Statistics and Predictions-4

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Statistics and Predictions-4

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Grade 4 Math

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Version 1.1

Table of Contents

Lesson 5: Statistics and Predictions.......................................................................................2

5.1 Collection of Data.........................................................................................................3

5.2 Organize Data............................................................................................................... 5

5.2.1 Using tally marks ( | )..............................................................................................6

5.2.2 Frequency Table: Count by Numbers.....................................................................8

5.3 Use of Graphs............................................................................................................. 10

5.3.1 Pictograph............................................................................................................ 10

5.3.2 Bar Graph............................................................................................................. 11

5.3.3 Line Graph........................................................................................................... 12

5.4 Usage of Data: Predict Outcomes...............................................................................14

5.5 Usage of Data: Predict Future Events.........................................................................15

5.6 Possible Combinations...............................................................................................16

5.7 Possible Outcomes.....................................................................................................18

5.8 Mean, Median and Mode............................................................................................20

5.8.1 Mean.................................................................................................................... 20

5.8.2 Mode.................................................................................................................... 22

5.8.3 Median................................................................................................................. 23

1|Page

By the end of this Lesson, you will be able to:

Solve and analyse various types of problems.

Interpret different sets of data.

2|Page

Data represents any collection of values or measurements or description of things. Any meaningful

information is called data.

We can collect data by asking questions or surveying.

When a teacher asks a class of students, What is your favourite animal? they are trying to collect

data.

Graphs, tables and charts help us to organize and understand a given set of data.

For solving any question there are 3 main steps to follow:

Understand the problem and try to figure out the exact question.

Plan for the question and try to find the right approach to solve the problem.

Solve the question with correct calculations.

Example 1

Jose covers 50 km by walking in a week. Each week he walks 5 km more than the

week before. What is the total distance he covers at the end of 5 th week?

Week Number

.

50

55

60

65

70

3|Page

Example 2

James plays football thrice a week. The schedule for his practice is shown in chart.

Calculate the total minutes he spends at football each week

Day

Monday

Activity

Football practise

Time slot

6:00-7:00 pm

Tuesday

Dance Classes

6:00-7:00 pm

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Football practise

Dance Classes

Football practise

Dance Classes

Football practise

6:00-7:00 pm

6:00-7:00 pm

6:00-7:00 pm

6:00-7:00 pm

6:00-7:00 pm

1 hour = 60 minutes.

Total days he plays football = 4 (Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday).

He plays football 1 hour a day or 60 minutes.

Total time he gives to football = (1 + 1 + 1 + 1) = 4 hours.

4 hours = (4 60) = 240 minutes.

4|Page

Its easiest to use a table for this purpose.

Example 3

Animal

No. of People

43

36

14

Observer how easy it is to read and understand the data, once we organise it in a table.

There are various methods to organise data into a table as below

5|Page

Example 4

Animal

No. of People

|||

||

||

We start reading the data from the start. When we find dog as a favourite animal, we put a line

besides Dog in the table. Similarly for other animals, if we find a second dog, we put a second line.

6|Page

Interpret Data

Count the number of lines to interpret the dat.

Q. How many students have dog as their favourite animal.

A. The answer is 3 (count the number three tally marks).

7|Page

Example 5

Animal

No. of People

Instead of putting a tally mark, we can directly count the number of people who like dogs and put that

number besides the Dog in the table. Or Count from Tally table and put the number here.

8|Page

Interpret Data

The number in the 2nd Column represents the quantity of the Property in the 1st column.

Q. How many students has dog as their favourite animal.

A. The answer is 3 (2nd Column beside Dog, says 3)

Example 6

You can ask your friends in the break, What sports would each one like to play? and

record the answers in table.

Game

Basketball

Peopl

e

7

Soccer

Cycling

Swimming

Asking questions and Recording the answers, comprises of Collecting the data.

Example 7

Food

Fries

Example 8

Sandwich

Burger

Fruits

Movie

9|Page

Peopl

e

5

Comedy

Peopl

e

8

Romance

Thriller

Horror

There is another way to display data other than the table. We can us graphs.

5.3.1 Pictograph

We use pictures or symbols to represent the bits of data. Key tells what does each symbol stands for.

Example 9

Choice of Lunch

Food

Pictograph Symbol

Fries

Sandwich

Labe

Burger

Fruits

Key

Each

represents 2 people

The Symbol (

) represents bits of data.

The Label represents diff parts of data that we have (diff types of food).

The Key helps us to understand, how much data entity each symbol stands for.

Read a Pictograph

Check the

(Key). Use it to find the exact number.

A. Count the number of symbols. Its 8

Each

represents 2 people.

10 | P a g e

Title

Bar graph uses bars of different heights to represent data. The height of each bar gives us an

indication of the number it represents.

Example 10

Food

Number of People

Fries

22

Sandwich

16

Burger

Fruits

Title

Choice of Lunch

25

20

Scal

15

Number of People

10

5

0

Fries

Sandwich Burger

Fruits

Type of Food

Labels

The Scale needs to be even in spacing.

There are 2 Axis, each representing a parameter (Type of food and Number of people)

The Labels tells us about the data that we are making graph of.

In our example, each bar represents a food item. The height of the graph, matched with the scale tells

us about the number of people who have chosen that particular food item.

Q. How many people would like to have sandwich for lunch.

11 | P a g e

A. The bar labelled Sandwich shows from the Scale 10. Thus 10 people chose to eat Sandwich.

A Line graph shows variation on a grid using points and lines.

Follow these simple steps to make any line graph:

Use data from table to select appropriate scale. All scales start at zero.

Draw and label the scale on vertical and horizontal axis.

List the names of each item.

Locate the points on graph.

Connect the points with line segments.

Finally, write the title of line graph.

Title

600

500

Label the

vertical axis

400

Line

segment

300

200

100

0 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Point

Scale

12 | P a g e

Label the

horizontal

axis

Data shows the view for different days in a week.

Position is marked with a point and carried through line segment.

Particular scale is decided in a grid.

Example 11

Ticket sold for a movie on 5 different days is shown in the table. Represent the

following in the form of line graph?

Day

Tickets

sold

1

2

3

4

5

150

50

200

250

100

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

1

Position is shown by points.

If the data doesnt start from 0 then broken scale is used.

1100

1000

Starts

from

600

900

800

700

Broken

Scale

600

13 | P a g e

We can use data to describe the likelihood of an event taking place.

Example 12

Food

Number of People

Fries

22

Sandwich

16

Burger

Fruits

Q. If all 50 people are having the food they wanted, in a room. The telephone rang and asked for

someone. What is the better chance, Someone would be eating a Burger or a Sandwich?

A. We dont know the name of that person here. We just need to find out what us more likely to

happen.

Since the number of person in the room Eating Sandwich (16) > Eating Burger (8), it is more likely

that he would be eating Sandwich. It is never sure, but just more likely.

For understanding the chance of any event happening, lets take a simpler situation.

Example 13

1 dollar

4 coins

50 cents

8 coins

25 cents

8 coins

Now if we take put at random (without thinking) any one coin, what is the likelihood?

1 dollar

50 cent

50 cent

Is equally likely to

25 cent

1 dollar

25 cent

25 cent

Is equally likely to

50 cent

25 cent

1 dollar

50 cent

1 dollar

14 | P a g e

We can make predictions based on the graphs and table data.

For making predictions we need to observe data over a period of time.

Example 14

Below table displays the height of a plant taken at the end of the Week for 4 weeks.

Week

1

2

3

4

5

Height (inches)

2

4

6

8

?

A. As we see, plant has grown by 2 inches per week for past 4 weeks. So we can predict that it will

grow by 2 inch in Week 5. So at the end of Week 5, height of the plant should be 8+2=10 inches.

It is a prediction. Not a surety. If a hailstorm comes, plant may die and not grow at all.

Its more like to grow by 2 inches in Week 5, given that we have no mention of hailstorm in our

data.

15 | P a g e

We can use objects and pictures to determine all set of given data.

.

Example 15

Stella has 3 balls (Red, Green, Purple) and 3 boxes. How many combinations of 1

ball and 1 box can she formed?

Boxes

Box 1

Box 2

Balls

Box 3

The above problem can be solved by drawing lines and showing various combinations.

Box 1

Combinations for Box1 = 3

Box 2

Combinations for Box2 = 3

16 | P a g e

Box 3

Combinations for Box3 = 3

17 | P a g e

We can predict or draw conclusions from various types of graphs and tables.

Example 16

In a class of 50 students a voting for their favourite sport is carried out. The data is

as shown below. Predict the favourite sport among all?

Sport

Cricket

Base-ball

Football

Basket-ball

Number

15

10

20

5

Number of students that vote for Base-ball = 10.

Number of students that vote for Football = 20.

Number of students that vote for Basket-ball = 5.

Thus, the most popular game among students is Football as 20 students voted for it.

Example 17

The Bar Graph shows the number of students taken admission in St. Peters

College for different years. Predict the year in which the admission is highest?

Chart Title

700

600

500

Series 3

400

300

200

100

0

2008

18 | P a g e

2009

2010

2011

Number of students who took admission in 2009 = 550.

Number of students who took admission in 2010 = 450.

Number of students who took admission in 2011 = 700

19 | P a g e

5.8.1 Mean

Mean is calculated by adding all numbers and dividing the result with total number of

numbers.

Alternatively, we can say sum divided by count.

We find the Mean just to form an equal combination of sets.

number of numbers

Mean =

What is the Mean for the following numbers? 16, 14, 17, 13

Example 18

Mean

(16 + 14 + 17 + 13) 4

60 4

15

Example 19

What is the Mean for all the balls kept in different boxes?

Box 1

Box 2

Box 3

Number of Balls

Box 1

Box 2

Box 3

Total

4

3

2

(4+3+2)=9

Mean

20 | P a g e

(4+3+2)3

93

3

Mean

Thus, the mean for the above problem is a box containing 3 balls.

21 | P a g e

5.8.2 Mode

It is also known as Modal Value.

To find the Mode we must arrange the numbers in order.

If there are 2 modals present in a problem then it is known as bimodal.

If there are more than 2 modals present in a problem then it is known as multimodal.

Example 20

Numbers in increasing order

Number appearing most

16

Mathews have some balls of different colours. Find the modal value of the balls?

Example 21

Balls

Description

Modal

value

Number of orange balls = 2

Number of blue balls = 2

Number of purple balls = 1

Thus, modal value =red ball.

22 | P a g e

5.8.3 Median

Median will occupy the middle position in an odd sorted list of numbers.

Median will be the mean of middle position in case of even sorted list of numbers.

Example 22

16, 19, 12, 9, 6, 10, 11

Sorted list, Increasing

Total numbers

4th term

7

11

Example 23

3, 2, 18, 26, 52, 9, 7, 13

Sorted list, Increasing

Total numbers

Middle terms

Median

8

(9) 4th term and (13) 5th term

Mean of Middle terms (4th term and 5th term)

(9 + 13) 2

22 2 = 11

23 | P a g e

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