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Part 1

The theory of probability has been applied in various fields such as market research, medical research,
transportation, business, management and so on.
(a) Conduct research on the history of probability and give at least two examples on how the theory of
probability is being applied in real life situations. Then, write an Introduction to this Project Work
based on your findings. You may include the historical aspects, examples of the probability theory
applications and its importance to real life situations.
(b) The probability theory can be divided into two categories: Theoretical Probabilities and Empirical
Probabilities. Find out, discuss and write about the difference between the Theoretical and Empirical
Probabilities.

Part 2
(a) Suppose you are playing the Monopoly game with two of your friends. To start the game, each
player will have to toss the die once. The player who obtains the highest number will start the game.
List all the possible outcomes when the die is tossed once.
(b) Instead of one die, two dice can also be tossed simultaneously by each player. The player will move
the token according to the sum of all dots on both turned-up faces. For example, if the two dice are
tossed simultaneously and "2" appears on one die and "3" appears on the other, the outcome of the toss
is (2, 3). Hence, the player shall move the token 5 spaces. Note: The events (2, 3) and (3, 2) should be
treated as two different events.
List all the possible outcomes when two dice are tossed simultaneously. Organize and present your list
clearly. Consider the use of table, chart or even tree diagram.

Part 3
Table 1 shows the sum of all dots on both turned-up faces when two dice are tossed simultaneously.
(a) Complete Table 1 by listing all possible outcomes and their corresponding probabilities.
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(b) Based on Table 1 that you have completed, list all the possible outcomes of the following events
and hence find their corresponding probabilities:
A = {The two numbers are not the same)
B = {The product of the two numbers is greater than 36}
C = {Both numbers are prime or the difference between two numbers is odd) I) = {The sum of the two
numbers are even and both numbers are prime)

Part 4
(a) Conduct an activity by tossing two dice simultaneously 50 times. Observe the sum of all dots on
both turned-up faces. Complete the frequency table below.
table-7.gif (9.62 KiB) Viewed 2025 times

Based on Table 2 that you have completed, determine the value of:
(i) mean;
(ii) variance; and
(iii) standard deviation
of the data.
(b) Predict the value of the mean if the number of tosses is increased to 100 times.
(c) Test your prediction in (b) by continuing Activity 3(a) until the total number of tosses is 100 times.
Then, determine the value of:
(i) mean;
(ii) variance; and
(iii) standard deviation
of the nibw data.
Was your prediction proven?

Part 5
When two dice are tossed simultaneously, the actual mean and variance of the sum of all dots on the
turned-up faces can be determined by using the formulae below:

Pic-8.gif (2.29 KiB) Viewed 2026 times


(a) Based on Table 1, determine the actual mean, the variance and the standard deviation of the sum of
all dots on the turned-up faces by using the formulae given.

(b) Compare the mean, variance and standard deviation obtained in Part 4 and Part 5. What can you say
about the values? Explain in your own words your interpretation and your understanding of the values
that you have obtained and relate your answers to the Theoretical and Empirical Probabilities.
(c) If n is the number of times two dice are tossed simultaneously, what is the range of mean of the sum
of all dots on the turned-up faces as n changes? Make your conjecture and support your conjecture.

FURTHER EXPLORATION
In probability theory, the "Law of Large Numbers (LLN)" is a theorem that describes the result of
performing the same experiment a large number of times. Conduct a research using the internet to find
out the theory of LLN. When you have finished with your research, discuss and write about your
findings. Relate the experiment that you have done in this project to the LLN.

REFLECTION
While you were conducting the project, what have you learnt? What moral values did you practise?
Represent your opinions or feelings creatively through usage of symbols, illustrations, drawings or
even in a song.