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# Statistics and Predictions

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## Created By: Shashank Kumar Gupta

Version 1.1

Lesson 5: Statistics and Predictions.......................................................................................2
5.1 Collection of Data.........................................................................................................3
5.2 Organize Data............................................................................................................... 5
5.2.1 Using tally marks ( | )..............................................................................................6
5.2.2 Frequency Table: Count by Numbers.....................................................................8
5.3 Use of Graphs............................................................................................................. 10
5.3.1 Pictograph............................................................................................................ 10
5.3.2 Bar Graph............................................................................................................. 11
5.3.3 Line Graph........................................................................................................... 12
5.4 Usage of Data: Predict Outcomes...............................................................................14
5.5 Usage of Data: Predict Future Events.........................................................................15
5.6 Possible Combinations...............................................................................................16
5.7 Possible Outcomes.....................................................................................................18
5.8 Mean, Median and Mode............................................................................................20
5.8.1 Mean.................................................................................................................... 20
5.8.2 Mode.................................................................................................................... 22
5.8.3 Median................................................................................................................. 23

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## Lesson 5: Statistics and Predictions

By the end of this Lesson, you will be able to:

## Carry out all possible combinations.

Solve and analyse various types of problems.
Interpret different sets of data.

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## 5.1 Collection of Data

Data represents any collection of values or measurements or description of things. Any meaningful
information is called data.
We can collect data by asking questions or surveying.
When a teacher asks a class of students, What is your favourite animal? they are trying to collect
data.
Graphs, tables and charts help us to organize and understand a given set of data.
For solving any question there are 3 main steps to follow:

Understand the problem and try to figure out the exact question.
Plan for the question and try to find the right approach to solve the problem.
Solve the question with correct calculations.

Example 1

Jose covers 50 km by walking in a week. Each week he walks 5 km more than the
week before. What is the total distance he covers at the end of 5 th week?

Week Number
.

50

55

60

65

70

## Jose covers (50 + 55 + 60 + 65 + 70) = 300 km in 5 weeks.

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Example 2

James plays football thrice a week. The schedule for his practice is shown in chart.
Calculate the total minutes he spends at football each week

Day
Monday

Activity
Football practise

Time slot
6:00-7:00 pm

Tuesday

Dance Classes

6:00-7:00 pm

Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday

Football practise
Dance Classes
Football practise
Dance Classes
Football practise

6:00-7:00 pm
6:00-7:00 pm
6:00-7:00 pm
6:00-7:00 pm
6:00-7:00 pm

1 hour = 60 minutes.
Total days he plays football = 4 (Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday).
He plays football 1 hour a day or 60 minutes.
Total time he gives to football = (1 + 1 + 1 + 1) = 4 hours.
4 hours = (4 60) = 240 minutes.

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## 5.2 Organize Data

Its easiest to use a table for this purpose.

Example 3

## Below is a table of data about favourite animal of 100 students in a class.

Animal

No. of People

43

36

14

Observer how easy it is to read and understand the data, once we organise it in a table.
There are various methods to organise data into a table as below

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Example 4

## Favourite animal of Agatha is a Dog.

Animal

No. of People

|||

||

||

We start reading the data from the start. When we find dog as a favourite animal, we put a line
besides Dog in the table. Similarly for other animals, if we find a second dog, we put a second line.

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Interpret Data
Count the number of lines to interpret the dat.
Q. How many students have dog as their favourite animal.
A. The answer is 3 (count the number three tally marks).

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Example 5

## Favourite animal of Agatha is a Dog.

Animal

No. of People

Instead of putting a tally mark, we can directly count the number of people who like dogs and put that
number besides the Dog in the table. Or Count from Tally table and put the number here.

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Interpret Data
The number in the 2nd Column represents the quantity of the Property in the 1st column.
Q. How many students has dog as their favourite animal.
A. The answer is 3 (2nd Column beside Dog, says 3)

Example 6

You can ask your friends in the break, What sports would each one like to play? and
Game

Peopl
e
7

Soccer

Cycling

Swimming

Example 7

Food
Fries

Example 8

Sandwich

Burger

Fruits

Movie

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Peopl
e
5

Comedy

Peopl
e
8

Romance

Thriller

Horror

## 5.3 Use of Graphs

There is another way to display data other than the table. We can us graphs.

5.3.1 Pictograph
We use pictures or symbols to represent the bits of data. Key tells what does each symbol stands for.

Example 9

## Ask 50 people, what food would they have for lunch?

Choice of Lunch
Food

Pictograph Symbol

Fries
Sandwich

Labe

Burger
Fruits
Key

Each

represents 2 people

## The Title represents the type of information we are dealing with.

The Symbol (
) represents bits of data.
The Label represents diff parts of data that we have (diff types of food).
The Key helps us to understand, how much data entity each symbol stands for.

## Count the number of pictograph symbols against a column

Check the
(Key). Use it to find the exact number.

## Q. How many People would like to eat a Sandwich?

A. Count the number of symbols. Its 8
Each

represents 2 people.

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Title

## 5.3.2 Bar Graph

Bar graph uses bars of different heights to represent data. The height of each bar gives us an
indication of the number it represents.

Example 10

Food

Number of People

Fries

22

Sandwich

16

Burger

Fruits

Title

Choice of Lunch
25
20

Scal

15
Number of People

10
5
0

Fries

Sandwich Burger

Fruits

Type of Food

Labels

## The Title represents the type of information we are dealing with.

The Scale needs to be even in spacing.
There are 2 Axis, each representing a parameter (Type of food and Number of people)
The Labels tells us about the data that we are making graph of.

## Interpret the Bar Graph

In our example, each bar represents a food item. The height of the graph, matched with the scale tells
us about the number of people who have chosen that particular food item.
Q. How many people would like to have sandwich for lunch.

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A. The bar labelled Sandwich shows from the Scale 10. Thus 10 people chose to eat Sandwich.

## 5.3.3 Line Graph

A Line graph shows variation on a grid using points and lines.
Follow these simple steps to make any line graph:

Use data from table to select appropriate scale. All scales start at zero.
Draw and label the scale on vertical and horizontal axis.
List the names of each item.
Locate the points on graph.
Connect the points with line segments.
Finally, write the title of line graph.

Title

600
500

Label the
vertical axis

400

Line
segment

300
200
100
0 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Point

Scale

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Label the
horizontal
axis

## Above figure shows a line graph.

Data shows the view for different days in a week.
Position is marked with a point and carried through line segment.
Particular scale is decided in a grid.

Example 11

Ticket sold for a movie on 5 different days is shown in the table. Represent the
following in the form of line graph?

Day

Tickets
sold
1
2
3
4
5

150
50
200
250
100

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1

## The line graph is as shown above for 5 different days.

Position is shown by points.
If the data doesnt start from 0 then broken scale is used.

1100
1000

Starts
from
600

900
800
700

Broken
Scale

600

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## 5.4 Usage of Data: Predict Outcomes

We can use data to describe the likelihood of an event taking place.

## Ask 50 people, what food would they have for lunch?

Example 12

Food

Number of People

Fries

22

Sandwich

16

Burger

Fruits

Q. If all 50 people are having the food they wanted, in a room. The telephone rang and asked for
someone. What is the better chance, Someone would be eating a Burger or a Sandwich?
A. We dont know the name of that person here. We just need to find out what us more likely to
happen.
Since the number of person in the room Eating Sandwich (16) > Eating Burger (8), it is more likely
that he would be eating Sandwich. It is never sure, but just more likely.
For understanding the chance of any event happening, lets take a simpler situation.

Example 13

## We have in a box 20 coins.

1 dollar

4 coins

50 cents

8 coins

25 cents

8 coins

Now if we take put at random (without thinking) any one coin, what is the likelihood?
1 dollar

## Is less likely than

50 cent

50 cent

Is equally likely to

25 cent

1 dollar

## Is less likely than

25 cent

25 cent

Is equally likely to

50 cent

25 cent

1 dollar

50 cent

1 dollar

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## 5.5 Usage of Data: Predict Future Events

We can make predictions based on the graphs and table data.
For making predictions we need to observe data over a period of time.

Example 14

Below table displays the height of a plant taken at the end of the Week for 4 weeks.

Week
1
2
3
4
5

Height (inches)
2
4
6
8
?

## Q. Predict the height of the plant at the end of the Week 5.

A. As we see, plant has grown by 2 inches per week for past 4 weeks. So we can predict that it will
grow by 2 inch in Week 5. So at the end of Week 5, height of the plant should be 8+2=10 inches.

It is a prediction. Not a surety. If a hailstorm comes, plant may die and not grow at all.
Its more like to grow by 2 inches in Week 5, given that we have no mention of hailstorm in our
data.

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## 5.6 Possible Combinations

We can use objects and pictures to determine all set of given data.
.
Example 15

Stella has 3 balls (Red, Green, Purple) and 3 boxes. How many combinations of 1
ball and 1 box can she formed?
Boxes

Box 1

Box 2

Balls

Box 3

The above problem can be solved by drawing lines and showing various combinations.

Box 1
Combinations for Box1 = 3

Box 2
Combinations for Box2 = 3

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Box 3
Combinations for Box3 = 3

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## 5.7 Possible Outcomes

We can predict or draw conclusions from various types of graphs and tables.

Example 16

In a class of 50 students a voting for their favourite sport is carried out. The data is
as shown below. Predict the favourite sport among all?

Sport
Cricket
Base-ball
Football

Number
15
10
20
5

## Number of students that vote for Cricket = 15.

Number of students that vote for Base-ball = 10.
Number of students that vote for Football = 20.
Number of students that vote for Basket-ball = 5.

Thus, the most popular game among students is Football as 20 students voted for it.

Example 17
The Bar Graph shows the number of students taken admission in St. Peters
College for different years. Predict the year in which the admission is highest?

Chart Title
700
600
500
Series 3

400
300
200
100
0
2008

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2009

2010

2011

## Number of students who took admission in 2008 = 400.

Number of students who took admission in 2009 = 550.
Number of students who took admission in 2010 = 450.
Number of students who took admission in 2011 = 700

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5.8.1 Mean

## Mean is just the average of numbers.

Mean is calculated by adding all numbers and dividing the result with total number of
numbers.
Alternatively, we can say sum divided by count.
We find the Mean just to form an equal combination of sets.

## total of all numbers

number of numbers

Mean =

What is the Mean for the following numbers? 16, 14, 17, 13

Example 18

Mean

(16 + 14 + 17 + 13) 4
60 4
15

## Thus, Mean is 15.

Example 19

What is the Mean for all the balls kept in different boxes?

Box 1

Box 2

Box 3

Number of Balls
Box 1
Box 2
Box 3
Total

4
3
2
(4+3+2)=9

## Number of Boxes = 3 boxes.

Mean

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(4+3+2)3

93
3

Mean

Thus, the mean for the above problem is a box containing 3 balls.

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5.8.2 Mode

## Mode is simply the number which comes most often.

It is also known as Modal Value.
To find the Mode we must arrange the numbers in order.
If there are 2 modals present in a problem then it is known as bimodal.
If there are more than 2 modals present in a problem then it is known as multimodal.

Example 20

## 16, 26, 24, 16, 26, 16, 18

Numbers in increasing order
Number appearing most

16

## Hence, the mode is 16 for the above given numbers.

Mathews have some balls of different colours. Find the modal value of the balls?
Example 21

Balls

Description

Modal
value

## Number of red balls = 3

Number of orange balls = 2
Number of blue balls = 2
Number of purple balls = 1
Thus, modal value =red ball.

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5.8.3 Median

## Median is the middle number in the sorted list of numbers.

Median will occupy the middle position in an odd sorted list of numbers.
Median will be the mean of middle position in case of even sorted list of numbers.

Example 22

## Find the median for the following given numbers?

16, 19, 12, 9, 6, 10, 11
Sorted list, Increasing
Total numbers
4th term

7
11

Example 23

## Find the median for the following given numbers?

3, 2, 18, 26, 52, 9, 7, 13
Sorted list, Increasing
Total numbers
Middle terms
Median

## 2, 3, 7, 9, 13, 18, 26, 52

8
(9) 4th term and (13) 5th term
Mean of Middle terms (4th term and 5th term)

(9 + 13) 2
22 2 = 11

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