain
Kirkpatrick
Mt Erebus
Vinson Massif

Height
4528
3794
514

Country
Antarctica
Antarctica
Antarctica

Name
of
Canal

Leng Connection
th

Grand
Canal

1,77
6 Km

Qaraq
um

1,37
5 Km

America
South
America
South
America
South
America
Continent
The Poles
The Poles
The Poles

Count
ry

China
Beijing-Hebei-Shandong-JiangsuZhejiang-Hagzhou. The Grand
Canal in China was opened in
485BC to join the main rivers and
it
was
extended
over
the
centuries. It is still used to move
goods and people because the
roads in China are very rough and
bumpy. Most canals, like Suez and
Panama, were built to shorten
journeys for shipping. Another
canal that shortens a sea journey
is the Kiel canal in Germany. The
journey from the North Sea to the
Baltic was cut from 480km. to just
98km., when it opened in 1895.
Amu Darya-Karakum Desert
Russia

Canal
Saima
a
Canal
Eurasi
a
Canal
Manyc
h Ship
Canal
Erie
canal

Grand
Union
Canal
Nara
Canal
Rhone
Rhine
Canal
Marne
Rhine

814
Km

Saima-Gulf of Finland

Russia

700
Km

Black
Sea-Kuma
Depression

Manych Russia

700
km

Black Sea-Caspian Sea

584
km

461
Km

Albany-New York-Buffalo; The Erie USA


Canal was built between 1817
and 1819 and began operating in
1825. It connected the towns of
Albany and Buffalo. Albany and
New York were already connected
by the Hudson River, while
Buffalo afforded access to the
Great Lakes.
One of the effects of the Erie
Canal was to stimulate the
economic growth of New York
City, resulting in its becoming
larger and more important than
Boston and Philadelphia.
London-Birmingham
Engla
nd

364
km
349
km

Sukkur Barrage-Khaipur, Sanghar- Pakist


Districts
an
Rhine-Rhone,
North
Sea- France
Mediterranean

313
Km

Rhine,
Marne,
Meuse
River, France
Moselle
River,
Canal
des

Russia

Canal
Leeds
and
Liverp
ool
Canal
Suez
Canal

Gota
Canal
The
Kiel
Canal

204
Km

193.
5 Km

190
Km

98

houillres de la Sarre
Leeds-Liverpool

Engla
nd

Mediterranean
Sea-Red
Sea. Egypt
When the canal was opened in
1869, it shortened the route
between the United Kingdom and
India by 9,700km. The canal was
the busiest inter-ocean canal in
the world until it closed during the
1967 Arab-Israeli war.
Tankers carrying petroleum and
petroleum
products
had
accounted for about 70% of the
total tonnage going through the
canal. Egypt reopened the canal
in 1975. The canal stretches north
and south across the Isthmus of
Suez, between the cities of port
said and Suez. It had no locks
because there is no great
difference between the levels of
the Red and Mediterranean Seas.
At present about 25,000 ships
pass through the canal every
year. The Suez Canal is called
"ganatu s-suways" in Arabic
Gothenburg
Sweda
n
Connects North Sea and the
Baltic. It is in northern Germany
and is 103 m. wide and 11 m.

Kms

Panam 81k
ms
a
Canal

deep. It is spanned by seven highlevel bridges and it is the safest,


shortest and cheapest route
between the two seas. It was built
between 1887 and 1895 for the
German
navy
because
it
eliminated the necessity for its
ships to travel northwards around
the Danish peninsula. It was
enlarged from 1907 to 1914. It
remains an important route for
Baltic shipping, especially in the
months of winter when both the
North Seas and the Baltic Sea are
very stormy.
Connects Atlantic Ocean and
the Pacific Ocean. It ranks as
one of the greatest engineering
achievements
in
the
world.
Completed in 1914, the canal
shortened
a
ship's
voyage
between New York city and San
Francisco to less than 8,370
kilometres.
Previously,
ships
making this trip had to travel
around South America - a
distance of more than 20,900
kilometres.
The United States built the
Panama Canal at a cost of about
380
million
U.S.
dollars.
Thousands of labourers worked on
it for about 10 years, using steam
shovels and dredgers to cut

through
jungles,
hills
and
swamps. They had to deal with
such tropical diseases as malaria
and yellow fever. The Panama
Canal extends 81.63 kilometres
from Limon Bay on the Atlantic
Coast to the Bay of Panama on
the Pacific Ocean.

Straits are the duals of isthmi. That is, while straits lie between two
land masses and connect two larger bodies of water, isthmi lie
between two bodies of water and connect two larger land masses.

Agate Pass - Puget Sound

Agattu Strait - Aleutians

Akashi Strait - Japan

Amchitka Pass - Aleutians

Anegada Passage - Virgin Islands and Anguilla

Arthur Kill - Staten Island and New Jersey

Bab-el-Mandeb - connects Red Sea to Gulf of Aden / Arabian Sea

Balabac Strait - between Palawan, Philippines and Borneo

Strait of Baltiysk - between Vistula Bay and Gdansk Bay

Bangka Strait - between Sumatra and Bangka Island

Bass Strait - between mainland Australia and Tasmania

Strait of Belle Isle - between Newfoundland and mainland Canada

Bering Strait - between Asia and North America

Bransfield Strait - between South Shetland Islands and Antarctic


Peninsula

Bohol Strait - also called Cebu Strait, between Bohol and Cebu in
the Philippines

Strait of Bonifacio - between Corsica and Sardinia

Bosporus - between Europe and Asia

Bungo Channel - Japan

Cabot Strait - between Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island

Strait of Canso - between Cape Breton Island and mainland Nova


Scotia

Carquinez Strait - connects San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay,


California

Chatham Strait - between Chichagof Island and Admiralty Island,


Alaska

Clarence Strait - between Prince of Wales Island and mainland


Alaska

Colvos Passage - Puget Sound


Cook Strait - between the North Island and South Island of New
Zealand
Dalco Passage - Puget Sound

Dampier Strait (Papua New Guinea) - between New Britain and


Umboi Island

Dampier Strait (Indonesia) - between Bird's Head Peninsula and


Raja Ampat Islands

Danish straits - between Scandinavia and Jutland

Dardanelles - between Europe and Asia

Davis Strait - between Baffin Island and Greenland

Deception Pass - Puget Sound

Denmark Strait - between Greenland and Iceland

Detroit River - between Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie

Dolphin and Union Strait - between Northwest Territories and


Victoria Island
Strait of Dover or Pas de Calais - (English Channel)
Dragon's Mouth (Boca del Dragn) - between Trinidad and
Venezuela

Drake Passage - between South America and Antarctica

East River - between Manhattan, the Bronx and Long Island

English Channel - between Great Britain and France

Falkland Sound, - between West Falkland and East Falkland

Straits of Florida - between Florida and Cuba

Foveaux Strait - between the South Island and Stewart Island of


New Zealand

Fury and Hecla Strait - between Baffin Island and Melville


Peninsula,

formosa strait in asia

Strait of Georgia - between Vancouver Island and British Columbia

Strait of Gibraltar - between Europe and Africa

Golden Gate - between the Marin headlands and San Francisco,


California

Great Belt - Denmark

Guadeloupe Passage - north of Guadeloupe, ((West Indies))

Harlem River - between Manhatten and The Bronx

Hecate Strait - between Queen Charlotte Island and British


Columbia

Honguedo Strait - between Anticosti Island and Gasp Peninsula


in Quebec

Strait of Hormuz - between Arabia and Iran

Hoyo Strait - Japan

Hudson Strait - between Baffin Island and Quebec

Johor Strait - between Singapore and the state of Johor of


Malaysia

Strait of Juan de Fuca - between Vancouver Island, Canada and


Olympic Peninsula, United States

Kalmar Strait - between land and Smland

Kanmon Strait - between Honshu and Kyushu

Kara Strait

Karimata Strait - between Sumatra and Borneo

Kerch Strait - between Crimea and Russia

Kill Van Kull - between Staten Island and Bayonne, New Jersey

Kitan Strait - Japan

Korea Strait - between Korea and Japan

Kwangtung Strait

La Perouse Strait (also Soya Strait) - between Sakhalin and Japan

Lancaster Strait

Little Belt - Denmark

Lombok Strait

Luzon Strait - between Taiwan and Luzon, Philippines

Straits of Mackinac - between Michigan's Upper and Lower


Peninsulas

Strait of Magellan - between South America and Tierra del Fuego

Makassar Strait - between Borneo and Sulawesi

Straits of Malacca - between Malaysia and Sumatra

Mare Island Strait

Martinique Passage - between Dominica and Martinique

McClure Strait - Melville Island and Banks Island

Menai Strait - between Anglesey and mainland Wales

Strait of Messina - between Sicily and mainland Italy

Mindoro Strait - between Mindoro and Palawan in the Philippines

Mona Passage - between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico

Myeongnyang Strait - between Jindo Island and mainland South


Korea

Nares Strait - between Ellesmere Island and Northern Greenland


and connects Baffin Bay with Lincoln Sea / the Arctic Sea.

The Narrows - between Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York


City

Naruto Strait - Japan

North Channel - between Northern Ireland and Scotland

Northumberland Strait - between Prince Edward Island and New


Brunswick/Nova Scotia

Oresund - between Denmark and Sweden

Strait of Otranto - between Italy and Albania

Palk Strait - between India and Sri Lanka

Pertuis d'Antioche - on the Atlantic coast of Western France

Pickering Passage - Puget Sound

Port Washington Narrows - Puget Sound

Porte des Morts - between the Bay of Green Bay and Lake
Michigan

Panama - Between North America and South America (Panama


Canal)

Qiongzhou Strait - Hainan and Guangdong

Rich Passage - Puget Sound

San Bernardino Strait - between Luzon and Samar in the


Philippines

San Juanico Strait - between Samar and Leyte islands in the


Philippines

Serpent's Mouth (Boca del Serpiente) - between Trinidad and


Venezuela

Skagerrak between Denmark, Norway and Sweden

Shelikof Strait - between mainland Alaska and Kodiak Island

Shimonoseki Strait

Strait of Dover - part of the English Channel between Great


Britain and France

Strait of Sicily - between Sicily and Africa

Singapore Strait - between Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra)

Smith Strait

Sumba Strait - between Flores and Sumba, Indonesia

Sunda Strait - between Sumatra and Java

Surigao Strait - between Leyte and Mindanao islands in the


Philippines

Tablas Strait - between Mindoro and Panay islands in the


Philippines

Tacoma Narrows - Puget Sound

Taiwan Strait - between Taiwan and Mainland China

Tanon Strait - between Negros and Cebu islands in the Philippines

Strait of Tartary (also Mamiya Strait and Strait of Nevelskoi) Sakhalin

Strait of Tiran - between the Sinai peninsula and Saudi Arabia

Torres Strait - between New Guinea and Australia

Tsugaru Strait - between Hokkaido and Honshu

Tsushima Strait - between Iki Island and Korean Peninsula

Soya Strait -

Vitiaz Strait - between New Guinea and Long Island

Windward Passage - between Cuba and Hispaniola

Yucatan Channel - between Mexico and Cuba

HIGHEST, LONGEST, BIGGEST, LARGEST,


DEEPEST, SMALLEST OF THE WORLD
* Largest Airport - King Khalid International Airport (South Arabia)
* Highest Airport - Lhasa Airport, Tibet
* Tallest Animal - Giraffe
* Largest Animal - Blue Bottom whale
* Largest Bay - Hudson Bay, Canada,
* Fastest Bird - Swift
* Largest Bird - Ostrich
* Smallest Bird - Humming bird
* Longest Bridge - the Akashi Kaikyo bridge in Japan takes the title,
with a main span of 1,991 meters (or 6,532 feet)

* Tallest Building - Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan,2004,101


stories,509m,1,670ft
* Longest Canal - Baltic sea White Canal
* Largest Cathedral - Cathedral Church of New York
* Largest Cemetry - Leningrad, Russia
* Largest Church - Belisca of St. Peter in the Vatican City, Rome.
* Largest Continent - Asia
* Smallest Continent - Australia
* Largest Country - Russia
* Smallest Country - Vatican City
* Biggest Cinema House - Roxy, New York
* Highest City - Wen Chuan, China
* Highest Population - Mexico
* Longest Day - June 21
* Shortest Day - December 22
* Largest Delta - Sunderbans
* Largest Desert - Sahara, Africa
* Biggest Dome - Gol Gumbaz (Bijapur), India
* Largest Dams - Grand Coulee Dam, USA
* Tallest Fountain - Fountain Hills, Arizona
* Largest Gulf - Gulf of Mexico
* Largest Hotel - Hotel Rossaiya, Moscow
* Largest Island - Greenland
* Largest Lake - Caspian Sea, CISIran
* Deepest Lake - Baikal (Siberia)
* Highest Lake - Titicaca (Bolivia)
* Biggest Library - National Kiev Library, Moscow and Library of the
Congress, Washington
* Largest Mosque - Jama Masjid, Delhi (India)
* Highest Mountain Peak Mount Everest (Nepal)
* Highest Mountain Range Himalayas
* Longest Mountain - Andes (South America)
* Biggest Museum - British Museum (London)
* Largest Minaret Sultan Has-san Mosque (Egypt)
* Tallest Minaret - Qutub Minar, Delhi (India)
* Biggest Oceans - Pacific Ocean
* Deepest Oceans - Pacific Ocean

* Biggest Palace - Vatican (Rome)


* Largest Palace - Imperial Palace (China)
* Biggest Park - Yellow Stone National Park
* Largest Park - Wood Buffalo National Park (Canada)
* Largest Peninsula - Arabia
* Highest Plateau - Pamir (Tibet)
* Longest Platform - Kharagpur, W. Bengal (India)
* Largest Platform - Grand Central Terminal, (Ely. Station)New York
(USA)
* Biggest Planet - Jupiter
* Smallest Planet - Murcury
* Brightest Planet Venus
* Coldest Planet Pluto
* Nearest (To the Sun) - Mercury
* Farthest (from the Sun) - Pluto
* Longest River - Nile, Africa
* Longest River Dam - Hirakud Dam, India
* Largest Sea - South China Sea
* Largest Stadium - Starhove Stadium, Prague (Czech Republic)
* Brightest Star - Sirius A
* Tallest Statue - Motherland (Russia)
* Largest Sea-bird - Albatross
* Biggest Telescope - Mt. Palomar (USA)
* Longest Train Flying Scotsman
* Largest Temple - Angkorwat in Kampuchea
* Oldest Theatre - Teatro Ohmpico (Itlay)
* Tallest Tower - C. N. Tower, Toronto (Canada)
* Longest Wall - Great Wall of China
* Highest Waterfall - Angel (Venezuela)
* Widest Waterfall - Khone Falls (Laos)
* Lowest Water Level - Dead Sea
* Longest Epic - Mahabharata
* Hottest Place - Al-Azizia (Libya)
* Rainiest Place - Mosinram, near Cherapunji (India)
* Highest Road - Leh-Nobra, Ladakh division India.
* Highest Village - Andean (Chile)
* Highest Volcano - Ojos del Salado, (Argentina) Chile

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Largest Volcano - Manuna Lea (Hawai)


Lightest Gas - Hydrogen
Fastest Animal - Cheetah
Biggest Flower - Rafflesia (Java)
Longest Corridor - Rameshwaram Temple (India)
Largest Democracy - India
Fastest Dog - Persian greyhound
Lightest Metal Lithium

What is a land-locked country?


It is a country with no coastline at all. There are 48 landlocked
countries in the world, including partially recognized states. Important
Countries continent wise are given below:
AFRICA
1.
Burundi
2.

Bukma-Fase

3.

Botswana

4.

Central African Republic

5.

Chad

6.

Ethiopia

7.

Lesotho

8.

Malawi

9.

Mali

10.

Niger

11.

Rwanda

12.

Swaziland

13.

Uganda

14.

Zambia

15. Zimbabwe
ASIA
1.
Afghanistan
2.

Bhutan

3.

Kazakhstan

4.

Kurgyzstan

5.

Laos

6.

Mongolia

7.

Nepal

8.

Tajkistan

9.

Turkmenistan

10. Uzbekistan
EUROPE
1.
Armenia
2.

Azerbaijan

3.

Austria

4.

Belarus

5.

Czech Rep.

6.

Hungary

7.

Liechtenstein

8.

Luiemboutg

9.

Moldova

10.

Macedonia

11.

Serbia

12.

Switzerland

13.

Slovakia

14.

SanMarino

15. Vatican city


SOUTH AMERICA
1.
Bolivia
2.

Paraguay

Regions

Grassland

Australia
Dawns
South America (Argentina Pampas
& Uruguay)
North America
Prairies
Africa and Australia
Savannah
South America
Selvas
Europe and Northern Asia
Steppes
Europe and Asia
Taiga
South Africa
Velds
Venezuela
(South Lianos
America)
Hungary
Pustaz
New Zealand
Cantebury
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Sahara, North Africa 3,320,000 sq. miles


Arabian, Middle East 900,000 sq. miles
Kalahari, Southern Africa 360,000 sq. miles
Great Victoria, Australia 250,000 sq. miles
Syrian, Syria, Jordan, Iraq 200,000 sq. miles
Chihuahuan, Mexico, U.S. 175,000 sq. miles
Great Sandy, Australia 150,000 sq. miles
Sonoran, Mexico, U,S, 120,000 sq. miles
Thar, India, Pakistan 77,000 sq. miles

10. Gibson, Australia 60,000 sq. miles


11. Simpson, Australia 56,000 sq. miles
12. Mohave, S,W, USA 25,000 sq. miles
Cool Coastal Deserts of the World
1. Atacama, Chile SA 54,000 sq. miles
2. Namib, S.W. Africa 31,000 sq. miles
Cold Winter Deserts of the World
1. Gobi, China, Mongolia 500,000 sq. miles

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Patagonian, Argentina 260,000 sq. miles


Great Basin, S.W. USA 190,000 sq. miles
Karakum, Turkmenistan 135,000 sq. miles
Colorado Plateau, USA 130,000 sq. miles
Kyzyl Kum, West Asia 115,000 sq. miles
Taklamakan, China 105,000 sq. miles
Dasht-e Kavir, Iran 30,000 sq. miles

Polar Deserts of the World


1. Antarctic 5,339,000 sq. miles
2. Arctic 5,300,000 sq. miles