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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

International Journal of Research and Innovation in


Mechanical Engineering (IJRIME)
PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS OF GATE AND RUNNER SYSTEM
FOR PLASTIC INJECTION MOULD
Botla Sudheer Kumar1, N.Rajesh2.
1 Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Technology, Andhra Pradesh,
India.
2 Assistant professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Technology, Andhra Pradesh,
India.

Abstract
The aim of the project work is to specify optimum design of runner and gate systems to enhance the production rate for
plastic part manufacturing.
Literature survey will be done on runner and gate system to understand simulation or analysis approach.
Data collection will be done to brief about runner and gate system importance, design method and variations.
Plastic flow analysis will be done on digital prototype of a specimen by various runner and gate profiles and also done
by changing materials.
The optimum profiles for the runner and gate system will be suggested by comparing flow results with specific materials
and profiles.

*Corresponding Author:

products.

Botla Sudheer Kumar,


Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Technology, Andhra
Pradesh, India.
Email: darajojappa@gmail.com

[2] Mr.Chandan Deep Singh fromUniversity College of


Engineering, Punjabi University has done the reasearch
work on Feature Library of Gating System for a Die-Casting Die and he has given the conclusions as The system
has inbuilt feature library for gate, runnerand overflow
designs. The system helps a die-castingengineer in reducing time and efforts as there is noneed to design the
gating system for a part fromscratch. The system would
go a long way in bridging the gap between designing and
manufacturing of diecasting.The present work has overcome the shortcomings of the previous.

Year of publication: 2016


Review Type: peer reviewed
Volume: III, Issue : I
Citation: Botla Sudheer Kumar, Research Scholar, "Predictive
Analysis of Gate And Runner System For Plastic Injection Mould"
International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science,
Engineering and Technology (IJRISET) (2016) 199-206

Literature survey

[1 ]Mr. Tangqing Kuang Wenjuan Gu from School of Me-

chanical and Electrical Engineering, East China Jiaotong


University, Nanchang 330013, China has done the research work on Optimum Design of Runner System for
Router Cover Based on Mold Flow Analysis Technology in
that publication they have done comparison and worked
on selection of different gate settings by using mold flow
analysis. Finally they got the best gate location and gate
panel number for the router, the length and cross section
size can be determined by the following choice of mold
plate and the mold specifically designs. The runner section size can be optimized by runner balance analysis.
And the gate section size can be optimized to ensure the
full compensation by packing analysis and cooling analysis. The resulting optimum runner system can be used to
improve product quality.
From this example, we know that the successful application of mold flow analysis for injection mold design provides the scientific basis and reference for mold designers and aids designers to optimize the design programs,
reduce testing time, and improve qualities of mold and

INTRODUCTION
RUNNERS
Distribution system for the resin from the sprue to the
cavities Flow characteristics (viscosity), temperature and
other factors are important in determining the runner diameter and length If the diameter of the runner is too
small or the length is too long, the resin can freeze in the
runner before the mold is completely full If the runner
system is too large, excess material would be ejected and
too much regrind created If the resins have a high viscosity, larger runners are needed compared to low viscosity
resin.
The optimum flow of the resin through the runner system
depends on the shape and diameter of the channel Round
channel give the best flow characteristics but difficult to
machine Machining cost can be reduce by machining one
side of the mold plates Better shape where the depth of
the channel is at least two-thirds the size of the width and
the sides are tapered between 2 to 5.

199

International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

Secondary Runners
Secondary runner channel are used for multi cavity
molds
The flow into the secondary channel should be streamlined (angle in flow direction)
The streamlined minimizes shear on the resin

Gate types trimmed from the cavity manually include:


Sprue gate
Edge gate
Tab gate
Overlap gate
Fan gate
Film gate
Diaphragm gate
External ring
Spoke or multipoint gate
MODEL OF SPECIMAN WITH RUNNERS

Runners are the major part of feed system of moulding


process it has to design very carefully most commonly
USED CROSS-SECTIONS AS BELOW.

The above image shows semicircular runner

New

Gate type

The above image shows square runner

As important as selecting the optimal gate size and location is the choice of the type of gate.
Gate types can be divided between manually and automatically trimmed gates.
Manually trimmed gates Manually trimmed gates are
those that require an operator to separate parts from runners during a secondary operation. The reasons for using
manually trimmed gates are:
The gate is too bulky to be sheared from the part as the
tool is opened.
Some shear-sensitive materials (e.g., PVC) should not be
exposed to the high shear rates inherent to the design of
automatically trimmed gates.
Simultaneous flow distribution across a wide front to
achieve specific orientation of fibers of molecules often
precludes automatic gate trimming.

The above image shows trapezoid

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

The above image shows modified trapezoid

The above image shows injection pressure

MOULD FLOW ANALYSIS


Mould flow, 3D solids-based plastics flow simulation that
allows plastics part designers to determine the manufacturability of their parts during the preliminary design
stages and avoid potential downstream problems, which
can lead to delays and cost overruns. Following are the
benefits:
Optimize the part wall thickness to achieve uniform filling patterns, minimum cycle time and lowest part cost
Identify and eliminate cosmetic issues such as sink
marks, weld lines and air traps.
Determine the best injection locations for a given part
design
Mould flow analysis gives you the ability to maintain the
integrity of your product designs. It provides you the tools
to quickly optimize part designs and check the impact
of critical design decisions on the manufacturability and
quality of the product early in the design process.

The above image shows surface temp variance

PLASTIC FLOW ANALYSIS OF SPECIMEN USING


SQUARE RUNNER
MATERIAL: PP

MATERIALS
Polypropylene (pp)
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
PLASTIC FLOW ANALYSIS OF SPECIMEN USING SEMI
CIRCULAR RUNNER
MATERIAL: PP

The above image shows fill time

The above image shows fill time

The above image shows Injection Pressure

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

PLASTIC FLOW ANALYSIS OF SPECIMEN USING


TRAPEZOID RUNNER
MATERIAL: PP

The above image shows fill time

The above image shows injection pressure

PLASTIC FLOW ANALYSIS OF SPECIMEN USING MODIFIED TRAPEZOID RUNNER MATERIAL: PP

The above image shows fill time

The above image shows injection pressure

Plastic Flow analysis of Specimen using Semi - Circular Gate MATERIAL: PP

The above image shows fill time

The above image shows injection pressure

PLASTIC FLOW ANALYSIS OF SPECIMEN USING


SQUARE GATE MATERIAL: PP

The above image shows fill time

The above image shows injection pressure

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

PLASTIC FLOW ANALYSIS OF SPECIMEN USING TRAPEZOID GATE

Plastic Flow analysis of Specimen using modified


trapezoid runner with over Lap Gate
MATERIAL: PP

The above image shows fill time


The above image shows fill time

The above image shows injection pressure

PLASTIC FLOW OF SPECIMEN USING MODIFIED


TRAPEZOID GATE MATERIAL: PP

The above image shows fill time

The above image shows injection pressure

The above image shows injection pressure

Plastic Flow analysis of Specimen using modified


trapezoid runner with Bottom Gate
MATERIAL: PP

The above image shows fill time

The above image shows injection pressure

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

Plastic Flow analysis of Specimen using modified


trapezoid runner with Top Gate
MATERIAL: PP

The above image shows injection pressure

Runner system
The above image shows fill time

SemiCircular

Square

Trapezoid

Modified
Trapezoid

Fill Time

6.82

5.12

5.34

5.27

Injection
Pressure

14.45

5.92

7.24

5.90

Pressure
Drop

14.45

5.92

7.24

5.90

Flow Front 240.10


Temp

240.02

240.02

240.01

Surface
Temp
Variance

89.18

101.80

39.99

SemiCircular

Square

Trapezoid

Modified
Trapezoid

Fill Time

5.34

5.56

5.77

5.11

Injection
Pressure

6.55

7.82

7.44

6.12

Pressure
Drop

6.55

7.81

7.44

6.04

Flow Front 240


Temp

240.03

240.02

240

Surface
Temp
Variance

1.67

1.69

1.61

91.58

Gate geometry
The above image shows injection pressure

Plastic Flow Analysis Using Multi Cavity System Polypropylene (PP)

1.46

Gate systems

The above image shows fill time

The above image shows confidence of fill

Over
Lap

Bottom

Top

Tap

Fan

Ring

Fill
Time

4.93

5.58

5.21

6.02

5.34

3.37

Injection
Pressure

4.05

8.11

5.97

10.12

7.34

8.75

Pressure
Drop

4.05

8.11

5.97

10.12

7.34

8.75

Flow
Front
Temp

240

240.01

240

240.02

240.01

240.02

Surface
Temp
Variance

1.99

1.87

1.60

3.84

1.45

4.68

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

Multi cavity

REFERENCE

PP

ABS

HDPE

PVC

Fill Time

6.03

7.84

6.40

13.82

Injection
Pressure

18.77

28.38

34.87

43.87

Pressure
Drop

18.77

28.38

34.87

43.87

Flow Front 240.08


Temp

230.16

210.46

170.45

Surface
Temp
Variance

11.30

11.30

11.30

11.30

CONCLUSION
This research paper gives the complete orientation on
runner and gate system of plastic product manufacturing
Mould.
Initially literature survey and data collection was done on
gate and runner system to understand the methodology
and selection of geometry.
Mould flow analysis was done using plastic advisor on
various runners and gate profiles, to specify the optimum
model for gate and runner.
In first case:- Semi circular, square, trapezoid and modified trapezoid models where analyzed using standard
pressure with regular material polypropylene, In this case
modified trapezoid runner system is giving optimum Flow
with low pressure.
In second case:- Various geometric profiles of gate system
are implemented to provide the optimum gate geometry.
In this case modified trapezoid gate geometry with modified trapezoid runner is having optimum quality.
In third case:-Different methods of gate systems are implemented to fine optimum feed system.
In this case overlap type is showing good charter sticks.
In fourth case:-The mould flow analysis was done using
different materials on multi cavity model. In this case
all the thermo plastics (PP, ABS, HDPE) is showing good
charter sticks, along with trapezoid gate with runner
with overlap system , but when coming to thermo setting
plastic(PVC) is not suitable for multicavity system.
As per the obtaining results of above four different cases this research work concludes that modified trapezoid
runner and gate system with overlap method will perform
better injection moulding process, it uses very low pressure, it losses pressure drop with nominal surface temperature variance.

1 Tangqing Kuang Optimum Design of Runner System


for Router Cover Based on Mold Flow Analysis Technology School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering,
East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013, China.2015 .pp1-13
2 Chandan Deep Singh Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, Punjabi University, Patiala, (PB) (India
3 Mohd. RizwanHamsin, AzuddinMamat and AznijarAhmad-Yazid Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya,
4 E. Bociga, T. Jaruga* Institute of Polymer Processing
and Production Management, Al. ArmiiKrajowej 19c 42200 Czstochowa, Poland * Corresponding author: E-mail
address: jaruga@kpts.pcz.czest.pl
5 E. Bociga, T. Jaruga* Institute of Polymer Processing
and Production Management, Czestochowa University of
Technology, Al. ArmiiKrajowej 19c, 42-200 Czstochowa,
Poland * Corresponding author: E-mail address: jaruga@
kpts.pcz.czest.pl
6 Yuan Hsu1, Mark R. Jolly2and John Campbell2 1 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National
United University, No.1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, MiaoLi,
36003 Taiwan, R.O.C. 2Engineering School, University of
Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
7 ThiTruc-Ngan Huynh* Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C. *E-mail: nganhuynhspkt39@gmail.com
8 Srisit Chianrabutra1, a, Anchana Wongsto2, b, Taweedej Sirithanapipat1, 2, c Research and Development
Institute of Industrial Production Technology (RDiPT)1
Department of Mechanical Engineering2 Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50, Phaholyothin Rd.,
Bangkok, 10900, Thailand Tel: 0-29428567-70, Fax:
0-29428571, E-mail: srisit.ch@ku.ac.tha, fengacw@
ku.ac.thb, taweedej.s@ku.ac.thc
9 SahajanandKamble1, Prof. Girish V A2, Mr. Shridhar
Bagalkot3 1Department of mechanical engineering R.V.
college of Engineering, Bangalore,560059 India E-mail
id:sahajanand.vk@gmail.com 2 Professor, Department of
mechanical engineering R.V. college of Engineering, Bangalore, India E-mail id:girishvijayapura@gmail.com 3Mr.
ShridharBagalkot NTTF, Peenya 2nd stage Bangalore,
Karnataka, 560058, India E-mail id:shridharmb@nttf.
co.in
10 Vikas B J 1, Chandra Kumar R 2 1M. Tech. Student,
2Asst. Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
R V College of Engineering, Karnataka, India, vikas5440@
gmail.com., chandrakumarr@rvce.edu.in

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International Journal of Research and Innovation on Science, Engineering and Technology (IJRISET)

AUTHORS

Botla Sudheer Kumar,


Research Scholar,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Technology,
Andhra Pradesh, India.

N.Rajesh,
Assistant professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering Technology,
Andhra Pradesh, India.

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