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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

363 P. Casal St., Quiapo, Manila


College of Engineering and Architecture

ECE 006
FEEDBACK AND CONTROL SYSTEMS

PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM


AND
PROCESS NARRATIVE

Submitted by:
ACLAN, Rose Ann C.
BALDO, Jerlyn Mae B.
CABUDOL, Christian John F.
CANTA, Alain John C.
PECOLERA, Paola Luz S.

Submitted to:
Engr. Michael Allan G. Ramos

PRODUCTION OF ANILINE FROM HYDROGENATION OF NITROBENZENE


1. Process Overview
1.1 Purpose
The plant is to be designed to make 20,000 metric tons per year of refined aniline by the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene with
at least 99.9% purity. The total of on-stream operation time plus regeneration periods will be 7500 hours per year.
1.2 Process chronology by functional sub-system process units
Sub System Unit #

Sub System Process

Process Area

Feedstock Vaporization

100

Catalytic Reaction containing


copper on silica gel catalyst

200

Aniline Water condensation

300

Crude Aniline Separation

400

Crude aniline distillation unit 1

500

Crude aniline distillation unit 2

600

Amine Water Stripper

700

1.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE SUB-SYSTEM PROCESS UNITS


Sub System Process Unit

Description and its interaction with utilities

Feedstock Vaporization

Nitrobenzene (V-101) is fed to a vaporizer


(E-101), where it is vaporized in a stream of
hydrogen (three times stoichiometric) (V-102).

Catalytic Reaction containing copper on silica The mixture is passed into a fluidized bed
gel catalyst
reactor (R-201) containing copper on silica gel
catalyst, operated at a pressure, above the bed,
of 20 psig (140 kN/m2 ).
Aniline Water condensation

The reactor gases pass through a


condenser/cooler (HE-301), and the aniline and
water are condensed.

Crude Aniline Separation

The crude aniline and water are let down to


atmospheric pressure and separated in a liquid/
liquid separator (PS-401), and the crude aniline
containing 0.4% unreacted nitrobenzene and

0.1% cyclo-hexylamine as well as water is


distilled to give refined aniline.
Crude aniline distillation unit 1

The Crude Aniline is distilled in a first distillation


column (T-501) where in water and low boiling
material are removed.

Crude aniline distillation unit 2

The second distillation column (T-601) removing


the higher boiling material (nitrobenzene) as a
mixture with aniline.

Amine Water Stripper

The aqueous streams from the separators


(amine-water) are combined and steam stripped
(T-701) to recover the aniline, the stripped
water, containing not more than 30 ppm aniline
or 20 ppm cyclo-hexylamine, being discharged
to drain.

2. PROCESS FUNCTIONAL UNIT DESCRIPTIONS


PROCESS AREA 100
C- 101
Compressor

E-101
Vaporizer
FIC

TIC

101

101

FT
1 01

3
TT
1 01

CV 102

CV 101

C- 101
V- 102

To f luidized bed reactor

E - 101

V-101

1
GV 101

HV 101

GV 102

HV 102

P 101

P 102

Figure 1: Piping and Instrumentation Design for Vaporizer

EQUIPMENT TAG

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

EQUIPMENT TYPE

E - 101

Nitrobenzene Vaporizer

Vaporizer
C- 101
Compressor

E-101
Vaporizer
FIC

TIC

101

101

FT
1 01

3
TT
101

CV 102

CV 101

C- 101
V- 102

To f luidized bed reactor

E - 101

V-101

1
GV 101

HV 101

GV 102

HV 102

P 101

P 102

The E-101 is used to vaporized the liquid nitrobenzene and hydrogen gas with a stoichiometric ratio of
3:1.

STREAM 2 CONTROL
The liquid nitrobenzene from V-101 is pumped through P-101 to E-101. Stream 1 is vaporized with
Stream 2. If unexpected malfunction of P-101 arises, P-102 will be used to avoid interruption of the
operation. The temperature in stream 3 is detected by a built-in sensor and then transmitted to TIC-101
and it is then computed with the flowrate transmitted by FT-101 to FC-101. The computed value will be
pneumatically connected to CV-101 in order to adjust the flowrate of the entering
gas at E-101,
thus maintaining the temperature of the mixture.
STREAM 3

The vaporized mixture will be fed to R-201 using C-101.

PROCESS AREA 200

R-201

C-201

Fluidized Bed Catalytic


Reactor

Compressor

PIC
201
RV 201
PT
201

Cooling Water In

CV- 201

V 202

C- 201
TAL

TAH

201

201
TIC
201

4
TT

201
Vaporized Nitrobenzene and Hydrogen gas

3
Cooling Water Out

V 201

R- 201

Figure 2: Piping and Instrumentation Design for Fluidized Bed Reactor

EQUIPMENT TAG

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

EQUIPMENT TYPE

R 201

Fluidized Bed Catalytic Reactor

Fluidized Bed Reactor

R-201

C-201

Fluidized Bed Catalytic


Reactor

Compressor

PIC
201
RV 201
PT
201

Cooling Water In

CV- 201

V 202

C- 201
TAL

TAH

201

201
TIC
201

4
TT

201
Vaporized Nitrobenzene and Hydrogen gas

3
Cooling Water Out

V 201

R- 201

The R-201 is used to obtain crude aniline from hydrogenation of the vaporized mixture of
nitrobenzene and
gas. The SiO2 is used as a catalyst to increase the rate of reaction.

STREAM 3 CONTROL
The compressed vaporized mixture enters R-201 together with cooling water to remove excess heat
of reaction. The reactor has a maintaining pressure and temperature of 20 psi g (140kPa) and 270C,
respectively. The pressure from R-201 is transmitted by PT-201 to PIC-201. RV-201 is used to control
the pressure of R-201.

STREAM 4 CONTROL
The flow rate of the cooling water that is entering the R-201 is controlled by CV-201. The control
needed is identified through the temperature transmitted by TT-201, which alarms using TAL-201 and
TAH-201, to TIC-201 to maintain the required temperature in R-201.
The crude aniline that is in vapor phase and by-products will be fed to compressor at stream 5 and the
excess hydrogen is recycled.

PROCESS AREA 300

HE 301
CONDENSER

C-301
COMPRESSOR

Cooling Water Out


CV 301

PIC

PT
301

301

Reactor Product Gas


V 301

TIC

301

HE - 301

TT
301

6
Cooling Water In

CV 302
V 302

To Phase Separator

Impurities

C - 301

GV 301

HV 301

GV 302

HV 302

P 301

P 302

Figure 3: Piping and Instrumentation Design for Condenser

EQUIPMENT TAG

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

EQUIPMENT TYPE

HE-301

Condenser

Heat Exchanger

HE 301
CONDENSER

C-301
COMPRESSOR

Cooling Water Out


CV 301

PIC

PT
301

301

Reactor Product G as
V 301

TIC

301

HE - 301

TT
301

6
Cooling Water In

CV 302
V 302

To Phase Separator

Impurities

C - 301

GV 301

HV 301

GV 302

HV 302

P 301

P 302

The HE-301 is used to liquefy the crude aniline produced in R-201.

STREAM 5 CONTROL
The entering pressure of the crude aniline is transmitted by P-301 to PIC-301to be controlled by CV-302
located at the outflow of condenser.

STREAM 8 CONTROL
The temperature of the condensed crude aniline is transmitted by TT-301 to TIC-301. This will be controlled

to CV-301 that is placed at the outlet of cooling water at stream 6. The condensate is pumped by the motor
P 301 to phase separator and if unexpected malfunction occur, P 302 will function to avoid delay of
operation.

PROCESS AREA 400

V-401

PS 401
Phase Separator

AQEOUS SOLUTION
VESSEL

V-401

9
LV 401

LC
401

Distillation Column 1
PS - 401

GV 402

HV 401

GV 403

HV 402

Condens ate Products


GV 401

P 401

P 402

Figure 4: Piping and Instrumentation Design for Phase Separator

EQUIPMENT TAG

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

EQUIPMENT TYPE

T-501

Phase Separator

Separator

V-401

PS 401
Phase Separator

AQEOUS SOLUTION
VESSEL

V-401

9
LV 401

LC
401

Distillation Column 1
PS - 401

GV 402

HV 401

GV 403

HV 402

Condensate Products
GV 401

P 401

P 402

The PS-401 separates the crude aniline from the by-products. Most by-products are delivered at the V-401
and the crude aniline and portions of by-products are pumped by motor P-401 to Distillation Column 1 and
if unexpected malfunction occur, P 402 will function to avoid delay of operation.

STREAM 8 CONTROL
The level is controlled at PS-401 through LC-401 by LV-401 located at the stream 9.

PROCESS AREA 500

T 501
Distillation Column

E 501
Reboiler

HE 501
Condenser

V -502
Waste Tank

V 501

HE 501

V 501

11

FT
50
2

15

V 502

14

FC

502

10

Condensate Products

CV 502

16
FC
501

Distillation Column 2
GV 502

HV 501

GV 503

HV 502

P 501
V 502

T 501

FT50
1

12

13

STEAM IN

P 502

CV 501

E 501
STEAM OUT

Figure 5: Piping and Instrumentation Design for Distillation Column 1

EQUIPMENT TAG

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

EQUIPMENT TYPE

T-501

Distillation Column 1

Distillation Column

T 501
Distillation Column

E 501
Reboiler

HE 501
Condenser

V -502
Waste Tank

V 501

HE 501

V 501

11

FT
50
2

15

V 502

14

FC

502

10

Condens ate Products

CV 502

16
FC
501

Distillation Column 2
GV 502

HV 501

GV 503

HV 502

P 501
V 502

T 501

FT50
1

12

13

STEAM IN

P 502

CV 501

E 501
STEAM OUT

The T-501 separates 4 components such as water, cyclohexylamine, nitrobenzene and crude aniline. The
high volatile components such as water and cyclohexylamine will enter the condenser at stream 11. It is
then fed at the V-501 which separates organic phase and aqueous phase. A purge is taken from the
organic stream to remove the cyclohexylamine and the remainder is recycled at stream 14. The low
volatile components such as nitrobenzene and crude aniline enters reboiler at stream 13 and enters
back at T 501.

STREAM 10 CONTROL
The inlet flowrate of the feed from T-501 is transmitted by FT-502 to FC-502 and is controlled using
CV-502.

STREAM 12 CONTROL

The inlet flowrate of the steam is transmitted by FT-501 to FC-501 and is controlled using CV-501.

PROCESS AREA 600


E 601
Reboiler

T 601
Distillation Column

HE 601
Condenser

V -602
Bottoms
Storage Tank

V -601
Reflux Drum

V 601

21

HE 601

V601

17

FT
602

22

FC

602

23

16

Condensate Products

Bypass to Pure Aniline Tank

CV 602

Stripper

20

FC
601
V 602

HV 601

GV 603

HV 602

P 601

T 601

FT601

GV 602

19

18
STEAM IN
CV 601

E 601

P 602
STEAM OUT

V602

Figure 6: Piping and Instrumentation Design for Distillation Column 2

EQUIPMENT TAG

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

EQUIPMENT TYPE

T-601

Distillation Column 2

Distillation Column

E 601
Reboiler

T 601
Distillation Column

HE 601
Condenser

V -602
Bottoms
Storage Tank

V -601
Reflux Drum

V 601

21

HE 601

V601

17

FT
602

22

FC

602

23

16

Condens ate Products

Bypass to Pure Aniline Tank

CV 602

Stripper

20

FC
601
V 602

HV 601

GV 603

HV 602

P 601

T 601

FT601

GV 602

19

18
STEAM IN
CV 601

E 601

P 602
STEAM OUT

V602

The T-601 separates 2 components such as nitrobenzene and crude aniline. The high volatile component
such as crude aniline will enter the condenser at stream 17. It is then fed at the V-601 wherein a high
purity of aniline may be assumed and can be bypassed to the pure aniline tank and some are recycled to
T-601 at stream 20. A percentage of the feed which contains 87.5% pure aniline entering T-601
deposited at the bottom is stored at V-602. The low volatile component such as nitrobenzene enters
reboiler at stream 13 and enters back at T 501.

STREAM 16 CONTROL
The inlet flowrate of the feed from T-601 is transmitted by FT-602 to FC-602 and is controlled using
CV-602.

STREAM 18 CONTROL
The inlet flowrate of the steam is transmitted by FT-601 to FC-601 and is controlled using CV-601.

PROCESS AREA 700


T 701
Aniline Water
Stripper

V -701
Pure Aniline
Storage

HE 701
Condenser

V -702
Reflux Drum

V -703
Waste Tank

V 703

27
CV
702

26

HE7
01

25

V 702
Steam In

PC
702
PC

29

24
Steam out
Aniline and water from
Distillation 2

23

CV
701

LC
701

T-701

28

GV 602

HV 601

GV 603

HV 602

P 702

P 702

Figure 6: Piping and Instrumentation Design for Aniline-Water Stripper

V 701

EQUIPMENT TAG

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

EQUIPMENT TYPE

T-701

Aniline-water Stripper

Stripper Column

T 701
Aniline Water
Stripper

V -701
Pure Aniline
Storage

HE 701
Condenser

V -702
Reflux Drum

V -703
Waste Tank

V 703

27
CV
702

26

HE7
01

25

V 702
Steam In

PC
702
PC

29

24
Steam out
Aniline and water from
Distillation 2

23

CV
701

LC
701

T-701

28

GV 602

HV 601

GV 603

HV 602

V 701

P 702

P 702

The T-601 is used to recover aniline from steam stripping the water and impurities

STREAM 23 CONTROL
The level at T-701 is controlled through LC-701 by controlling the flow rate using CV-701 located at
the outlet at stream 28. Pressure is also controlled through PC-702 by controlling the flowrate using
CV-702 located at the stream 27.