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Joely Ramos

4054482
LEI 4711 RVC
26 October 2016
Assessment Instrument Assignment
I.

Introduction
Assessment instruments are an essential part of providing effective recreational
therapy that leads to improved quality of life in individuals living with disabilities
through goal setting and leisure participation. In this specific assignment, I will be
building a hypothetical in house assessment tool that could possibly be used by a
Recreational Therapist for the organizing of information and assessment of leisure
interests within a particular population. This assessment will include general
background information, such as date of birth, address, emergency contacts, and
current and past medications taken; as well as deeper level mental health information
like, family involvement, substance abuse information, current areas of concern, and
so on. Overall, the assessment will work to investigate potential leisure interests that
can serve as a guide in goal setting for future client participation in therapeutic
recreation services.
The assessment will allow recreational therapists to gain a sense of which areas
within the many symptoms of a particular disability need to be most focused on in the
individual being assessed. This will allow for more precisely targeted individual
needs and measurable improvement areas. The expected possibilities of using such an
assessment is that (1) the therapists will be able to better encourage client
participation in recreational services of interest, (2) leisure awareness will bring about

more therapeutic uses of recreational activities to diminish problem areas within


clients, (3) the development of setting goals will go beyond therapeutic sessions for
improved wellbeing outside of health settings, and (4) assessment usage for leisure
interest collection and organization in population and ages outside of the specified
diagnosis this assessment was prepared for. All in all, this assessments purpose,
process, and possibilities are aimed at increasing quality of life through therapeutic
recreation and leisure education.
II.

Assessment Instrument Description


a. Population
This assessment instrument is developed for adolescents and adults, more
specifically for people ages 13-45, with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).
According to the American Psychiatric Association, people with MDD experience
a wide range of symptoms and can happen in a single episode or reoccurring
situation. Either way, long term attention is usually necessary before complete
independence is a secure option. The minimum amount of time being depressed
with at least five impairing symptoms necessary for a diagnosis in agreeance with
the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is two weeks. Based on
the American Psychiatric Association, some of the symptoms include diminished
cognitive ability, fatigue, lack or excessive sleeping, lowered interest or pleasure
in previously pleasurable activities, recurrent thoughts of death, almost every day
for most of the day.
b. Target Domain(s)/Area(s)

When using this instrument to assess leisure interests of people with MDD
there are three main target domains, including but not limited to emotional, social,
and physical functioning. Improving all of these areas is pivotal for living a
healthier lifestyle, unimpaired in daily routine due to the imbalance of these
domains. People with MDD face a variety of events on a day to day basis where
their emotional, social, and physical functioning is expected to be on a level that it
is not while they are experiencing an episode. These expectations come from the
social norm of ordinarily being able to hold up a standard level of emotional
intelligence even in the midst of feeling moodiness, grief, gloom, or the like.
However, for clients with MDD, these areas of functioning have diminished
unintentionally on their part and significantly because of the effects that come
with being depressed.
Socially, people with MDD may have previously been very active, but the
disorder often causes diminished companionship because of disinterest in what
used to be considered pleasurable. For instance, someone that used to go out to eat
or celebrate with close friends every weekend before feeling depression, may now
not be interested in doing so anymore. Through recreational intervention, clients
past leisure interests can flourish again, increasing also their social behavior and
participation.
In addition, the physical effects of MDD on the body can be very
dangerous and even lethal if not addressed. In some instances, people have tried
to cope with depression through substance abuse, excessive sleeping and/or
eating, and even self-harm. On the contrary, some people dont eat, sleep, or tend

to bodily demands enough therefore lowering the effectiveness of the immune


system. Along with the mind, symptoms that show up when MDD occurs can
have a toll on the body because of excessive weight gain/loss, unexplained muscle
aches, and heart, liver, or other organ damage. In targeting this area in the
assessment the facilitator will find questions that give insight into what will get a
participant to be more physically active, in addition to socially, eventually also
helping them emotionally.
c. Response Mode
The response mode of clients in this assessment will play a big role in its
effectiveness and reliability. For this particular assessment, clients must be willing
to answer questions and socialize with the facilitator. If they wish instead to fill
out the assessment themselves, they must try to be detailed in some of the other
areas on the assessment and think of their past leisure interests. This may be
difficult because of the psychological effects MDD has on a persons emotional
state. Overall, I believe that as long as the patient is willing to participate
alongside an encouraging therapist, the assessment can be a great instrument of
development.
d. Administration Guidelines
This assessment requires a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist
(CTRS) certified by the NCTRC who has experience reading body language and
working with clients living with mood related disorders. Throughout the
assessment process, the therapists should be very aware of his/her responses to
cliental reaction as questions are asked and answered. Information collected from

both verbal and nonverbal cues should be recorded in the comments section and
taken into consideration. Neutrality should be kept until the end of the assessment
in order to avoid biased responses on the initial assessment. Instead of reading
questions one by one, the facilitator should ask the participant what he/she used to
enjoy and to share about themselves. As the conversation thrives, the CTRS can
take note of how poorly or well the client would rate these particular activities
depending on the way they speak about it. For participants that need more
structure, the administrator may want to speak more often and ask questions that
guide conversation toward the patients leisure interest. The therapist will be
asking if in the last two years the client has participated in particular categories of
activities, how often they did it, and to what extent they enjoyed it. Generally, the
maximum amount of time taken on this assessment should be 45 minutes and the
minimum amount of time taken should be 20 minutes.
When administering this assessment there are two readily available options,
depending on clients cognitive ability and their willingness to hold conversation
at the time of filling out the assessment. One option is allowing the client to be
fully independent in filling out the form with no additional conversation or
intervention. The advantage of this option is that clients will participate in
reading and writing their thoughts however they see best fit. However, Major
Depressive Disorder (MDD) can be a secondary problem of having a physical or
cognitive disability, therefore limiting the amount of material comprehended and
expressed in written format. The second option would be to have a therapists read
out the questions in a question/answer, formal conversation format that

encourages dialogue between the participant and facilitator. Here the


administrator would read questions aloud and record answers, while the patient
responses verbally. The consequence of this could be information being left out
due to the many roles that the therapists is taking in one moment of listening
intently, writing, and replying to comments being made. Also, patients may feel
more intimidated when sharing information aloud rather than writing it down and
thinking about it at their own pace. People living with MDD may sometimes not
be willing to socialize. Nevertheless, this option can be very effective if
participants are open and giving enriching details that they would feel agitated
trying to write down rather than verbalizing. Also, it can be good for participants
that are seeking to be listened to and could use positive reminiscing questions. In
conclusion, the discretion is up to the therapist conducting the assessment, but
usually the second option should be encouraged.
III.

Instrument Development and Trial


a. Norm-referenced or Criterion-referenced
The type of testing tool used in this assessment is norm-referenced. There is
no standardized test that can examine a correct way of being happy, but there is a
social norm of what people that are happy regularly do. Therefore, after assessing
clients the therapists will evaluate the severity of the patients depression level by
what society along with clinical mental health requirements of safety have
entrenched.
b. Functional-environment
The environment in which the therapists administers this test should be a time

in which the client is relaxed. The environment should be free of any emotional
triggers and hazardous items. The client should take the assessment around people
they consider to be trustworthy, and they should be reassured that the information
they sure is fully confidential. This will allow for the patient to feel more
comfortable sharing their true feelings versus just saying what they believe others
want to hear. Therapists should also be highly aware of their word choice when
responding to participants. Overall, creating an atmosphere where the participant
is able to be open without pressure is the most important environmental factor.

IV.

Assessment Report Form


Example Assessment Instrument Form

Full Name: ______________________________________________________


(First)

(Middle)

(Last)

Date of Assessment Completion: _____________________________________


MM/DD/YYYY

GENERAL INFORMATION
D.O.B.: ______________

Age:_______

Gender: Male [

] Female [

MM/DD/YY

Current Address: ___________________________________________________


Number

Street

Home Phone: ___________________

City

State

Zip

Cell Phone: _____________________

Email: ___________________________

Emergency Contact: _______________________ Relationship: ____________


Home Phone: ___________________

Cell Phone: _____________________

Email: ___________________________

Are you currently taking, or have taken any prescription medications? Yes___ No___
If yes, please list:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

FAMILY INVOLVEMENT
Relationship Status: Single [

Married [

] Divorced [

Separated [

Widow [ ] If Married, Separated, or Divorced, for how long? _____________


Other:____________

Describe your relationship with parents:


____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Do you have any children? Yes / No
If yes, please list name(s), age(s), and any other desired information:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Do you have any siblings? Yes / No
If yes, please list name(s), age(s), and any other desired information:
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

If any, please list any health issues within your family, such as heart problems,
diabetes, depression, general anxiety disorder, eating disorders, schizophrenia, etc.?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Have you experienced physical, sexual or emotional abuse? Yes___ No___
If yes, explain:
____________________________________________________________________

LEISURE INTERESTS INFORMATION


For the following statements, please circle the appropriate amount of time youve
done this activity in the last 6 months. Also, rate your experience in the moment you
were present and write any additional comments.
In the last 6 months have you:
Been to a restaurant you enjoyed?
Yes
No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Spent QUALITY time with a loved one?


Yes
No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Played a board game, put together a puzzle, or anything similar? Yes


No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Gone for a walk or exercised, just because you wanted to?


Yes
No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Had the company of two or more friends?


Yes
No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Created or decorated something with your own hands? Yes


How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times

No
> 5 times

Rate: Poor

Unsatisfactory

Satisfactory

Good

Very Good

Comments: _________________________________________________________

Listened to an album or song that gave you hope?


Yes
No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Gone to a garden or planted something? Yes


No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Participated in a sport event or team?


Yes
No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Interacted with an animal (holding, petting, etc.)?


Yes
No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Gone swimming in a beach, pool, lake, or other body of water?


Yes
No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

Tried an obstacle course? Yes


No
How often? 0
1 time
2-4 times
> 5 times
Rate: Poor
Unsatisfactory
Satisfactory
Good
Very Good
Comments: _________________________________________________________

SUMMARY OF ASSESSMENT:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
SIGNATURE OF PARTICIPANT
SIGNATURE OF THERAPIST

V.

X_____________________________________
X_____________________________________

Summary and Conclusions


All in all, many benefits should stem for both the therapist and the participant
from the using of this assessment. Like the video introduced to us in module 9,
Developing an Agency Assessment, this form will have four positive Ps: purpose,
people, process, and possibilities. The therapist will get a clear view of general health
information, family involvement, and possible leisure interests. Each question on the
last part of the assessment will help the therapist develop and implement a care plan
for the improved quality of life of the participant. Questions will point out the aid that
leisure or therapies, such as animal-assisted therapy, horticulture, music, adventure
therapy, and so forth will be of advantage for clients. From the moment the test is
being administered, the client and therapist relationship will start to form. In
conclusion, the assessment will serve to give all parties further insight into advancing
overall health through the use of therapeutic leisure activitiesthe true goal of
recreational therapy.