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Physical education is defined as a process of education through physical activity. In a

broader context, physical education is defined as a process of learning through physical
activities designed to improve physical fitness, develop motor skills, knowledge and
behaviour of healthy and active living, sportsmanship, and emotional intelligence. Thus,
Physical Education is not only aimed at physical development but also includes the
development of the individual.s
The aims of physical education are to enable the student to:
appreciate and understand the value of physical education and its relationship to a
healthy, active lifestyle
work to their optimal level of physical fitness
become aware of movement as a creative medium connected to communication,
expression and aesthetic appreciation
develop the motor skills necessary to participate successfully in a variety of physical
experience enjoyment and satisfaction through physical activity
develop social skills that demonstrate the importance of teamwork and cooperation in
group activities
demonstrate a high level of interest and personal engagement showing initiative,
enthusiasm and commitment
show knowledge and understanding in a variety of physical activities and evaluate
their own and others performances
demonstrate the ability to critically reflect upon physical activity in both a local and
intercultural context
demonstrate the ability and enthusiasm to pass on to others in the community the
knowledge, skills and techniques that have been learned.
A. Knowledge and Understanding
At the end of the course students should be able to:
demonstrate an understanding of the principles and concepts related to a variety of
physical activities
understand the importance of physical activity to a healthy lifestyle
recall and understand the various components that contribute to health-related fitness.
B. Movement Composition
At the end of the course students should be able to compose and communicate meaning and
ideas through movement.
C. Performance and Application
At the end of the course students should be able to:
display acquired motor skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities
apply tactics, strategies and rules in both individual and group situations
use movement concepts appropriately in relation to themselves, others and their
physical environment
apply health and fitness principles effectively through a variety of physical activities.
D. Social Skills
At the end of the course students should be able to:
work cooperatively

respect themselves and their social and physical environment

support and encourage others (towards a positive working environment)
develop attitudes and strategies that enhance their relationship with others
show sensitivity to their own and different cultures.
E. Personal Engagement
At the end of the course students should be able to:
show initiative, creativity and a willingness to improve themselves
take responsibility for their own learning process and demonstrate engagement with
the activity, showing enthusiasm and commitment
show self-motivation, organization and responsible behaviour
recognize, analyse and evaluate the effects of a variety of physical activities on
themselves and others
reflect upon and evaluate their own performance in order to set goals for future
Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability
to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally
achieved through proper nutrition. Moderate-vigorous physical exercise,[] and sufficient rest.
Health and Skill Related Fitness Components
5 Health-Related Fitness Components
1.Muscular Strength:
The ability of muscles to lift a heavy weight or exert a lot of
force one time.
2.Muscular Endurance:
The ability to use muscles for a long period of time without
3.Cardiovascular Endurance: The ability of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, and blood to
work efficiently and
to supply the body with oxygen.
4.Body Composition:
The combination of all of the tissues that make up the body such
as bones
muscle, organs and body fat.
The ability to use your joints fully through a wide range of

Skill Related Fitness Components

1.Agility - The ability to change body positions quickly and keep the body under
control when moving.
2. Balance - The ability to keep the body in a steady position while standing and
3. Coordination - The ability of body parts to work together when you perform an
4. Power - The ability to combine strength with speed while moving.
5. Speed - The ability to move all or a part of the body quickly.
6. Reaction Time - The ability to move quickly once a signal to start moving is


Aerobic exercise :(also known as cardio) is physical exercise of relatively low intensity that
depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.[1] Aerobic literally means "living
in air",[2] and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise
via aerobic metabolism.
Anaerobic exercise is exercise intense enough to trigger anaerobic metabolism. It is used by
athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders
to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop
differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration,
high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds up to about 2 minutes.[1][2] Any
activity lasting longer than about two minutes has a large aerobic metabolic component.
isotonic contraction, tension remains unchanged and the muscle's length changes. Lifting an
object at a constant speed is an example of isotonic contractions. There are two types of
isotonic contractions: (1) concentric and (2) eccentric. In a concentric contraction, the muscle
tension rises to meet the resistance, then remains the same as the muscle shortens. In
eccentric, the muscle lengthens due to the resistance being greater than the force the muscle is
Isometric exercise is a form of exercise involving the static contraction of a muscle without
any visible movement in the angle of the joint. This is reflected in the name; the term
"isometric" combines Greek the prefixes "iso" (same) with "metric" (distance), meaning that
in these exercises the length of the muscle and the angle of the joint do not change, though
contraction strength may be varied.
isokinetic exercise
a form of exercise in which maximum force is exerted by a muscle at each point throughout
the active range of motion as the muscle contracts. The effort of the patient to resist the
movement is measured.
Exercise: benefits of regular physical activity
The health benefits of regular exercise and physical activity are hard to ignore. Everyone
benefits from exercise, regardless of age, sex or physical ability.
1. Exercise controls weight
Exercise can help prevent excess weight gain or help maintain weight loss. When you engage
in physical activity, you burn calories. The more intense the activity, the more calories you

2. Exercise combats health conditions and diseases

Boosts high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good," cholesterol and decreases unhealthy
triglycerides. This one-two punch keeps your blood flowing smoothly, which decreases your
risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Regular exercise helps prevent or manage a wide range of health problems and concerns,
including stroke, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, depression, a number of types of
cancer, arthritis and falls.
3. Exercise improves mood
A gym session or brisk 30-minute walk can help. Physical activity stimulates various brain
chemicals that may leave you feeling happier and more relaxed.
You may also feel better about your appearance and yourself when you exercise regularly,
which can boost your confidence and improve your self-esteem.
4. Exercise boosts energy
Exercise delivers oxygen and nutrients to your tissues and helps your cardiovascular system
work more efficiently. And when your heart and lung health improve, you have more energy
to tackle daily chores.
5. Exercise promotes better sleep
Regular physical activity can help you fall asleep faster and deepen your sleep. Just don't
exercise too close to bedtime, or you may be too energized to hit the hay.
Effect of exercises on various systems of the body :
Exercise tones your muscles and makes you look better, and it also helps your overall energy,
strength, flexibility and balance.
Exercise increases your muscle energy in several ways. First, it increases the numbers of
mitochondria within your muscles. These tiny structures within cells convert nutrition to
energy. Second, exercise augments the amount of myoglobin within your muscles. This
protein transports and stores oxygen, which the mitochondria use in their energy production
process. Third, exercise increases your muscles' capacity to store glycogen --- a form of
carbohydrate fuel.
Exercise strengthens muscles and the connective tissues around them. As a result, you are
less likely to suffer injuries such as torn ligaments, ruptured tendons, sprains and muscle


Regular exercise promotes flexibility and decreases the chances of injury to your lower back
from everyday activities such as lifting or shoveling snow. Weak back muscles may
contribute to compression of the spine, but frequent exercise builds strength and endurance in
these muscles and improves both posture and spine health. If you have suffered a back injury
or if you have back pain, consult a doctor before engaging in exercise to ensure that you don't
aggravate the injury.
During intense exercise, your heart may pump up to five or six times more blood than it
pumps during normal daily activities, and it may use up to 20 times more oxygen, according
to the information website Depending on the length and intensity of
the exercise and the state of your health, this increased demand on the heart muscle can
strengthen it or weaken it. If you have heart disease, check with your doctor before initiating
any exercise program. Increased heart activity also cleans out the blood vessels surrounding
the heart and thus improves the overall health of the heart muscle.
Strength training helps improve your muscle control and balance. This means you are less
likely to fall and will perform better in sports activities. Any injuries you suffer also are likely
to be less severe.
Circulatory system consists of your heart, blood vessels and blood, and is responsible for
transporting life-giving oxygen around your body. When you exercise, your body's need for
oxygen increases; the harder you work out, the more oxygen your body demands. To ensure
that sufficient oxygen is available for your muscles during activity, your body makes shortand long-term changes
Your heart --- often referred to as the myocardium, meaning heart muscle --- is a muscular
four-chambered pump about the size of your fist and is located slightly left of center in your
chest. Its job is to pump blood around your body. When you exercise, your heart rate can
increase from an resting average of 72 beats per minute to 200 or more depending on your
fitness and age. As you get fitter, your heart becomes stronger and your resting heart rate will
decrease. Fit people often have low resting heart rates; the resting heart rate of highly trained
athletes can be as low as 30 beats per minute.
Your body uses blood vessels to transport blood around your body. Arteries take blood away
from your heart; veins return blood to your heart and capillaries drop off and collect blood at
your muscles and lungs. As you exercise, the hormone adrenalin causes your blood vessels to
expand so that a greater-than-normal volume of blood can pass through them. This is called
vasodilation. Vasodilation is a short-term response to exercise and is one of the reasons your
As a long-term response to exercise, meanwhile, your body lays down new capillaries so
more oxygen can be delivered to, and more carbon dioxide can be removed from, your
working muscles.

When you exercise, blood is diverted from non-essential organs, such as those involved with
your digestive and reproductive systems, and into your working muscles. This is termed
blood pooling and ensures that your working muscles get as much oxygen as they need. Once
you have finished your strenuous exercise, it is important to encourage the pooled blood to
move out of the muscles and back into general circulation. This is commonly achieved by
performing a cool-down consisting of light cardiovascular exercise and stretching. Blood left
pooling in muscles is linked to the onset of post-exercise muscle soreness.
Your blood contains three different types of cells: white blood cells that fight infection,
platelets that aid in clotting and red blood cells that transport oxygen. These cells are
suspended in a liquid called plasma which is predominately water. While you exercise, your
red blood cells become saturated with oxygen in an effort to ensure that enough oxygen is
available for your muscles. As a long-term benefit of exercise, your red blood cell count
increases as you get fitter so you are better able to transport greater amounts of oxygen
around your body.
Exercise places greater demands on your body to make it stronger, more flexible and more
stable. In addition to increased demands on your circulatory system, the lungs must work
harder to support moving muscles. If your respiratory system is compromised, it may not be
able to support the added demands of exercise. This does not mean, however, that exercise is
not possible -- or beneficial -- to you.
Your lungs take in an estimated 12L of air per minute when sedentary and as much as 100 to
150L of air when exercising, according to the British Lung Foundation. When you exercise,
your body needs more oxygen to keep the muscles working and the body functioning.
Increasing your movements causes the brain to signal to the lungs to work harder to obtain
needed oxygen. In this way, exercise teaches your lungs to work more efficiently
As you improve in athletic performance, your legs will learn to contract your diaphragm,
your breathing muscle, to work more. The diaphragm rests underneath your lungs and
contracts to inhale and relaxes when you exhale. Elite athletes may take up to 40 to 60
breaths a minute to take in enough air, which is more than four times the number of breaths
you take when seated, according to the British Lung Foundation. In the absence of enough
oxygen, your body will produce lactic acid to provide energy to the body. However, too much
lactic acid can cause muscle cramping
Respiratory infections, flus and colds may make exercise difficult because of your illness'
effect on your respiratory system. If you suffer from a common cold, you should be able to
exercise without compromising your immune system and making your illness worse,

according to the "New York Times." However, exercise may adversely affect the respiratory
system if you exercise while you have a virus whose symptoms include fever or muscle aches
For those with chronically impaired lung function, such as emphysema or chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease, impaired lung function may affect the way you exercise. Exercise will
place increased demand on your lungs, yet your lungs may not be able to keep up. This may
cause you to feel breathless when you exercise. However, you can exercise if you have a lung
condition. Seek a respiratory therapist who can teach you adaptive breathing techniques to
help your lungs work more efficiently.
Definition of yoga
Yoga means union or connection. In Sanskrit, the word yoga is used to signify any form
of connection. Yoga is both a state of connection and a body of techniques that allow us to
connect to anything.
Conscious connection to something allows us to feel and experience that thing, person, or
experience. The experience of connection is a state of yoga, a joyful and blissful, fulfilling
Concepts of Yoga
There are generally considered to be 12 major concepts associated with Yoga. All of these
Yoga concepts were derived from the original meanings of the words that make up these
As many early writings about Yoga appeared in the ancient language called Sanskrit,
unlocking the true meaning of each concept depends on an understanding of the language.
Fortunately for you, all of the major concepts in their original language are explained within
this article.
Instead, the intent is to summarize the 12 major concepts of Yoga into an understandable
format that you can easily implement in your daily life to enhance the overall quality of your
This concept refers to the joining of the practitioner with a supreme being. This includes any
method that you might choose to achieve this union. The major consideration with this term
is the uniting of an individualized spirit with the almighty spirit. This concept was originally
taught by the widely considered founder of Yoga, Patanjali.

This concept refers to any type of physical or mental action. In addition, this concept deals
with the consequences of each action. An easy way to understand this concept lies in the
biblical law of "an eye for an eye". You must expect to eventually receive any action that you
force onto another person in your future life. There are actually three types of karma. The
first is all acts performed in all lives (reincarnation). The second is the acts of you current
life. The third type of karma id the acts that you are performing right now.
This concept deals with the correct way to live your life and receive good karma. This
concept not only concerns itself with physical and mental acts against other spirits, but also
with the ability of the practitioner to achieve enlightenment and a union with the supreme
being. This may sound familiar to followers of all types of religion that claim that good deeds
alone are not enough to achieve immortality.
Swadhara is the obligation that a spirit has to follow dharma. Where dharma regards the rules
and guidelines, swadhara pertains to the need for a spirit to follow those rules. This concept is
much related to altruistic principles and instinctive feelings such as maternal and fraternal.
According to the teachings of Yoga, every individual spirit will have a different level of
swadhara. This level will determine their dharma and can be raised through meditation or
reduced through lack there of.
This concept is the Sanskrit word for your mind. However, the manah is no the entire mind.
The manah is the portion of the mind that receives sensory signals from other portions of the
body. This is not only the scientific concept of sensory perception but the metaphysical
ability for the mind to receive signals from the spirit.
The Sanskrit term for intelligence. This concept is the conscious ability to be able to
understand the concepts that are taught to you.
It also concerns itself with the ability to think through situations and to use reason when
making important decisions. Your overall intelligence is referred to as your buddhi.
This concept is literally translated as your memories. Basically, every action that you perform
(whether good or bad) creates an impression stored in your mind. Negative impressions must
be cleansed in order to obtain immortality. In addition to being a moral protection device, this
concept also deals with maternal and fraternal instincts.

When your mind stores impressions of actions, or memories (samskara), they are typically
grouped together based on similarities between them. These groups are referred to as vasana.
These bundles are unconscious and must be restored through deep focus and meditation.
These bundles are active even if they are held in the unconscious.
For example, you may be triggered to perform another "happy" bundle of actions because
they left positive impressions in the past. In addition to acting as constantly referenced
emotions, these bundles are what govern the development of experience and maturity.
This concept refers to the actual practice or exercise of the techniques found in Yoga. It not
only pertains to the actual correct physical motions involved but also the correction of
incorrect technique and the skill involved in performing each movement. These motions are
intended to have a purifying effect on the body in small amounts. Performing these motions
will result in higher levels of metaphysical awareness and a heightened sense of purpose or
This concept is directly related to the ability to realize the difference between reality and the
fantasy or unrealistic portion of life. Not only does it involve knowing the difference between
realism and the opposite but also the difference between the temporary aspects of life and the
permanent aspects of the current and after life. When employing this concept, the practitioner
must remember to constantly review what is real and what is fake and employ proper
reactions based on their discoveries.
Vairagya concerns itself with the disinterest in anything of the current life. This concept
requires the participant to distance himself from anything that they enjoy in their mortal life
in order to better prepare for the after life. This includes the indifference of possessions,
enjoyed feelings and the enjoyment of any emotional action or response.
Sannyasa is the concept that attempts to sum up all of the other Yoga concepts that contribute
to a well led life. More specifically, Sannyasa involves adherence to all other yoga concepts
and is the eventual pursuit of perfection in all aspects of life to attain a truly healthy and
perfect after life.
As is evident, there are several concepts associated with the art of Yoga. While not all
individuals will care to learn the specifics related to each of the 12 major concepts of Yoga,
for individuals that would like to understand these concepts, and have a better understanding
of the various philosophies associated with Yoga, please feel free to peruse through our
section on Yoga.

However, it will be important to understand the various concepts associated with Yoga, at a
cursory level, as it will better prepare you to choose which type, and how, you will practice
and integrate Yoga into your daily lifestyle.
History of Yoga
Yogas history has many places of obscurity and uncertainty due to its oral transmission of
sacred texts and the secretive nature of its teachings. The early writings on yoga were
transcribed on fragile palm leaves that were easily damaged, destroyed or lost. The
development of yoga can be traced back to over 5,000 years ago, but some researchers think
that yoga may be up to 10,000 years old old. Yogas long rich history can be divided into four
main periods of innovation, practice and development.
The beginnings of Yoga were developed by the Indus-Sarasvati civilization in Northern India
over 5,000 years ago. The word yoga was first mentioned in the oldest sacred texts, the Rig
Veda. The Vedas were a collection of texts containing songs, mantras and rituals to be used
by Brahmans, the Vedic priests. Yoga was slowly refined and developed by the Brahmans
and Rishis (mystic seers) who documented their practices and beliefs in the Upanishads, a
huge work containing over 200 scriptures. The most renowned of the Yogic scriptures is the
Bhagavad-Gt, composed around 500 B.C.E. The Upanishads took the idea of ritual sacrifice
from the Vedas and internalized it, teaching the sacrifice of the ego through self-knowledge,
action (karma yoga) and wisdom (jnana yoga).
In the pre-classical stage, yoga was a mishmash of various ideas, beliefs and techniques that
often conflicted and contradicted each other. The Classical period is defined by Patanjalis
Yoga-Stras, the first systematic presentation of yoga. Written some time in the second
century, this text describes the path of Raja Yoga, often called "classical yoga". Patanjali
organized the practice of yoga into an "eight limbed path" containing the steps and stages
towards obtaining Samadhi or enlightenment. Patanjali is often considered the father of yoga
and his Yoga-Stras still strongly influence most styles of modern yoga.
A few centuries after Patanjali, yoga masters created a system of practices designed to
rejuvenate the body and prolong life. They rejected the teachings of the ancient Vedas and
embraced the physical body as the means to achieve enlightenment. They developed Tantra
Yoga, with radical techniques to cleanse the body and mind to break the knots that bind us to
our physical existence. This exploration of these physical-spiritual connections and body
centered practices led to the creation of what we primarily think of yoga in the West: Hatha
In the late 1800s and early 1900s, yoga masters began to travel to the West, attracting
attention and followers. This began at the 1893 Parliament of Religions in Chicago, when
Swami Vivekananda wowed the attendees with his lectures on yoga and the universality of
the worlds religions. In the 1920s and 30s, Hatha Yoga was strongly promoted in India with
the work of T. Krishnamacharya, Swami Sivananda and other yogis practicing Hatha Yoga.
Krishnamacharya opened the first Hatha Yoga school in Mysore in 1924 and in 1936
Sivananda founded the Divine Life Society on the banks of the holy Ganges River.

Krishnamacharya produced three students that would continue his legacy and increase the
popularity of Hatha Yoga: B.K.S. Iyengar, T.K.V. Desikachar and Pattabhi Jois. Sivananda
was a prolific author, writing over 200 books on yoga, and established nine ashrams and
numerous yoga centers located around the world.
The importation of yoga to the West still continued at a trickle until Indra Devi opened her
yoga studio in Hollywood in 1947. Since then, many more western and Indian teachers have
become pioneers, popularizing hatha yoga and gaining millions of followers. Hatha Yoga
now has many different schools or styles, all emphasizing the many different aspects of the
The Ten Principles of Yoga
The basis of Yoga are the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. In it, Patanjali recommends a two-step
way. The first stage is the development of positive ethic qualities (the ten yoga principles).
Without positive qualities in meditation inner peace will break through the chaos of the
outside world again and again. The second stage of the yogic path is to practice meditation.
One can say, that Yoga in the essence is based on positive thinking and meditation.
1. Non-violence (ahimsa)
No killing other beings. Be meek. Be peaceful.
2. Truthfulness (satya)
Live in the truth. Basically, be honest with yourself and others. Also no little lies of
convenience. A lie is permissible only in well justified situations, for example, if you
save with a lie the life of another human being. A Yogi is silent in doubt. Those who
consistently lives in the truth radiate truth. Their fellow men trust them.
3. Righteousness (asteya)
Not stealing, not cheating. A Yogi is in professional life generally honest. He does not
seek unwarranted advantage, but he is looking for fair trade.
4. Wisdom (brahmacharia)
Live in the spiritual focus (in the light/in God = Brahman). Do not serve the money
(outer luck) but the inner happiness (God, Brahman, enlightenment). Be centered in
your inner happiness and peace.
5. Simplicity (aparigraha)
Be moderate in external enjoyment and consumption. A spiritual person lives
modestly outwardly and inwardly rich. A Yogi uses his energy not in outer actions,
but lives so peaceful that it turns inward and cleanse his body from the inside. One
day, he lives permanently in the light.
6. Worship of the spiritual goal (ishvara-pranidhana)

Thus we do not lose our spiritual path, it is necessary that we remind ourselves again
and again to our spiritual goal. We can worship an image (Goddess, Shiva, Patanjali),
we can bow before a statue (Buddha, Jesus, Shiva) or speak a mantra (prayer).
7. Sacrifice the ego (shaucha)
Purification / cleaning. The way into the light passes through the crucifixion of the
ego. Without a crucifixion there is no enlightenment. True sacrifice is an art. He who
sacrifices too much braced themselves internally. Who sacrifices too little, does not
solves his tentions.
8. Self-discipline (tapas)
A clear goal, a clear life plan and a clear way of practicing. Tapas means to lead a
disciplined life.
9. Reading (svadhyaya)
The daily reading (mantra, meditation) keeps us on the spiritual path, cleanses our
spirit, connects us with the enlightened masters and makes us to spiritual victors.
10. Contentment (santosha)
Satisfied with what one has.
The practice of yoga is an art and science dedicated to creating union between body, mind
and spirit. Its objective is to assist the practitioner in using the breath and body to foster an
awareness of ourselves as individualized beings intimately connected to the unified whole of
creation. In short it is about making balance and creating equanimity so as to live in peace,
good health and harmony with the greater whole. This art of right living was perfected and
practiced in India thousands of years ago and the foundations of yoga philosophy were
written down in The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, approximately 200 AD. This sacred text
describes the inner workings of the mind and provides an eight-step blueprint for controlling
its restlessness so as to enjoying lasting peace.
ne branch and then move on to another as they round out their understanding.
In brief the eight limbs, or steps to yoga, are as follows:

Yama : Universal morality

Niyama : Personal observances
Asanas : Body postures
Pranayama : Breathing exercises, and control of prana
Pratyahara : Control of the senses
Dharana : Concentration and cultivating inner perceptual awareness
Dhyana : Devotion, Meditation on the Divine
Samadhi : Union with the Divine

I. Yamas (Universal Morality)

1. Ahimsa Compassion for all living things
The word ahimsa literally mean not to injure or show cruelty to any creature or any person in
any way whatsoever. Ahimsa is, however, more than just lack of violence as adapted in yoga.
It means kindness, friendliness, and thoughtful consideration of other people and things. It
also has to do with our duties and responsibilities too. Ahimsa implies that in every situation
we should adopt a considerate attitude and do no harm.
2. Satya Commitment to Truthfulness
Satya means "to speak the truth," yet it is not always desirable to speak the truth on all
occasions, for it could harm someone unnecessarily. We have to consider what we say, how
we say it, and in what way it could affect others. If speaking the truth has negative
consequences for another, then it is better to say nothing. Satya should never come into
conflict with our efforts to behave with ahimsa. This precept is based on the understanding
that honest communication and action form the bedrock of any healthy relationship,
community, or government, and that deliberate deception, exaggerations, and mistruths harm
others. ii
3. Asteya - Non-stealing
Steya means "to steal"; asteya is the opposite-to take nothing that does not belong to us. This
also means that if we are in a situation where someone entrusts something to us or confides in
us, we do not take advantage of him or her. Non-stealing includes not only taking what
belongs to another without permission, but also using something for a different purpose to
that intended, or beyond the time permitted by its owner.iii The practice of asteya implies not
taking anything that has not been freely given. This includes fostering a consciousness of
how we ask for others time for inconsiderate behavior demanding anothers attention when
not freely given is, in effect, stealing.
4. Brahmacharya - Sense control
Brahmacharya is used mostly in the sense of abstinence, particularly in relationship to sexual
activity. Brahmacharya suggests that we should form relationships that foster our
understanding of the highest truths. Brahmacharya does not necessarily imply celibacy.
Rather, it means responsible behavior with respect to our goal of moving toward the truth.
Practicing brahmacharya means that we use our sexual energy to regenerate our connection to
our spiritual self. It also means that we dont use this energy in any way that might harm
5. Aparigraha - Neutralizing the desire to acquire and hoard wealth
Aparigraha means to take only what is necessary, and not to take advantage of a situation or
act greedy. We should only take what we have earned; if we take more, we are exploiting
someone else. The yogi feels that the collection or hoarding of things implies a lack of faith
in God and in himself to provide for his future.v Aparigraha also implies letting go of our
attachments to things and an understanding that impermanence and change are the only

The Yoga Sutra describes what happens when these five behaviors outlined above
become part of a person's daily life. Thus, the yamas are the moral virtues which, if attended
to, purify human nature and contribute to health and happiness of society.
II. Niyama (Personal Observances)
Niyama means "rules" or "laws." These are the rules prescribed for personal observance.
Like the yamas, the five niyamas are not exercises or actions to be simply studied. They
represent far more than an attitude. Compared with the yamas, the niyamas are more intimate
and personal. They refer to the attitude we adopt toward ourselves as we create a code for
living soulfully
1. Saucha - Purity
The first niyama is sauca, meaning purity and cleanliness. Sauca has both an inner and an
outer aspect. Outer cleanliness simply means keeping ourselves clean. Inner cleanliness has
as much to do with the healthy, free functioning of our bodily organs as with the clarity of
our mind. Practicing asanas or pranayama are essential means for attending to this inner
sauca. Asanas tones the entire body and removes toxins while pranayama cleanses our lungs,
oxygenates our blood and purifies our nerves. "But more important than the physical
cleansing of the body is the cleansing of the mind of its disturbing emotions like hatred,
passion, anger, lust, greed, delusion and pride." vi
2. Santosa - Contentment
Another niyama is santosa, modesty and the feeling of being content with what we have. To
be at peace within and content with one's lifestyle finding contentment even while
experiencing lifes difficulties for life becomes a process of growth through all kinds of
circumstances. We should accept that there is a purpose for everything - yoga calls it karma
and we cultivate contentment 'to accept what happens'. It means being happy with what we
have rather than being unhappy about what we don't have.
3. Tapas Disciplined use of our energy
Tapas refers to the activity of keeping the body fit or to confront and handle the inner urges
without outer show. Literally it means to heat the body and, by so doing, to cleanse it. Behind
the notion of tapas lies the idea we can direct our energy to enthusiastically engage life and
achieve our ultimate goal of creating union with the Divine. Tapas helps us burn up all the
desires that stand in our way of this goal. Another form of tapas is paying attention to what
we eat. Attention to body posture, attention to eating habits, attention to breathing patterns these are all tapas.
4. Svadhyaya Self study
The fourth niyama is svadhyaya. Sva means "self' adhyaya means "inquiry" or "examination".
Any activity that cultivates self-reflective consciousness can be considered svadhyaya. It
means to intentionally find self-awareness in all our activities and efforts, even to the point of
welcoming and accepting our limitations. It teaches us to be centered and non-reactive to the
dualities, to burn out unwanted and self-destructive tendencies.
5. Isvarapranidhana - Celebration of the Spiritual
Isvarapranidhana means "to lay all your actions at the feet of God." It is the contemplation on
God (Isvara) in order to become attuned to god and god's will. It is the recognition that the
spiritual suffuses everything and through our attention and care we can attune ourselves with

our role as part of the Creator. The practice requires that we set aside some time each day to
recognize that there is some omnipresent force larger than ourselves that is guiding and
directing the course of our lives. vii
III. Asanas (Body postures)
Asana is the practice of physical postures. It is the most commonly known aspect of yoga
for those unfamiliar with the other seven limbs of Patanjalis Yoga Sutra. The practice of
moving the body into postures has widespread benefits; of these the most underlying are
improved health, strength, balance and flexibility. On a deeper level the practice of asana,
which means "staying" or "abiding" in Sanskrit, is used as a tool to calm the mind and move
into the inner essence of being. The challenge of poses offers the practitioner the opportunity
to explore and control all aspects of their emotions, concentration, intent, faith, and unity
between the physical and the ethereal body. Indeed, using asanas to challenge and open the
physical body acts as a binding agent to bring one in harmony with all the unseen elements of
their being, the forces that shape our lives through our responses to the physical world. Asana
then becomes a way of exploring our mental attitudes and strengthening our will as we learn
to release and move into the state of grace that comes from creating balance between our
material world and spiritual experience.
IV. Pranayama (Breath Control)
Pranayama is the measuring, control, and directing of the breath. Pranayama controls the
energy (prana) within the organism, in order to restore and maintain health and to promote
evolution. When the in-flowing breath is neutralized or joined with the out-flowing breath,
then perfect relaxation and balance of body activities are realized. In yoga, we are concerned
with balancing the flows of vital forces, then directing them inward to the chakra system and
upward to the crown chakra.
Pranayama, or breathing technique, is very important in yoga. It goes hand in hand with
the asana or pose. In the Yoga Sutra, the practices of pranayama and asana are considered to
be the highest form of purification and self discipline for the mind and the body, respectively.
The practices produce the actual physical sensation of heat, called tapas, or the inner fire of
purification. It is taught that this heat is part of the process of purifying the nadis, or subtle
nerve channels of the body. This allows a more healthful state to be experienced and allows
the mind to become more calm.x As the yogi follows the proper rhythmic patterns of slow
deep breathing "the patterns strengthen the respiratory system, soothe the nervous system and
reduce craving. As desires and cravings diminish, the mind is set free and becomes a fit
vehicle for concentration."xi

V. Pratyahara (Control of the Senses)

Pratyahara means drawing back or retreat. The word ahara means "nourishment";
pratyahara translates as "to withdraw oneself from that which nourishes the senses." In yoga,
the term pratyahara implies withdrawal of the senses from attachment to external objects. It
can then be seen as the practice of non-attachment to sensorial distractions as we constantly
return to the path of self realization and achievement of internal peace. It means our senses
stop living off the things that stimulate; the senses no longer depend on these stimulants and
are not fed by them any more.

In pratyahara we serve this link between mind and senses, and the senses withdraw.
When the senses are no longer tied to external sources, the result is restraint or pratyahara.
Now that the vital forces are flowing back to the Source within, one can concentrate without
being distracted by externals or the temptation to cognize externals.
Pratyahara occurs almost automatically when we meditate because we are so absorbed in
the object of meditation. Precisely because the mind is so focused, the senses follow it; it is
not happening the other way around.
No longer functioning in their usual manner, the senses become extraordinarily sharp.
Under normal circumstances the senses become our masters rather than being our servants.
The senses entice us to develop cravings for all sorts of things. In pratyahara the opposite
occurs: when we have to eat we eat, but not because we have a craving for food. In
pratyahara we try to put the senses in their proper place, but not cut them out of our actions
Much of our emotional imbalance are our own creation. A person who is influenced by
outside events and sensations can never achieve the inner peace and tranquility. This is
because he or she will waste much mental and physical energy in trying to suppress unwanted
sensations and to heighten other sensations. This will eventually result in a physical or mental
imbalance, and will, in most instances, result in illness.

VI. Dharana (Concentration and cultivating inner perceptual awareness)

Dharana means "immovable concentration of the mind". The essential idea is to hold the
concentration or focus of attention in one direction. "When the body has been tempered by
asanas, when the mind has been refined by the fire of pranayama and when the senses have
been brought under control by pratyahara, the sadhaka (seeker) reaches the sixth stage,
dharana. Here he is concentrated wholly on a single point or on a task in which he is
completely engrossed. The mind has to be stilled in order to achieve this state of complete
In dharana we create the conditions for the mind to focus its attention in one direction
instead of going out in many different directions. Deep contemplation and reflection can
create the right conditions, and the focus on this one point that we have chosen becomes more
intense. We encourage one particular activity of the mind and, the more intense it becomes,
the more the other activities of the mind fall away.
Meditation on the Divine)
Dhyana means worship, or profound and abstract religious meditation. It is perfect
contemplation. It involves concentration upon a point of focus with the intention of knowing
the truth about it. The concept holds that when one focuses their mind in concentration on an
object the mind is transformed into the shape of the object. Hence, when one focuses on the
divine they become more reflective of it and they know their true nature. "His body, breath,
senses, mind, reason and ego are all integrated in the object of his contemplation the
Universal Spirit."xv

During dhyana, the consciousness is further unified by combining clear insights into
distinctions between objects and between the subtle layers of perception. "We learn to
differentiate between the mind of the perceiver, the means of perception, and the objects
perceived, between words, their meanings, and ideas, and between all the levels of evolution
of nature."xvi
As we fine-tune our concentration and become more aware of the nature of reality we
perceive that the world is unreal. "The only reality is the universal self, or God, which is
veiled by Maya (the illusory power). As the veils are lifted, the mind becomes clearer.
Unhappiness and fear even the fear of death vanishes. This state of freedom, or Moksha,
is the goal of Yoga. It can be reached by constant enquiry into the nature of things."xvii
Meditation becomes our tool to see things clearly and perceive reality beyond the illusions
that cloud our mind.

VIII. Samadhi (Union with the Divine)

The final step in the eight-fold path of Yoga is the attainment of Samadhi. Samadhi
means "to bring together, to merge." In the state of samadhi the body and senses are at rest, as
if asleep, yet the faculty of mind and reason are alert, as if awake; one goes beyond
consciousness. During samadhi, we realize what it is to be an identity without differences,
and how a liberated soul can enjoy pure awareness of this pure identity. The conscious mind
drops back into that unconscious oblivion from which it first emerged.
Thus, samadhi refers to union or true Yoga. There is an ending to the separation that is
created by the "I" and "mine" of our illusory perceptions of reality. The mind does not
distinguish between self and non-self, or between the object contemplated and the process of
contemplation. The mind and the intellect have stopped and there is only the experience of
consciousness, truth and unutterable joy.
The achievement of samadhi is a difficult task. For this reason the Yoga Sutra suggests
the practice of asanas and pranayama as preparation for dharana, because these influence
mental activities and create space in the crowded schedule of the mind. Once dharana has
occurred, dhyana and samadhi can follow.
These eight steps of yoga indicate a logical pathway that leads to the attainment of
physical, ethical, emotional, and psycho-spiritual health. Yoga does not seek to change the
individual; rather, it allows the natural state of total health and integration in each of us to
become a reality.
Physical, Mental, & Spiritual Benefits of Yoga
Yoga normalizes and regulates electrical and chemical impulses within the brain, heart
rhythm, blood pressure, as well as the skin's capacity for resistance besides many other
internal functions of the body.
On the psychological level, Yoga helps curtail anxiety, depression, irritability and moodiness.
The continued practice of Yoga is known to enhance one's comprehensive ability, memory,
heal old traumas, improve emotional stability and render joy and happiness to the
practitioner. All said and done, the practice of Yoga leads to overall vitality and rejuvenation.

This, in fact, is just the tip of the iceberg; most of the abovementioned benefits are secondary
to the original intents. Primarily, Yoga helps melt down the ego and, subsequently, the
practitioner attains union one's Individual consciousness and the cosmic consciousness.
The ancient Yogis (seers and sages) viewed the gross, physical body as a vehicle, the mind as
its driver and only the soul as the True Self. Here, action, emotion and intelligence are
considered the three forces that draw the vehicle.
These seers and sages put together exclusive teachings and techniques to unite the body,
mind and soul into one harmonious whole through the balance of action, emotion and
Branches of Yoga
Bhakti Yoga, Hatha Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Karma Yoga, Raja Yoga and Tantra Yoga are all
regarded as main paths of Yoga. Then again there are many others. All the different Yoga
schools of thought, techniques and practices are just ways of reaching the same goal.
Some of the benefits of Yoga:

Enhances muscle tone, flexibility, strength and stamina

Reduces fat, Improves circulation, Stimulates the immune system
Keeps one younger biologically, i.e. younger than one's chronological age
Reduces levels of chemicals connected to stress eg. Cortisol and lactate
Lowers blood pressure and cholesterol levels
Increases flow of air to the lungs, thereby resulting in better, fuller breathing,
particularly useful to asthma patients


Relax you and helps handle stress situations more easily

Stimulates positive thoughts and self-acceptance
Increases one's sense of self esteem
Perks up one's powers of concentration and creativity
Helps heal old traumas
Boosts emotional stability
Develops a sense of well being and calm


Develops comprehensive awareness

Furthers inter-dependence between body, mind, and soul
Encourages one live in the concept of "oneness."
Helps the practitioner discover one's True Self
Sets you free from the illusions and preconceptions that prevents you from leading a
fulfilled life
Helps attain union between Individual Consciousness and the cosmic consciousness

Yogic components that improve memory

Asanas: The inverted postures nourish the brain with increased blood supply and supply of
oxygen to the cells that help in developing memory:
Pranayama: Deep breathing exercises that help in the increased flow of prana and oxygen to
the body parts and the brain, enhancing memory power
Meditation: Helps to clear the mind of unwanted thoughts and reduces excessive thinking. It
is said that excessive thinking saps the mental energy of a person. Daily meditation helps to
keep the mind calm and free of tension. Meditation on the third eye or on the point between
the eyebrows helps to activate the brain and develop memory power.

Om chanting: The vibration of Om recharges the cells and organs of the body with
energy. It is said that 30 minutes of Om chanting helps to rejuvenate our consciousness and
improve memory power.
Surya Bhedan (Right Nostril Breathing or Revitalizing Breath)
Right nostril is Pingala Nadi, which represents physical energy and body. The breath through
right nostril is important for many important metabolic processes.The purpose of the Right
nostril breathing is to increase the Pranic energy , the physical energy, to revitalize the body.
It increases the efficiency of digestive system, also boosts the nervous system, especially the
sympathetic nervous system.
Following are the benefits of Right Nostril Breathing

It increases the body temperature, which removes the Kafa (mucus) imbalance. This is
very effective in obesity. Regular practice of Right nostril breath is used for weight loss.
Prana increases in the body, increasing the vitality.
Very effective for depression, low energy.
Very effective for stress management.
Helps reducing the anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses.
Balancing Ida and Pingala removes all the blockages in the pranic energy channels, which
may lead to spiritual awakenings.
It gives all the benefits of Deep breathing as well.

Practice - Note (Practice of Right Nostril breathing should be done with a Yoga Expert


Beginners can start with deep breathing practice in sitting position (Padmasana - Lotus,
Swastikasana- Auspicious, Vajrasana - Thunderbolt, Any Cross legged position in which
the body can be relaxed and spine is erect.)
Pranav Mudra of right hand, will help close the left nostril while inhaling through right


Initially 4 seconds inhale through right and exhale for 6 seconds through right nostril or
left nostril, this can be practiced for about 5 minutes.
With practice one can increase the counts to 4:8, or 5:10 or 6:12 seconds

Chandra Bheda Pranayama

Chandra is the moon. Bhedana means passing through. In Chandra Bhedana Pranayama
inhalation is done through the left nostril and exhale through the right.
It is said that energy passes through Ida (Chandra) Nadi on the inhalation and through Pingala
or Surya Nadi on the exhalation. These are larger nadis that hold the balance of magnetism
and energy created by the sun and moon. They travel from the base of the spine to the point
between the eyebrows.

Find a comfortable seated position. Gently exhale all of the air from the lungs.
Stage 1 - Breathe in though the left nostril and out through the right. Allow the
exhalation to be longer than the inhalation.
Stage 2 - Breathe in though the left nostril. (Puraka). Hold after inhalation. The first
few times hold for a few seconds. Gradually increase the duration of the time after
inhalation. (Antara Kumbhaka). Exhale out through the right nostril. Allow the
exhalation to be longer than the inhalation.
Stage 3 - Breathe in though the left nostril. (Puraka). Exhale out through the right
nostril. (Rechaka). Hold after exhalation for a few seconds. Gradually increase this
time reflecting upon how the breath and nervous system responds. (bahya
Stage 4 - Breathe in though the left nostril. (Puraka). Hold after inhalation. (Antara
Kumbhaka). Exhale out through the right nostril. (Rechaka). Hold after exhalation
for a few seconds. (bahya Kumbhaka)
Stage 5 - Breathe in though the left nostril. (Puraka). Hold after inhalation. (Antara
Kumbhaka). Exhale out through the right nostril partially blocked so that it
lengthens. (Rechaka). Hold after exhalation for a few seconds. (bahya Kumbhaka).
This can be practiced without the retention Kumbhaka or it can be slowly introduced
in a safe progressive way.
Stage 6 - Breathe in though the partially blocked left nostril. (Puraka). Hold after
inhalation. (Antara Kumbhaka). Exhale out through the right nostril partially
blocked. (Rechaka). Hold after exhalation for a few seconds. (bahya Kumbhaka).
This can be practiced without the retention Kumbhaka or it can be slowly introduced
in a safe progressive way.


Chandra Bhedana Pranayama should not be done in winter.

Chandra Bhedana Pranayama should be done only in summer.
Do not practice Chandra Bhedana Pranayama on the same day as Surya Bhedana.
You should seek guidance of a Yoga teacher before practicing Chandra Bhedana
Pranayama if you are introverted in nature, seriously mentally disturbed; have
sluggish digestion or excess mucus.

Benefits of Chandra Bhedana Pranayama:

With the practice of Chandra Bhedana Pranayama the mind becomes steady.
Chandra Bhedana Pranayama is beneficial in conditions like mental tension,
agitation, high blood pressure, heart disease etc.
Chandra Bhedana Pranayama is also useful for meditation.
The practice of Chandra Bhedana Pranayama reduces the flow of bile and as such
the body heat is reduced.
Chandra Bhedana Pranayama helps cure heart burn and laziness.

Anulom Vilom Pranayama Breathing Exercise

It is very effective to purify mind and body. Anulom Vilom pranayama is one of the excellent
breathing exercises which is also know as Nadi Shodhana. Regular practice offers energy in
the body and releases stress and anxiety. It should be practiced in the morning in the fresh air
with empty stomach.
Steps for Anulom Vilom Pranayama
It is very simple asana every one can do this of any age.
1. Sit comfortably on flat ground. Those who cant sit, can sit on chair because this is
related to the breath.
2. Now close right nostril with right thumb and breathe from left nostril. Then close left
nostril with middle and ring finger and breathe out from right nostril.
3. Now breathe in deeply with right nostril and then close right nostril and breathe out
deeply with left nostril. Do the repetition.
4. Do this for 5-10 minutes.
5. Keep in mind that your breathing should be up to the lungs and not in the stomach.
Benefits of Pranayama Anulom Vilom

It improves blood circulation.

It calms your mind.
Keep away the heart related problems
Provide relaxation to body and mind.
Regular practice of anulom vilom breathing exercise cleanses, strengthens and tones
your nervous system.
6. It improves your concentration.
7. Excellent for glowing skin.
8. Helps to improve function of your lungs.
9. Helps to prevent diabetes and keeps diabetes under control.
10. Remove blockage of arteries.
11. Relive stress depression and hypertension.
12. Cure Asthma, headache, migraine, Neurological problems, Heart blockage,
depression, gastric problems.

1. Practice under expert guidance. Pregnant women should practice Anulom Vilom but
over straining should be avoided.
2. Anulom vilom pranayama should be practiced on an empty stomach.
3. It should be done in the morning or evening or both. If you dont have time in the
morning or evening, you can do it at your convenience.
4. Make sure that you practice anulom vilom pranayama 4-5 hours after having your food.
Breathing Exercise Bhastrika Pranayama
Sanskrit word Bhastrika means bellows. This breathing exercise resembles the blowing of
bellows. Bhastrika is the excellent breathing exercise which we can practice slowly or fast as
per our convenience. A person who is suffering from Heart problem and Lung problems
should practice slowly other wise slowly increase the speed of breathing.
Bhastrika Pranayama should practice normally 3-5 minutes twice a day in the fresh air. In this
pranayama body gets the maximum amount of oxygen due to complete inhaling and exhaling
Steps for Bhastrika Pranayama
1. Sit comfortably on flat ground. Those who cant sit on ground can sit on chair because
this pranayama is related to the breath.
2. Take a deep breath through both nostrils and fill the lungs with air and then exhale
with hissing sound.
3. Inhale deeply and exhale completely.
4. Do this for 2 min to 5 minutes max and see the result in a few days.
Benefits of Bhastrika Pranayama
1. It improves blood circulation.
2. Keep away the heart related problems.
3. Provide relaxation to body and mind.
4. Improves your concentration.
5. Helps to stronger the lungs.
6. Relive stress depression and hypertension.
7. Cures obesity and arthritis.
8. Calms the mind.
9. Cures throat infection.
10. Increases appetite.
11. Cure asthma, headache, migraine, neurological problems, depression, gastric
We can do this pranayama by slowly, medium and fast way. Those suffering from lungs and
heart problems and high blood pressure can perform slowly. Practice under expert guidance.

Breathing Exercise Bhramari Pranayama (Humming Bee Breath)

Bhramari pranayama is the excellent breathing exercise which plays an important role in
releasing agitation, frustration and anger. It is the best breathing exercise in calming your
mind. Bhramari is the type of Indian bee and pranayama means breathing. So it is
called as Bhramari Pranayama. In this type of pranayama when we exhale making a
humming sound. It resembles the typical humming sound of bees. So you can understand
why this breathing exercise is called as Bhramari Pranayama. Lets see steps and benefits of
pranayama as follows.
Steps for Bhramari Pranayama (Humming Bee Breath)
1. Sit straight in the Padmasana or Sukhasana and press your tragus with your thumb.
2. Place your index fingers on the forehead and with the remaining fingers close your
3. Start inhaling through both the nostril deeply and slowly.
4. By keeping mouth close, exhale by making a humming sound bee like hmmmm.
While making humming sound say Om in soft humming sound.
5. Feel your body releases impurity from your body and experiencing positive energy.
Practice daily for 3 to 5 minutes.
Benefits of Bhramari Pranayama (Humming Bee Breath)

It relieve tension, anger and anxiety.

Effective against hypertension.
Cures sinus problem.
Bhramari Pranayama control the high blood pressure and cure it.
Helps to stay calm and bring stability in mind.
Cures the problems related to nervous system.
During pregnancy it is very helpful for pregnant women for easy and trouble free


It should be practice under expert guidance.

People having heart disease should not hold their breath for long time.
Pranayama should be done on empty stomach.
If you feel dizzy while practicing, stop the exercise and start normal breathing.
Consult a doctor if you are suffering from any ear problem or and medical ailments
before doing Bhramari Pranayama.
6. Should maintain gap of 5 hours between your meal or lunch.
7. Better to practice in the morning in fresh air.

How to Perform Ujjayi Breath

Seal your lips and start to breath in and out through your nose.
Take an inhalation through your nose that is slightly deeper than normal. Exhale
slowly through your nose while constricting the muscles in the back of your throat.

Benefits of Ujjayi Breathing

Ujjayi has a balancing influence on the entire cardio respiratory system, releases feelings of
irritation and frustration, and helps calm the mind and body. With Ujjayi, there are so many
benefits, providing good value for a simple practice. Here are a few benefits you may enjoy
as a result of practicing the Ujjayi breath:

Increases the amount of oxygen in the blood

Builds internal body heat
Relieves tension
Encourages free flow of prana
Regulates blood pressure
Helps yoga practitioner to maintain a rhythm while they practice
Builds energy
Detoxifies mind and body
Increases feelings of presence, self-awareness, and meditative qualities

Sheetali or (Cooling Breath)

The word "sheetali" means cooling in Sanskrit, it is taken from the original word "Sheetal"
which is soothing or cold. The practice of sheetali breathing calms the mind, reduces the
stress or fight - flight response. It cools the body and mind, The blood pressure is also
lowered. This pranayama is very effective in hyperacidity or even ulcers.
The purpose of the Sheetali breathing is to reduce the body temperature, this may have
positive effect on the endocrine glands and nervous system. In ancient text of Hatha Yoga
Pradipika, Swami Swatmaram says that person becomes young and attractive by practicing
this pranayama. Also he says that this pranayama removes excess heat accumulated in the
system, reduces the excess biles, corrects the disorders of spleen, works on fever. This
pranayama gives control over hunger and thirst. It has a calming effect on entire nervous
system, especially it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, which induces muscular
relaxation and is very effective in stress management. If you are stressed then 10 minutes of
Sheetali breath can calm you. So this pranayama is very effective for relaxation of body and
mind.In this pranayama the tongue is rolled in a specific manner as shown in figure. But
many people can not roll their tongue in this fashion. For these people alternate Sitkari
Pranayama gives very similar effects.

Practice - Note (Practice of Sheetali breathing should be done with a Yoga Expert Only)


Beginners can start with deep breathing practice in sitting position (Padmasana - Lotus,
Swastikasana- Auspicious, Vajrasana - Thunderbolt, Any Cross legged position in which
the body can be relaxed and spine is erect.
Then start inhaling through mouth by rolling the tongue, make sure that the air passing in
is cooled via tongue.
Initially 4 seconds inhale through mouth while rolling the tongue and exhale for 6
seconds through both nostrils, this can be practiced for about 5 minutes.
With practice one can increase the counts to 4:8, or 5:10 or 6:12 seconds


If you have Low Blood pressure then this pranayama can bring it further down. So you
must be careful.
You may feel little cold or tingling sensation in the throat due to cold air but this is
Under No circumstances the proportion of the breathing should be forced.
If you feel dizzy then please stop the practice and continue normal breathing.

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Sheetkari Pranayama The Hissing Breath

Sheetkari Pranayama or the Hissing Breath is ususally done after practicing other asanas and
pranayamas. Sheetkari Pranayama cools the body. Sheetkari pranayama is mentioned in the
yoga text Hatha Yoga Pradeepika.
Sheetkari is very similar to Sheetali Pranayama. In Sheetkari, the tongue is not rolled into a
tube; instead, it is rolled up to touch the upper palate. The teeth are then clenched and the lips
are kept apart. Those who find it difficult to do Sheetali Pranayama can easily practice
Sheetkari and get similar benefits.
Do not do Sheetkari pranayama if you are suffering from a cold. But if you are in a hot
environment, it is ideal for cooling the body.
How to do Sheetkari Pranayama (The Hissing Breath)?
1. Sit in a comfortable asana with palms on the knees.
2. Roll the tongue upwards so that the lower part of the tongue touches the upper
3. Clench the teeth together. Pull the lips apart so that the teeth are exposed.

4. Breathe in slowly. First fill the abdomen, then the chest and finally the neck
region. This is the complete yogic breath. When breathing in, a slight hissing
sound is produced. This is similar to the hissing of a snake.
5. Bend the neck forward to do the chin lock, also called the Jalandhara Bandha
6. Hold the breath for some time, as much as you are comfortable
7. Release Jalandhara Bandha and exhale slowly through the nose.
8. This is one round of Sheetkari Pranayama. One can do as many rounds as you
may feel comfortable.
Benefits of Sheetkari Pranayama (the Hissing Breath)
1. The action of pulling the air through the teeth creates a cooling effect on the body.
2. Sheetkari relaxes the body and the mind.
3. According to Hatha Yoga Pradeepika, Sheetkari removes hunger, thirst, sleep and
4. Sheetkari is good for health of teeth and the gums.
1. Sit on a flat surface on the ground with your spine erect and your legs stretched out.
2. Gently bend the right knee, and use your hands to place it on your left thigh. Your
soles must point upward, and the heels must be close to your abdomen.
3. Do the same with the other leg.
4. Now that both your legs are crossed, and your feet are comfortably placed on the
opposite thighs, model your hands into a mudra of your choice and place it in
position. Typically, the hands are placed on the knees.
5. Remember that your head must be straight and the spine erect at all times.
6. Breathe long and deep. Hold the position for a few minutes. Release.
7. Repeat the pose with the other leg on top.
The Sanskrit word siddha (pronounced sidd-hah) means both perfect and adept. In Yoga,
an adept isnt just a skillful practitioner, but an accomplished master who has worked to
attain inner freedom.
Many Yoga masters in bygone eras preferred this posture and used it often in place of the
lotus posture.The siddhasana improves the flexibility of your hips, knees, and ankles, and
strengthens the back. It differs from svastikasana, in that you tuck your feet into your thighs
between the thighs and calves on both sides. The posture is considered the perfect meditation
posture for anyone practicing celibacy. Siddhasana is also beneficial for men with various
prostate problems.
Heres how you do it:

1. Sitting on the floor with your legs straight out in front of you, place your hands at
your sides (close to your hips), with your palms down and fingers forward.
Shake your legs out in front of you a few times.
2. Bend your left knee, and bring your left heel into your groin near the perineum (the
area between the anus and the genitals).
Stabilize your left ankle with your left hand.
3. Bend your right knee and slide your right heel toward the front of your left ankle.
4. Lift your right foot, position your right ankle just above your left ankle, and bring
your right heel into the genital area.
5. Tuck the little-toe side of your right foot between your left thigh and your calf.
6. Place your hands, palms down, on the same-side knee, with your arms relaxed.
7. Straighten and extend your back and neck, bringing your head up nice and tall; look
straight ahead.
Kneel on the floor and sit back on your heels; position each heel under the buttocks on the
same side, and rest your hands on the tops of your knees, with your elbows bent and your
palms down.
Lengthen your spine by stretching your back in an upward motion, balance your head over
your torso, and look straight ahead.
1. Lie flat on your stomach. Place your hands on the side and ensure that your toes touch
each other.
2. Then, move your hands to the front, making sure they are at the shoulder level, and
place your palms on the floor.
3. Now, placing your bodys weight on your palms, inhale and raise your head and
trunk. Note that your arms should be bent at your elbows at this stage.
4. You need to arch your neck backward in an attempt to replicate the cobra with the
raised hood. But make sure your shoulder blades are firm, and your shoulders are
away from your ears.
5. Press your hips, thighs, and feet to the floor.
6. Hold the asana for about 15 to 30 seconds while breathing normally. Feel your
stomach pressed against the floor. With practice, you should be able to hold the asana
for up to two minutes.

7. To release the pose, slowly bring your hands back to the sides. Rest your head on the
ground by bringing your forehead in contact with the floor. Place your hands under
your head. Then, slowly rest your head on one side and breathe.
1. Lie flat on your back, with your arms placed beside your body and your palms facing
2. Inhale, and lift your feet off the ground using your abdominal muscles. Your legs
should be at a 90-degree angle.
3. Use your hands to support your hips and lift them off the floor.
4. Bring your feet in an 180-degree angle, such that your toes are placed over and
beyond your head.
5. Make sure your back is perpendicular to the ground.
6. Hold the position for a minute while focusing on your breathing. Exhale, and gently
bring down your legs. Avoid jerking your legs while releasing the pose.
Shalabhasana or the Full-Locust Pose
1. The full locust pose is similar to half Locust Pose, except that you should lift both the
legs together in the step 3 in the above section.
2. Maintain the position for few seconds to maximum half a minute, without straining.
3. Bring down both legs back to the starting position.
4. After the asana, one can rest by putting the arms below the head like a pillow and resting
the head on one side. Breathe normally and deeply in the resting position.
Naukasana (Boat-Pose)

Lie flat on your back on the yoga mat with your arms by your side.
Relax in this position for some time and keep breathing normally.
Now inhale slowly and lift your both legs as per shown in the above image.
Keep legs straight and should not be bent.
Raise your upper body to touch your legs with both hands.
Try to maintain the angle of 45 degrees.
Hold your breath and the posture for 10-15 seconds. You can increase the time of
holding posture by practicing regularly.
8. Now exhale slowly and get back to your starting position.
Yoga Mudrasana

1. Sit in Padmasana, the lotus pose. You may use a little padding or cushion under the
buttocks if needed to make it more comfortable.
2. Close your eyes and breathe normally.

3. Bring the hands behind the back and hold the left wrist with the right hand. (There is
another variation for more advanced practitioners. In this variation, the hands are
crossed over behind the back. The right hand grabs the right foot and the left hand
grabs the left foot.)
4. Slowly bend forward and try to touch the floor in front of you with the forehead or the
nose. Breathe out while bending forward. If you cannot touch the floor, go as far as it
is comfortable without any strain.
5. In the final position, relax the whole body, especially the shoulders and the back.
6. In the position, you may breathe deeply and slowly. Try to maintain the position for
few minutes.
7. Slowly return to the starting position. Inhale while returning to the staring pose.
8. If you are not able to maintain the final position for long, then one may do the process
few times.