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IEEEx - SP | 1-MGS_SGCertCourse1_SGDimensions_Dim1to4_v3May2016

Welcome to the second section of the overview of the Smart Grid course. In this section, we will answer the
following key questions-- What are the dimensions of the smart grid? What are their definitions and some key
characteristics? We will work on more details of these dimensions in future sections of this course.
In this picture, we show the smart grid and all its dimensions. We believe there are a total of 12 dimensions. On
the utility side we include distributed energy, energy storage, transmission and distribution automation, advanced
operational systems, micro-grids, and data analytics.
On the customer premise side we include electric transportation, smart meters, smart homes and buildings,
demand response, and energy efficiency. Communications and cybersecurity cover all the dimensions and are
central to the smart grid.
This means that the smart grid is a lot more than just the electrical grid becoming smart. Each segment of the
electric value chain becomes smarter with the deployment of modern technologies. Remember these dimensions
of the smart grid. They are very important to understand how the new infrastructure is coming together in the age
of the smarter grid.
In the previous slide, we had shown 12 dimensions of the smart grid. To make the course easier to understand,
we had divided them into three segments.
In this segment, we will discuss the first four of the smart grid dimensions. The ones we will cover here include
distributed energy, electric energy storage, electric transportation and micro-grids.
Distributed energy is one of the key dimensions of the smart grid. Distributed energy is the use of small-scale
power generation technologies, very often located close to the load being served. And are capable of lowering
costs, improving reliability, reducing emissions, and expanding energy options.
Distributed energy resources are also small and modular compared to central power plants. They're typically
located closer to the consumer loads. They're flexible due to the distributed and modular nature. They're very
often based on natural gas or some source of renewable energy and are quieter and less polluting than large
power plants.
A DER can either be simple or complex. A simple DER could be a standalone backup generator that is owned by
the consumer. A complex DER, on the other hand, may be a grid tied entity consisting of generation, storage, and
an energy management system that is owned either by a utility or a third party.

Distributed energy resources, or DERs, can be of various kinds. Examples include microturbines, combustion
turbine, the Stirling engine, fuel cell, solar cell, wind systems, hybrid systems that may be a combination of solar
and wind. It is important to note that not all types of DERs are renewable in nature. Energy storage is a key
dimension of the smart grid.
Electric energy storage is a set of technologies capable of storing previously generated electric energy and
releasing it at a later time. It uses forms of energy, such as chemical, kinetic, thermal, or potential to store it and
then later allow to be converted back to electricity. There are video technologies in different states of
development. And generally, their usage depends on their energy and power characteristics.
Energy storage has various applications. It can be used to improve power quality, has bridging power when
switching from one source of generation to another such as from wind generation to a natural gas fired
generation. At good [? stale ?], storage can also be used to decouple the timing of generation and consumption.
For example, storage can be charged during times of low energy cost and low utilization as for example, when
there's plenty of wind generation and can also be used to then supply power during peak load periods when
regular generation may either be unavailable or very expensive.
There are a number of energy storage technologies. Some of them more mature and some of them are
emerging. Depending on the power ratings and the rate of discharge characteristics, they have different
applications, as described earlier.
Electric transportation is another key dimension of the smart grid. Electrification of transportation is the use of
hybrid electric and all electric vehicles instead of all petroleum based vehicles. It also includes the provision of
infrastructure to charge these electric vehicles. An electric vehicle is one, where the propulsion system contains
one or more electric motors that contribute partly or entirely towards providing the motive force to drive the
vehicle.
Microgrids are another key dimension of the smart grid. A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and
distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity
with respect to the grid. A microgrid can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid
connected or island and mode.
Microgrids can be designed to meet the needs of the consumers it serves. And they can be replicated in any
system with the power infrastructure is locally owned and managed. For example, microgrids can be deployed at
university campuses, commercial or industrial locations, military bases, islands and in separated communities.
Energy sources deployed in microgrids include distributed generation based on fossil fuels and renewables,

combined heat and power units that recover thermal energy from electric generation and use it for heating or
cooling, energy storage, demand response, plugged in electric vehicles and others.
As we conclude, in summary, widespread deployment of distributed energy resources provides cumulative
operational benefits. Energy storage technologies have numerous applications along the entire electric value
chain. Electric vehicles have both on road and off road applications. And we have identified microgrids, which are
designed to operate both in grid connected or island end modes.