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PETRONAS TECHNICAL STANDARDS

DESIGN AND ENGINEERING PRACTICE

MANUAL

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES


- SECT 10

PTS 20.161F
JUNE 1986

PREFACE

PETRONAS Technical Standards (PTS) publications reflect the views, at the time of publication,
of PETRONAS OPUs/Divisions.
They are based on the experience acquired during the involvement with the design, construction,
operation and maintenance of processing units and facilities. Where appropriate they are based
on, or reference is made to, national and international standards and codes of practice.
The objective is to set the recommended standard for good technical practice to be applied by
PETRONAS' OPUs in oil and gas production facilities, refineries, gas processing plants, chemical
plants, marketing facilities or any other such facility, and thereby to achieve maximum technical
and economic benefit from standardisation.
The information set forth in these publications is provided to users for their consideration and
decision to implement. This is of particular importance where PTS may not cover every
requirement or diversity of condition at each locality. The system of PTS is expected to be
sufficiently flexible to allow individual operating units to adapt the information set forth in PTS to
their own environment and requirements.
When Contractors or Manufacturers/Suppliers use PTS they shall be solely responsible for the
quality of work and the attainment of the required design and engineering standards. In
particular, for those requirements not specifically covered, the Principal will expect them to follow
those design and engineering practices which will achieve the same level of integrity as reflected
in the PTS. If in doubt, the Contractor or Manufacturer/Supplier shall, without detracting from his
own responsibility, consult the Principal or its technical advisor.
The right to use PTS rests with three categories of users :
1)
2)
3)

PETRONAS and its affiliates.


Other parties who are authorised to use PTS subject to appropriate contractual
arrangements.
Contractors/subcontractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers under a contract with
users referred to under 1) and 2) which requires that tenders for projects,
materials supplied or - generally - work performed on behalf of the said users
comply with the relevant standards.

Subject to any particular terms and conditions as may be set forth in specific agreements with
users, PETRONAS disclaims any liability of whatsoever nature for any damage (including injury
or death) suffered by any company or person whomsoever as a result of or in connection with the
use, application or implementation of any PTS, combination of PTS or any part thereof. The
benefit of this disclaimer shall inure in all respects to PETRONAS and/or any company affiliated
to PETRONAS that may issue PTS or require the use of PTS.
Without prejudice to any specific terms in respect of confidentiality under relevant contractual
arrangements, PTS shall not, without the prior written consent of PETRONAS, be disclosed by
users to any company or person whomsoever and the PTS shall be used exclusively for the
purpose they have been provided to the user. They shall be returned after use, including any
copies which shall only be made by users with the express prior written consent of PETRONAS.
The copyright of PTS vests in PETRONAS. Users shall arrange for PTS to be held in safe
custody and PETRONAS may at any time require information satisfactory to PETRONAS in order
to ascertain how users implement this requirement.

CONTENTS OF SECTION

10.00.00

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

10.01.00

LAYOUT, SAFETY DISTANCES AND BULK STORAGE

10.01.01

General

10.01.02

Bulk Storage Vessel Safety Distances

10.01.03

Safety Distances for Cylinder Filling and Storage

10.01.04

Location and Layout

10.01.05

Bulk Storage Area

10.01.06

Storage
Figure 10.01.01 Safety Distances for LPG Facilities
Figure 10.01.02 Typical Detail of Internal Remotely-controlled Valve with By-pass
Appendix 10.01.03 Sizing of Safety/Relief Valves for Abnormal Operating Conditions
Figure 10.01.04 Sizing of Safety/Relief Valves for Fire Exposure of Bare Vessels of all Types
Figure 10.01.05 Typical Arrangements of Safety 'Relief Valves with Side Outlet
Figure 10.01.06 Saddles for LPG Storage Vessels

10.01.10

Pipelines

10.01.11

Valves

10.01.12

Mixed Products

10.01.13

Excess-Flow Valves

10.01.14

Remote Control Valves

10.01.15

Hoses

10.01.16

Cylinder Filling and Storage Sheds

10.01.17

Operations

10.01.18

Emergency Shut-Off valve

10.01.19

Pumping Pressure

10.01.20

Electrical Fittings

10.01.21

Bonding of Equipment

10.01.22

Rail Sidings

10.01.23

Filling New or Gas-Freed Storage Tanks

10.02.00

PIPES, VALVES AND FITTINGS

10.02.01

Pipes

10.02.02

Valves

10.03.00

CYLINDER STORAGE, FILLING AND HANDLING

10.03.01

Location

10.03.02

Buildings

10.03.03

Cylinder Filling

10.03.04

Checks before Filling

10.03.05

Checks after Filling

10.03.06

Painting Facilities

10.03.07

Storage of Cylinders

10.03.08

Cylinder Handling

10.04.00

ELECTRICAL

10.04.01

General

10.04.02

Area Classification

10.04.03

Earthing and Bonding


Appendix 10.04.01 Area Classification

10.05.00 OPERATIONS
10.05.01

Plant Operating Manuals

10.05.02

Training

10.05.03

Venting

10.05.04

Sampling

10.05.05

Protective Clothing

10.05,06

Transfer Operations

10.05.07

Segregation of Product

10.05.08

Isolation

10.06.00

COMMISSIONING, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE

10.06.01

Permits

10.06.02

Isolation

10.06.03

Venting and Draining

10.06.04

Entry

10.06.05

Pressure Vessel Testing

10.06.06

Pipeline Testing

10.06.07

Cylinder Testing

10.06.08

Emergency Valves and Systems

10.07.00

FIRE PRECAUTIONS

10.07.01

General

10.07.02

Means of Access

10.07.03

Cooling Water Supply for LPG Bulk Storage

10.07.04

Storage Vessel Cooling-water Facilities

10.07.05

Other Fixed-spray Systems

10.07.06

Fire-water Main

10.07.07

Water Pressure

10.07.08

Standpipes

10.07.09

Reserve Water Supply

10.07.10

First-aid Fire Extinguishers

10.08.00

FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL

10.08.01

Prevention

10.08.02

General

10.08.03

Extinguishing Fires

10.08.04

Fire Control Plan

10.08.05

Fire Drills and Training

10.00.00

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

10.01.00

LAYOUT, SAFETY DISTANCES AND BULK STORAGE

10.01.01

General
Particular safety precautions applicable to LPG plants and facilities, which should be
observed whenever local regulations are less stringent, are described in the following
sub-sections.
General safety precautions are given in the Shell Industrial Safety Code - Marketing
manual and safe operating procedures in the Plant Operating Manual, Volume 3 -LPG
Operations.

10.01.02

Bulk Storage Vessel Safety Distances


The minimum recommended safety distances between storage vessels and between
vessels and other facilities are shown in Tables 1 and 2 and illustrated in Figure
10.01.01. The distances are measured horizontally between the various features, i.e.
the path that escaping LPG could be expected to follow.

Table 1. Safety Distances for Vessels - Water Capacity up to 265 m

Description

Minimum Safety Distance

Between LPG storage vessels

One quarter of the sum of the diameters of


adjacent vessels

Between vessel and Class I and Class II product


tanks

15 m from top of bund wall surrounding for


class I and II tanks

Between vessel and low pressure refrigerated


LPG tanks

One diameter of the largest low pressure


refrigerated storage tank, but not less than 30
m

Between vessel and building containing


flammable material, filling buildings, filling points,
etc.

15 m

Related to water capacity of the vessel as


follows:
Between vessel and site boundary, processing
units, workshop, etc. or any fixed source of
ignition

Up to 135 m - 15 m
3

Above 135 m - 22.5 m


3

(up to 265 m )

Table 2. Safety Distances for Vessels - Water Capacity of 265 m or over


Description

Minimum Safety Distance

Between LPG storage vessels

Equal to the diameter of the largest


vessel, and with a lower limit of 2.5 m
and an upper limit of 10 m

Between vessel and manifold (measured


between equator of vessel and centre of
separation wall)

5m

Between vessel and edge of plant


road/or pipe track

10m

Between vessel and pipeline terminal


fitting at road/rail filling/discharge points
and cylinder filling points

15m

Between vessel and processing unit,


laboratory, office building, building
containing flammable products, other
buildings where personnel are
concentrated, and site boundary fence

30m

Between vessel and air intakes of


furnaces, fired boilers, air compressors,
etc.

50m

Between vessel and air intakes of


furnaces, fired boilers, air compressors,
etc., if air intakes are located higher than
5 m above ground level

30m

Between vessel and tanks for flammable


liquids

10.01.03

15 m between vessel shell and centre of


the top of the bund wall surrounding
crude oil, Class 1, and Class II product,
and low pressure refrigerated LPG tanks.
15 m between vessel shell and tank shell
for Class III product

Safety Distances for Cylinder Filling and Storage


The minimum recommended safety distances between cylinder filling/storage
buildings and other facilities or site boundary, and between cylinder storage areas
and other facilities or site boundary, are shown in Table 3 and illustrated in Figure
10.01.01.

Table 3. Safety Distances for Cylinder Filling and Storage Building and Areas

Description

Minimum Distance

From:
Cylinder filling building, cylinder
filling area, or combined
filling/storage building
To:

LPG pressure vessels

Flammable product tanks

Road/rail filling/discharge
points

15m

Cylinder stacks/storage
areas

10m

Offices, workshops, site


boundary fence, fixed
source of ignition, etc.

15m

15m
15m to centre of the top of the bund wall
surrounding the product tank or to the tank
shell where no bund is required

From:
Cylinder stage/storage area
To;

LPG pressure vessels

15m

Flammable product tanks

15 m to centre of the top of the bund wall


surrounding the product tank or to the tank
shell where no bund is required

Road/rail filling/discharge
points

15m

Cylinder filling building/


10m filling and storage
building or filling area

10m

Offices workshops, site


15m boundary fence, fixed
source of ignition, etc.

15m

10.01.04

Location and Layout


When assessing the suitability of any site for the location of LPG bulk storage and
cylinder filling, handling, and storage facilities the following aspects should be
considered:

10.01.05

(a)

The safety distance requirements specified in Tables 1, 2 and 3.

(b)

The prevailing wind direction in relation to residential buildings, other


industries, public railways/roads/waterways, overhead power lines, working
areas.

(c)

The effect of site topography on dispersal of escaped product, i.e. flow


towards ignition sources, collecting areas etc.

(d)

Access for fire-fighting personnel and equipment.

(e)

The prevailing wind direction in relation to ignition sources.

(f)

Space for the safe extension of the plant.

Bulk Storage Area


The main points are as follows:
(a) Confinement.
Bund walls should not be provided around pressure storage vessels.
Where their provision is warranted by site conditions, low separation walls may be
used between vessels, or between vessels and pipe tracks, roads, working areas,
etc., to deflect any leakage away from these points. The height of separation walls
should not exceed 0.5 m. In certain instances (e.g. due to the characteristics of
the product, climatic conditions, site conditions, or a combination of these),
collecting areas may be needed to confine or restrict the flow of escaped LPG or
any other product, e.g. pentane. Any collecting pits required should be shallow, to
facilitate dispersal of product (provided that it is not refrigerated product).

(b) Grading
To prevent escaped product from collecting under or in the immediate vicinity Of
any storage vessel, the ground under it and for at least 5 m around it should slope
away at a minimum gradient of 1 in 50. The slope should be arranged to divert
flow from the manifold area or any other important area, e.g. processing unit,
working area.

(c) Ground Finish.


To facilitate the flow of escaped product away from vessels, the ground beneath
them and in the immediate vicinity should be smooth and well compacted; neither
gravel nor bitumen should be used, but heavy concrete is unnecessary.

(d) Separation Wall


A separation wall 0.6 m (max) in height is required between the manifold area and
the storage vessels to prevent low between them.

(e) Piping
Only piping directly associated with the storage vessels should be located within
the storage area itself, or between it and the manifold system.

(f) Surface Drainage


To prevent spillages from reaching the main drainage system, surface water from
the storage and manifold area should be directed to main drainage through a trap,
e.g. a culvert. The design and layout of storage area drainage should take into
account the volume of water provided for spray cooling of vessels and fire hose
water streams.

10.01.06

Storage
The main points are as follows:`
(a) Design Code
Vessels should be designed and constructed in accordance with an acceptable
pressure vessel code, preferably BS 1515 or equivalent.
(b) Maximum Operating Pressure
The maximum operating pressure is the vapour pressure of the product at the
maximum temperature it reaches inside the vessel during normal service, plus any
over-pressure developed for operational reasons, e.g. back pressures resulting
from filling connections terminating in the vapour space. In temperate climates,
maximum vapour pressure should be determined at a temperature of 35C (95F);
in tropical regions 40C (104F) is applicable. In all cases, the choice of
temperature should be supported by reference to meteorological data. The
maximum vapour pressures of commercial propane and butane at 35C (95F)
and 40C (104F) are as follows:

C
(F)

Vapour Pressure of Commercial


Propane Propane (19.6 bars
(284lbf/in) at 50C (122F))

Vapour Pressure of Commercial


Butane(5.9 bars ) (86 lbf/in) at
50C (122F))

13.8bars (200 lbf/in) ga

4.4bars(64 lbf/in) ga

15.7bars (228 lbf/in) ga

5.2 bars (75 lbf/in) ga

35
(95)
40
(104)

If the vapour pressure of the product falls between the values indicated for butane
and propane respectively, e.g. when a mixture is being handled, the advantages of
designing for propane service instead of for the mixture should be considered in
relation to the additional cost involved. In any case, the vapour pressure for the
mixture must allow for the normal variations in product manufacture and supply.

(c) Design Pressure


The design pressure used for the top of LPG storage vessels should be the greater of:
(i) 110% of the maximum operating pressure, or
(ii) the maximum operating pressure plus 1.7 bars (25 lbf/in)
The design pressure used for the bottom of the vessel should equal that for the top,
plus the static head of the contents (which should allow for hydraulic testing with
water).

(d) Vacuum Conditions


For countries where periods of low ambient temperature may reduce the vapour
pressure of the stored product below atmospheric pressure, the vessel design must be
checked for external pressure.
The problem of vacuum formation in vessels becomes more acute as the butane
content (especially 'N' butane) is increased. However. as vacuum conditions can arise
through malfunctions, failure to design for sub-atmospheric pressure within the vessel
can present an additional hazard.

(e) Vessel Connections


The following points require attention:
(i)

Bottom lines. Only one product line should be connected to the bottom of the
vessel. It may be used for both filling and discharging or for discharge
purposes alone. If an internal safety valve is fitted at this tank connection (see
(iii)), a small (2-inch maximum) by-pass connection should be provided and
used for drainage purposes when not required for product use, see Figure
10.01.02.

(ii)

Top lines. Top connections may be provided for filling, pressure equalisation
(vapour), and by-pass return.

(iii)

Emergency valves, The single product-line connected to the bottom of the


vessel should be provided with either:

A remotely controlled fail-safe type valve mounted internally in the vessel,


or,

A remotely controlled fail-safe type shut-off valve located at the manifold


side of the separation wall between manifold and vessel. The line
between the vessel and the shut-off valve should be of all-welded
construction and considered part of the vessel. It should be constructed of
ASTM A 106 Grade A material and subjected to the same inspection and
non-destructive testing as the vessel. The line should be 4-inch (min)
nominal diameter to Schedule 80 for the 4-inch size and Schedule 40 for
sizes of 6-inch or larger.

The top connections should be provided with remotely controlled fail-safe


type shut-off valves if the lines extend below the maximum Liquid-level,
otherwise a shut-off valve and either a non-return valve or an excess-flow
valve may be used.
(iv)

Product lines. All product lines connected to a vessel should be adequately


supported on the vessel foundation in such a manner that forces and bending
moments on the vessel are kept within acceptable limits. Provision must be
made for line expansion, contraction, vibration, etc., e.g. by using long bends,
expansion joints should not be used in the storage area.

Product lines in the storage area should be as short as possible and above
ground; discharge lines should slope down from the vessel to the manifold/pump
suction.

(f) Vessel Fittings


The following points require attention:
(i)

Emergency valves. AD connections to vessels (other than the drain


connection(see (h)) and those for pressure relief valves) exceeding 1.4 mm
(0.055 inch) in diameter should be fitted with emergency valves such as
Shand and Jurs hydraulic valves, excess flow valves, non-return valves.

(ii)

Manhole, Generally, vessels should be fitted with only one manhole which
should be located above maximum liquid-level.

(iii)

Instruments. All vessels should be provided with all the following instruments,
suitable for operation at the design pressure of the vessel and preferably at its
test pressure:

A main liquid-level gauge.

An auxiliary liquid-level gauge.

A pressure gauge.

A high-level alarm or fixed ullage gauge.

A temperature measuring device.

Mounting of these instruments on the top of the vessel is preferable although


not always practicable. Glass level-gauges should not be used.
(g) Safety Relief Valves
The following points require attention:
(i) General . LPG storage vessels must be adequately protected by safety/relief
valves directly connected to the vapour space of the vessel.
Safety/relief valves should be provided to protect against:

Over-pressurisation due to abnormal operational conditions, e.g. overfilling,


high run-down temperatures or high temperatures due to solar radiation.

Over-pressurisation due to fire exposure.

Separate safety/relief valves may be installed to cover each of the abovementioned categories.
Provision of a spare safety/relief valve or connection should be considered for
these, to facilitate servicing/maintenance of safety/relief valves.

(ii) Materials . The materials used for safety/relief valves and their components. e.g.
springs and valve discs, must be suitable for use with LPG and for operation at
low temperatures.
(Note: In general -50C (-58F) may be assumed.)
(iii) Set pressures and capacities of safety/relief valves. The main points are as
follows:

Safety/relief valves for abnormal operating conditions. Safety/relief valves


intended to prevent over-pressurisation caused by abnormal operating
conditions, e.g. overfilling, should be large enough for the most severe condition
likely to arise - normally the maximum pumping rate of the filling pump(s) or the
maximum liquid capacity of the control valve in the supply line.
The safety/relief valves should be set to open at approximately the design
pressure of the vessel and should prevent the pressure due to abnormal
operating conditions from rising above 110% of the design pressure.
For the correct sizing of safety/relief valves see Appendix 10.01.03.

Safety/relief valves for fire exposure. Safety/relief valves intended to prevent


over-pressurisation caused by fire exposure should be large enough for the
quantities of vapour generated under fire exposure conditions (see (iv)).
The safety/relief valves should be set to open at a pressure not exceeding 110%
of the design pressure and should prevent the pressure due to fire exposure from
rising above 120% of the design pressure.

Heat input. The quantity of vapour generated in a vessel, requiring relief during
fire exposure, is determined by the rate of heat input to the vessel's contents.
The method of calculating safety/relief valve sizes given here applies only to
vessels located in storage areas fully in accordance with this manual, i.e. the
ground has been graded and surfaced to prevent the collection of escaped product
beneath vessels or in their immediate vicinity. Where such conditions do not apply
the service companies should be consulted.
The heat input should be calculated using the formula given in the American
Petroleum Institute publication RP 52O entitled Recommended practice for the
design and installation of pressure-relieving systems in refineries - Part I, making
no allowance for the existence of any insulation on the vessel:
Metric units (SI)
Q = 155.5 A

0.82

Q = Total heat input, MJ


A = Wetted surface (internal surface in
contact with liquid product) in m
within a height of 8 m above
grade * or in the case of spheres
at least the elevation of the
maximum horizontal diameter or a
height of 8 m, whichever is the
greater.

British units
Q = 21000 A

0.82

Q = BTU/h
A = Wetted surface in ft included within
a height of 25ft above grade * or in
the case of spheres at least the
elevation of the maximum
horizontal diameter or a height of
25 ft, whichever is the greater

Heat inputs in terms of surface area based upon the API formula quoted are shown
in Figure 10.01.04.
Note: the term 'grade' refers to any level at which a moderate fire could be
sustained, i.e. for normal storage 'grade' means ground-level.

Rate of discharge. The safety/relief valves must be able to discharge vapour at a


rate at least equal to the total heat input Q, as determined above, divided by the
latent heat of vaporisation of the product at a temperature/pressure equivalent to
120% of the design pressure of the vessel.
This calculation should be in accordance with API RP 520 - Part 1.

Safety/relief valve for combined duty. When one or a group of safety/relief


valves is installed to protect against both overpressurisation caused by
abnormal operating conditions and fire exposure, it should be set to open at
100% of the design pressure and should have a capacity at least equal to the
greater of the values determined for abnormal operation or fire exposure (see
(iii), first two items). Use of combined duty valves in this way is normal in
Marketing.

(iv) Installation requirements. The main points are as follows:

Cross-sectional area. The internal cross-sectional area of the nozzle(s) on


the vessel and of any inlet header on which the safety/relief valves are
mounted should at least equal the total inlet areas connections) of the
safety/relief valves required.
The cross-sectional area of the discharge pipe from any safety/relief valve
must at least equal the outlet area of the valve.

Safety/relief valves for abnormal operating conditions. A safety/relief valve


provided solely to cope with abnormal operating conditions, e.g. overfilling,
should preferably discharge into a flare system. If this is not practicable, the
relief line should be connected to a vent located in a safe area; the relief line
can include a small vessel (provided with a level alarm) to prevent liquid
discharge. The relief Line must be able to take the full flow from the
safety/relief valve with minimum risk of blockage. It should be constructed of
materials suitable for low temperature operation and provision should be
made for contraction, expansion, etc. See also (g) (ii).

Safety/relief valves for fire exposure. The safety relief valve(s) provided for fire
exposure conditions should discharge vertically upwards to atmosphere
through vent pipes. The outlet pipe(s) should extend at least 2 m above the
platform at the top of the vessel and should be provided with
drain/condensate outlets and loose fitting rain/dirt caps.
In cold climates, apart from drain/condensate outlets, precautions should be
taken to prevent freezing of the safety/relief valves if this could occur.
The outlet pipe(s) on side-outlet safety/relief valves should be adequately
supported on the vessel shell to minimise bending moments on the nozzles
caused by inactive forces from relief discharge. See Figure 10.01.05.

Isolating valves Isolating valves of the fire-safe type should be provided


wherever necessary, to facilitate operations and servicing of emergency
valves. Other points are:

If stop valves are positioned between the vessel and the safety/relief
valves, e.g. to facilitate maintenance/testing, they should be adequately
interlocked. The use of Rego multi-port manifolds for this purpose is
recommended.

When arranging for the isolation of safety/relief valves, the capacity of


those remaining connected to the vapour space of the vessel must be
sufficient for the greater of the requirement for maloperation or fire
exposure, see (g) (iii).

(h) Drain Connections


The main points are as follows:
(i) Facilities. A drain connection should be provided at the lowest part of the tank
adjacent to the discharge line, and equipped with an internally fitted valve; or
on the combined discharge/fill line at the manifold side of the first shut-off
valve (manual or remotely controlled).
The drain connection should consist of a 2-inch nozzle fitted with a fire-Safe
ball valve, followed by at least 0.6 m of 2-inch pipe. This should be adequately
supported and should carry a second valve of maximum -inch dia followed
by sufficient piping to ensure discharge in a safe location, see Figure
10.01.02.
The -inch valve may be a hand operated spring-loaded type.
(ii) Freezing conditions. In cold climates, drainage facilities should be
adequately protected against freezing, e.g. by tracing, insulation.
(iii) Operation of drainage

Opening of valves. Both shut-off valves should nominally be fully closed.


To start drainage, first open fully the 2-inch valve immediately adjacent to
the storage vessel, then open the -inch valve gradually until the required
rate of discharge is reached.

Drainage should be stopped if excessive amounts of LPG appear in the


drain effluent, particularly if dispersal is not quick.

The drainage system must be attended constantly by an operator while


open.

Closure of valves. Fully close the -inch valve, then start closing the 2inch valve adjacent to the vessel. The liquid product trapped between the
valves should be drained (in the absence of a hydrostatic relief valve) by
reopening and subsequently reclosing the -inch valve.
Full closure of both valves must be checked.

Blockage of drain system. If there is no discharge from the drain line


during the drainage operation, both drain valves should be closed.
Measures to remove any obstruction (most likely to be at the -inch
valve) should not be taken until both valves have been closed. If the
obstruction appears to be in the 2-inch valve, it should be isolated before
taking further steps to deal with the obstruction.

(j)

Supports and Foundations.


The main points are as follows:
(i)

Horizontal vessels. Horizontal vessels should preferably be provided with


two supports and mounted on concrete or masonry piers in a way that will
accommodate expansion/contraction movements (fixed and sliding ends).
The shell of the vessel should not be in direct contact with the concrete or
masonry piers. Steel saddles should be welded to the shell.
The vessel should be fixed to the pier at the end to which the product lines are
connected and should slope downwards to the end from which it is drained.
The sliding saddle and its support should be designed to prevent movement of
the vessel in lateral and vertical directions, see Figure 10.01.06.

(ii)

Vertical vessels. Vertical vessels may be supported on legs or on skirts. Legs


should be constructed in the same way as for spheres. Where skirts are used,
the space inside the skirt should be adequately ventilated. Legs and skirts
should be fire-proofed up to the vessel shell, irrespective of its height, with
deflectors to prevent moisture and dirt from accumulating between the fireproofing and the supporting structure. Skirts must be fire-proofed inside and
out.

(iii)

Spheres. For spheres, fire-proofed structural steel supports or concrete


supports should be used. Fire-proofing of structural steel legs should be
continued up to the vessel shell, irrespective of its height, with deflectors to
prevent moisture and dirt from accumulating between the fire-proofing and the
supporting structure.

(iv)

Foundations Foundations should be of sound design (see Civil Engineering


Code of Practice No 4, Foundations: the Institution of Civil Engineers and/ or
PTS 34.00.01.30, Minimum Requirements for Civil Design and Engineering,
and PTS 34.18.02.31 -, Piling) and should take into account the following
aspects:

The safe bearing pressure of the site.

The weight of the tank and its contents, which should cover hydraulic
testing if used.

Wind/earthquake/snow loading.

Operational loading.

Settlement, particularly differential settlement, should be limited to prevent


excessive stresses in the connected pipework and tank shell. Flotation must
be taken into account and anchoring provided as necessary
(k)

Safe Filling Level


Vessels should never be filled to such a level that they may become liquid full
through an increase in temperature of the contents.
The ullage needed to avoid the risk of liquid fullness is 1% of the tank volume,
at the highest temperature the vessel contents may attain in normal service.
See method of calculating safe filling quantities for tanks given in Appendix
02.07.02

Liquefied Petroleum Gases


Draining water from LPG storage vessels
The drainage systems and procedures currently outlined In the Liquefied Petroleum Gases manual
(10.01.06(h)) and in Volume 3 of the Plant Operating Manual - LPG Operations (02.02.06) are to be
amended to incorporate improved safety measures. Until the amendments are issued the following
should be detached, copied and inserted in the relevant place in each manual.
Drainage system
The revised drainage system which is illustrated in
Figure 1 is similar to that used previously. However,
attention is drawn to the following changes:
The two drain valves are to be separated by a
minimum length of 0.6 m of piping to minimise the
risk of simultaneous obstruction of both but are now
to be positioned relative to one another to enable
simultaneous operation of both by a single operator.
The drain effluent is to be discharged outside the
periphery of the vessel and is to be within
observation of the drain operator whilst actuating the
drain vales.
The downstream drain valve, i.e. that most
remote from the vessel, is to be of a type which will
ensure closure unless held open by the operator, i.e.
it is to act as a deadman's closure.

Drainage procedure
The procedure to be followed in draining
LPG vessels is as follows:
1 Check that the surrounding area is
clear and free from any hazard, e.g. a source of
ignition.
2 Check that both drain valves are fully closed.
3 Open slowly and fully the drain valve nearest to the
storage vessel (the upstream drain valve).
4 After approximately one minute close the upstream
drain valve.

b If water and/or contaminant discharges, close


the downstream drain valve. Then proceed as
follows:
7 Re-open slowly but fully the upstream drain valve.
8 Re-open fully the downstream drain valve and
continue draining until the discharge is substantially
free of water and/or contaminant.
9 Close the downstream drain valve.
10

Close the upstream drain valve.

11
Re-open the downstream drain valve until
product release stops then re-close the downstream
drain valve thus ending the operation.
Note: During the drainage procedure operators
should take the following action:
a If vapour does not disperse quickly, or any hazard
arises, close drain valves at once, downstream valve
first. Warn any third parties of the hazard and do not
re-commence draining until conditions are safe.
b Remain within reach of both drain valves
throughout the operation and do not leave the site at
any time without closing both valves, downstream
valve first and repeating Step 11.
c Always check that both valves are firmly closed and
secure before leaving the site.
The procedure detailed above is similar to that
previously but has the advantage that greater
control/safety exists during the initial stages of the
operation
when
the
presence/absence of
water/contamination is being established.

5 Open the drain valve remote from the storage


vessel, i.e. the downstream drain valve (but only after
the upstream drain valve has been fully closed).
6 a If the discharge water and/or contaminant free
then close the downstream drain valve after
discharge stops. Check both drain valves are fully
closed, thus ending the operation.

Note: Further copies of this article can be obtained


from SIPC (MK/O12).

See lijustration on page

FIGURE 1

TYPICAL DETAIL OF INSTALLATION OF INTERNAL REMOTELYCONTROLLED VALVE AND DOUBLE VALVED DRAINAGE
SYSTEM.

FIGURE 10.01.01

SAFETY DISTANCES FOR LPG FACILITIES

FIGURE 10.01.02

TYPICAL DETAIL OF INSTALLATION OF INTERNAL REMOTELY


CONTROLLED VALVE WITH BY-PASS

SIZING OF SAFETY/RELIEF VALVES FOR ABNORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS

The size of safety/relief valves should be suitable for flashing liquid.


The maximum filling rate should be used (either the maximum pumping rate of the supply
pump(s) or the maximum liquid capacity of the control valve in the supply line).
The percentage of liquid expected to flash should be established by means of a
pressure/enthalpy diagram.
The total safety/relief area required is the sum of that for liquid relief and that for vapour relief,
as shown in the following example:
Item

Propane, bars ga

Butane, bars ga

Maximum operating pressure

15.7

5.2

Design pressure (maximum operating


pressure +1.7 bars)

17.4

6.9

Set pressure safety/relief valve (100% design


pressure)

17.4

6.9

Maximum relief pressure (110%


Design pressure)

19.14

7.6

Maximum pump capacity

20 tonnes/h

20 tonnes/h

As the orifice formula is based on critical velocities. assume a critical pressure drop over the
nozzle, i.e. from 20.06 bars abs, to 10.03 bars abs for propane and from 8.5 bars abs. to 4.25
bars abs, for butane.
The pressure/enthalpy diagram then gives (following the constant enthalpy line) for propane,
starting at 20.06 bars abs, approximately 27% vapour and approximately 73% liquid. For
butane the corresponding figures are: approximately 23% vapour and 77% liquid.
In this example the requirement is therefore a safety!relief valve to vent either:
(a) 20 tonnes/hour of propane, 27% as vapour and 73% as liquid at 19.14 bars ga.
Or
(b) 20 tonnes/hour of butane, 23% as vapour and 77% as liquid at 7.6 bars ga.
These figures should be used in specifying the safety /relief valves, to enable manufacturers
to offer the correct type.

FIGURE 10.01.04

SIZING OF SAFETY/RELIEF VALVES FOR FIRE EXPOSURE OF


BARE VESSELS OF ALL TYPES

FIGURE 10.01.05

TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SAFETY/RELIEF VALVES WITH SIDE


OUTLET

Note: The 1-inch diameter hole near the lowest point of the discharge pipe is for drainage of rain
water/ condensate. It should be positioned to avoid flame impingement on the vessel if LPG escaping
from it igniters.

FIGURE 10.01.06

SADDLES FOR HORIZONTAL LPG STORAGE VESSELS

10.01.10

Pipelines
Pipelines should be sufficiently flexible to allow for the settlement of tanks or other
equipment, thermal expansion and contraction, and any other stresses which may
occur.
If LPG in the liquid phase is likely to be trapped between two valves. a pressure relief
valve must be provided.

10.01.11

Valves
Valves should be made of cast steel.

10.01.12

Mixed Products
If more than one grade of product is handled, the tanks must not be manifolded
together; it must be ensured that they cannot be interconnected accidentally.

10.01.13

Excess-Flow valves
Excess-flow valves should be used to minimise the escape of product in the event of
pipe fracture or hose failure. They should be fitted to all tank connections other than
those for relief valves, liquid level gauges, and where the connection through the tank
shell is smaller than a No 54 drill size (0.055 in or 1.4 mm dia approx) and also at pipe
or hose junctions for bulk lorry and rail tank wagon loading and discharging points.

10.01.14

Remote Control Valves


Remote control valves, such as the hydraulically operated type, should be fitted to
liquid outlet connections where flow rates from main storage tanks are too high to
permit the use of available excess-flow valves.

10.01.15

Hoses
Hoses must be made from materials which are resistant to the solvent action of the
products. Their working pressures must not be less than the highest pressures they
will have to sustain.
Hoses should be pressure tested at regular intervals and during these tests the
electrical continuity between flanges and couplings on the ends of the hoses should
be checked.

10.01.16

Cylinder Filling and Storage Sheds


LPG cylinders should be filled only in areas reserved exclusively for this purpose.
If one budding only is used for both filling and storage, fire walls to eaves level should
separate each of the areas used for filling, storage of empty cylinders, and storage of
full cylinders.
If separate buildings are used for these purposes a fire break of between 5 m to 10 m
(15 ft to 30 ft) should be provided between each.

Floor and eaves level ventilation should be provided in all buildings used for filling or
storage of LPG. These buildings should be at least 30 m (100 ft) from any open fire or
any place where naked flames are used, and not less than 15 m (50 ft) from
installation boundary, storage tanks for any product, and filling and storage buildings
for other products.
Fork-lift trucks and other self-propelled vehicles must not enter the filling shed.
However. they may be used in the empty cylinder and full cylinder storage buildings
provided they are powered by diesel engines, equipped with water-washed exhaust
systems fitted with flame traps and that electrical equipment of any description is
excluded.

10.01.17

Operations
The main safety precautions to be observed when operating an LPG filling plant are
as follows:

10.01.18

(a)

Cylinders must not be overfilled.

(b)

Heavy ends or water must not be allowed to accumulate in the cylinders.

(c)

All cylinders must be in sound condition and free from leaks when leaving the
filling shed.

(d)

Cylinders must not be filled with a product that has a vapour pressure higher
than that for which they are designed, e.g. propane must not be filled into
butane cylinders.

(e)

Leakage of vapour into the atmosphere of the filling shed must be reduced to
the minimum.

Emergency Shut-Off Valve


An emergency shut-off valve, which will close automatically in the event of fire, should
be fitted on the supply fine close to its point of entry into the filling shed.

10.01.19

Pumping Pressure
The maximum pumping pressure should be such that it will be impossible to exceed
three quarters of the test pressure of the cylinders being filled.

10.01.20

Electrical Fittings
Electrical equipment within 30 m (100 ft) of any LPG storage or handling equipment
should be flameproof.

10.01.21

Bonding of Equipment
Equipment used for handling. conveying or storing LPO must be electrically bonded
and earthed at an adequate number of points. Resistance to earth should not exceed
7 ohms at any point. This figure should be checked regularly at intervals not
exceeding 6 months.

10.01.22

Rail Sidings
Rail sidings within an LPG depot should be laid level and should be electrically
insulated from the main line. Sidings should be earthed with a maximum resistance of
7 ohms.
When rail tank waggons are being loaded or discharged, care should be taken to see
that the waggons do not bridge the insulated joint in the rails, and that they are not
connected to any waggon which bridge the joint.
During product discharge, warning notices in the appropriate language should be set
on the rails 20 m (60 ft) either side reading "Danger-Rail Tank Wagon Connected".

10.01.23

Filling New or Gas-Freed Storage Tanks


Attention is drawn to the added precautions which have to be taken during the initial
filling of storage tanks, pipelines and equipment which contain air, or which have been
gas-freed for maintenance purposes.

10.02.00
10.02.01

PIPES, VALVES, AND FITTINGS


Pipes
The main points are as follows:
(a) General
Product lines should be to API specification 5L grade A or B or equivalent. The
safe working pressure depends upon the pressure rating of valves and fittings
used, and should be:
(i) ANS B 165 Class 150 or better for butane service,
(ii) ANS B 165 Class 300 or better for propane service.
For mixtures of butane and propane, (ii) is recommended.

(b) Flexibility
Expansion and contraction of plant lines should be provided for by using long
radius bends, elbows, etc. Expansion joints should never be used near storage
and are necessary only in special circumstances on long or large diameter tanker
discharge lines or similar supply lines.
Plant/depot lines should generally be above ground, and supported at regular
intervals to allow lateral movement.

(c) Cross-over
Pipeline systems designed to handle more than one product should have double
valves or equivalent systems on cross-overs and be provided with means for
changing grade indicating signs.

(d) Hydrostatic Relief Valves


Any length of line in which liquid LPG may be trapped between shut-off valves,
must be equipped with hydrostatic relief valves. Those immediately adjacent to
pressure vessels should be of steel, see 10.02.02.
Hydrostatic valves on normal plant lines may discharge directly to atmosphere if
suitably sited, but relief valves on long/large diameter lines should be of the bypass type and should ensure that expanded product is returned to storage
vessels.

(e) Flanges
Raised-face steel flanges to the ratings prescribed in (a) should be used with
CAF gaskets. Screw-on flanges should be limited to sizes smaller than 2-inch,
and API tapered line pipe thread should be used. Weldneck flanges should be
used in preference to the slip-on welded type, see the Installations and Depots
manual, 05.01.03.

10.02.02

Valves
The main points are as follows;
(a) General
All main isolating valves, tank valves, and control valves, including all those relied
upon to work in an emergency, should be of cast steel construction. Fire-safe ball
valves with teflon seats and seals are recommended as an all purpose valve.

(b) Emergency Valves


(i) Remote controlled valves. Remotely operated emergency valves must:

Be capable of manual operation.

Fail safe, i.e. close or remain closed on failure of actuating power (electricity,
compressed air, hydraulic pressure, etc.).

(ii) Excess-flow valves. Excess-flow valve sizes should be chosen to ensure


that:

They operate in the event of downstream pipeline or equipment failure.

They do not function during normal operations.

Excess-flow valve sizing is difficult if products of widely divergent composition


have to be handled under widely varying climatic temperature conditions, and
their use in such circumstances should be avoided.
(iii) Hose connections. An emergency valve, e.g. Shand and Jurs hydraulic valve or
excess-flow valve, should be fitted close to pipeline terminations and
connections of hoses or flexible arms at every tanker, barge, bulk lorry or rail
tank wagon filling/discharge point.
The provision of safety valves immediately upstream of every cylinder filling
hose is not practicable, but the liquid feed line into a cylinder filling building or
area, and the return line, should incorporate them.

10.03.00
10.03.01

CYLINDER FILLING, STORAGE AND HANDLING


Location
Cylinder filling and cylinder storage, whether within buildings or in the open, should be
sited in accordance with 10.01.03.

10.03.02

Buildings
Cylinder filling and storage buildings should preferably be of open sided construction.
If this is not possible for climatic or other masons, equipment for preventing the
accumulation of vapour must be installed.
Cylinder filling and storage buildings must be of first-proof construction and provided
with a minimum of two exits for personnel. Pits, depressions, etc. in the floor should
be avoided; when unavoidable, they must be adequately ventilated.
Filling and storage areas at lorry tail-board height should have the space between
floor and ground level either completely fined in or completely free of extraneous
material and well ventilated. Drains must be provided with gas traps.

10.03.03

Cylinder Filling
No cylinder should be filled unless it:
(a)

Is of known type and capacity.

(b)

Is in sound condition, including its valve.

(c)

Is within its legally


inspections/tests).

(d)

Has safe capacity, tare weight and/or gross overall filled weight or
equivalent markings that are legible .

defined

qualification

period

(between

No cylinder which is not in a safe condition must be allowed to leave the


filling/working area. Unsafe cylinders, e.g. overfilled or leaking, must be dealt with
quickly, not allowed to accumulate or litter the filling/working area.

10.03.04

Checks before Filling


All cylinders should be checked before filling, see 10.03.03.
Cylinder filling, check weighing/level checking and leak detection equipment should
be checked for accuracy daily. Overfilling/leakage incidence should be monitored
continuously.
Filling hoses should be inspected weekly and their end connections and electrical
continuity should be checked monthly and the hoses tested. Hoses should be
downgraded at the first signs of deterioration.

10.03.05

Checks after Filling


Cylinders should be checked after filling to ensure that:
(a) They am not overfilled.
(b) They are not leakage.
(c) They art in satisfactory condition for storage, ....handling, transport and use.
Cylinders failing to meet then requirements must be dealt with quickly, not allowed to
accumulate or litter the filling/working areas.

10.03.06

Painting Facilities
Where painting facilities are located close to a filling and/or storage area, stocks of
paint held in or immediately adjacent to the areas must be as small as practicable.
Paint spray nozzles must be bonded to an earthed system.
Water wash and extraction equipment must be provided for dealing with excess paint,
vapour, etc. It must be kept in sound condition and used whenever painting is in
progress.

10.03.07

Storage of Cylinders
The main points are as follows:
(a) Segregation
Cylinders which can be classified and segregated (e.g. are full, empty, for repair,
requir e revalving, etc.) should be stored in separate clearly defined stacks and
areas (possibly within the same building or storage area) and clearly identified.

(b) Empty Cylinders


Cylinders returned to a plant for refilling am seldom truly 'empty'; they contain at
least LP G vapour and must be handled observing substantially the same safety
procedures as for full ones.
Cylinders which are empty, because they have been gas freed
are
new/reconditioned and have not been filled/gassed, are exempted from this
overall rulings.

(c) Cylinders fitted with Pressure Relief Valves


Cylinders fitted with pressure relief valves and containing liquid LPG must be
handled, transported, and stored upright so that the pressure relief valve is
always in contact with LPG vapour and not liquid. Once 'empty', i.e. they contain
no liquid, they may be stored/transported/handled horizontally, but it is preferable
to treat them as full ones, to avoid any risk of handling full ones as empties.

(d) Cylinder Valve Seals and Protection


Cylinders with valves that require scaling plugs or valve protection caps must
have these fitted before storage or transportation.

(e) Cylinder Stacks


Cylinder not fined with pressure relief valves may be stacked horizontally or
vertically, whether full or empty, provided that :
(i)

For horizontal stacking, cylinders are in rows of two, with bases in contact and
valves pointing to gangways between rows.

(ii)

For vertical sucking, cylinders are in rows of four with gangways between each
such group of four rows.
Cylinders stacked horizontally must be wedged to prevent rolling. In general,
five rows high when full and seven when empty for capacities up to about 15
kg of product, is the maximum for easy and safe handling. Cylinders of
capacity up to about 15 kg of product can be stacked vertically two of three
high, but the larger sizes are best kept at ground level.
Gangways between rows and between rows and the walls of enclosing
building or fences of outdoor storage should be wide enough to permit access
to and removal of any individual cylinder.

(iii) For palletised cylinders, horizontally or vertically to suit the pallet design, if not
fitted with pressure relief valves.
Pallets should be stacked in single or double rows with gangways between double
tows and between stacks and walls or fences.
Pallets which completely shield their contents from superimposed loads, may be
stacked as high as the building or the mechanical handling equipment in use
allows.

10.03.08

Cylinder Handling
The main points are as follows:
(a) General
Cylinders should be handled, i.e. stored and transported, with security nuts, valve
seals, protection caps, etc. (as appropriate) in position. The time during filling.
immediately before it and during check tests after filling is exempt from this
requirement.
Cylinders should always be handled in a manner that avoids damage to:
(i) Valves.
(ii) Footrings, shrouds, caps, hand rails.
(iii) Surface finish.
They should not be rolled on their sides, but should be:

Carried manually.

Wheeled on their footrings.

Carried by properly designed mechanical handling equipment.

(b) Cylinders with Pressure Relief Valves


Cylinders with pressure relief valves must always be handled, stored, and
transported with the PRV uppermost so that it is always in contact with vapour
and not liquid. The only time this rule can be ignored is when the cylinders can be
proved to contain no liquid LPG.

(c) Transport
Cylinders are very liable to suffer damage during transportation, dunnage.
securing ropes, etc., should be used to prevent/restrict movement between
cylinders and against the carrier.
The ventilation of cylinders in transport vehicles is a necessity, particularly at
platform level.

10.04.00

10.04.01

ELECTRICAL

General
All electrical equipment, equipment enclosures, power distribution system, lighting,
and static electricity protection should conform to the IP Electrical Safety Code -Model
Code of Safe Practice.

10.04.02

Area Classification
The IP code referred to in 10.04.01 gives recommendations for the installation of
electrical equipment in areas in which a flammable atmosphere which could be ignited
by an electrical source may be present (dangerous areas).
The areas detailed include the following divisional classifications which are dependent
upon the probability that a dangerous atmosphere will be present, i.e. an atmosphere
containing a significant quantity of flammable gas or vapour in a concentration
capable of ignition:
Division 1 -

An area in which a dangerous atmosphere is likely to occur in normal


operating conditions.

Division 2 -

An area in which a dangerous atmosphere can occur only in abnormal


conditions and not in normal operation.

Safe areas -

All areas not classified as dangerous.

The area classification designation for an LPG bulk storage and cylinder filling and
handling plant is given in Appendix 10.04.0 1.

10.04.03

Earthing and Bonding


Earthing and bonding should comply with the requirements of the IP Electrical Safety
Code and an effective earthing point or bonding connection should be provided at all
lorry/RTW filling/discharge points.
All transport vehicles should be effectively earthed/bonded to the filling/discharge
facilities before any LPG connection (hose or flexible arm) is made - similarly, the
LPG connection should be broken before the earthing/bonding.
See also the Electrical Practice manual.

APPENDIX 10.04.01

AREA CLASSIFICATION
Location

Extent of classified Area

Area Classification

Bulk storage vessels

Within 1.5 m (5 ft) in all directions from the vessel connections or


shell

Division I

Up to 1.5 rn (5 ft) above ground level and within the distances set
out for a fixed source of ignition in 10.01.02, Tables I to 3
inclusive

Division 2

Within direct path of discharge

Fixed electrical
equipment should not be
installed

Within 1.5 m (5 ft) in all other directions from the point of


discharge

Division I

Beyond 1.5 m (5 ft) but within 4.5 m (15 ft) in all other directions
from the point of discharge

Division 2

Relief valve discharge


points, bleed/drain outlets

Bulk vehicle loading and


unloading

Pumps and compressors


Outdoor in open air (see
note 3)
Indoors (with adequate
ventilation)
Cylinder filling and
handling

Open-air cylinder storage


or in open-sided buildings

Cylinder storage within an


enclosed building

Within 1.5 m (5 ft) in all directions from a point where connections Division I
are regularly made or disconnected for product transfer
Beyond 1.5 m (5 ft) but within 4.5 m (15 ft) from the point of
connection or disconnection

Division 2

Within 4.5 m (15 ft) in all directions

Division 2

Entire room and any adjacent room not separated by a vapourtight partition

Division I

Within the building

Division I

Outside the building up to 1.5 m (5 ft) above ground level and


within 15 m (50 ft) in any direction

Division 2

In the storage place up to a height of 1.5 rn (5 ft) above the top of


any stack, or beneath any roof over the storage place

Division 2

Outside the storage area or the space covered by any roof up to


1.5 rn (5 ft) above ground level within the distance set out for a
fixed source of ignition in 10.01.02, Table 3

Division 2

Within the building

Division I

Outside the building up to 1.5 m (5 ft) above ground level and


within the distances set out for a fLxed source of ignition in
10.01.02, Table 3

Division 2

Note:
1.

Where any area is classified under more than one factor, the more restrictive classification should prevail.

2.

Any pit, trench, or depression falling within a Division I or Division 2 area should be treated as a Division I area
throughout.

3.

The term outdoors in open air includes pumps, compressors and vaporisers which are covered by a canopy.

10.05.00

10.05.01

OPERATIONS

Plant Operating Manuals


Details of safe operating procedures are detailed in the series of Plant Operating
Manuals - LPG operations art covered in Volume 3.

10.05.02

Training
All personnel responsible for and involved in installing/commissioning/operating or
maintaining LPG plant and equipment, or in handling LPG should be instructed
regarding the physical characteristics of the product. They should also be adequately
instructed/trained in correct operation of the equipment and plant and familiar with all
emergency/fire control systems provided.

10.05.03

Venting
Any operation which involves the discharge of LPG to atmosphere is potentially
hazardous and necessitates making a preliminary check on the safety of the area,
and continuous direct supervision; such operations include the following:
(a) Draining.
(b) Hose/flexible arm connection/disconnection.
(c) Sampling.
(d) Gas freeing.
(e) Air freeing.
(f) Use of particular types of level gauge and ullage gauge.

10.05.04

Sampling
Sample bombs/containers must never be filled above their safe working level, i.e.
ullage must be left in them.

10.05.05

Protective Clothing
As LPG in contact with the flesh can produce cold burns, the use of protective
clothing and eye shields is mandatory where such risks may arise.

10.05.06

Transfer Operations
Transfer operations, irrespective of the size of the tanks/containers used, must never
be left unattended.

10.05.07

Segregation of Product
All vessels, filling connections, and pipelines should be clearly marked to show the
grade of LPG in use. Where more than one grade is handled, any interconnecting
system should be thoroughly checked to ensure that an unsuitable grade is not
discharged into any line, vessel or equipment not designed to handle it, and that
unacceptable product contamination will not occur.

10.05.08

Isolation
Storage vessels containing product but not used in an operation should be isolated
from the rest of the plant and pipeline system by closing their inlet/outlet valves.
Operating valves and emergency valves other than excess-flow valves on tanks and
pipeline systems should be closed after use, i.e. whenever the plant is unattended.

10.06.00

10.06.01

COMMISSIONING, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE

Permits
The Plant Operating Manual, particularly Volume 3 - LPG Operations, provides details
of safe operating procedures for the potentially hazardous operations of
commissioning, testing, and taking out of service. It is essential to follow these safe
practices and to use the 'permit' system whereby all stages of work are rigorously
scheduled and controlled.

10.06.02

Isolation
No plant or equipment being taken out of service should be opened up for entry,
inspection, etc., until it has been:
(a) Completely isolated from the rest of the LPG system.
(b) Cleared of LPG.
(c) Certified as gas free and safe for entry (if appropriate).

10.06.03

Venting and Draining


Commissioning, testing and taking Marketing plant out of service usually necessitates
venting product to atmosphere because no flare system is available.
It is essential to check the safety of the area before and throughout the operation, and
to ensure its immediate direct control by adequate and continuous supervision.

10.06.04

Entry
LPG vessels must not be entered until the necessary gas free and entry permits have
been issued; the entry permit must state whether or not breathing apparatus is a
requirement.
The use of standard harnesses and manned life-lines is obligatory.

10.06.05

Pressure Vessel Testing


Where there are no local government regulations concerning inspection and testing of
pressure vessels other than cylinders (see 10.06.07), the following procedures should
be followed:
(a) Vessels with Manholes
(i)

Every five years, each vessel should be thoroughly examined externally,


using ultrasonic or equivalent equipment to supplement the examination if
necessary.

(ii)

Every ten years each vessel should be given a full internal visual examination
with its five-yearly external examination.

(b) Vessels without Manhole


(i) Every five years each vessel should be thoroughly examined externally using
ultrasonic or equivalent testing equipment as necessary.
(ii) Every ten years each vessel should be examined thoroughly using plate
thickness measuring equipment or an hydraulic test at the vessel's test
pressure.

(c) All Vessels


(i) The ten-yearly inspection and testing should include removal of all fittings
for testing and servicing.
(ii) Whenever a vessel is opened for inspection, testing, or maintenance, it
should be thoroughly cleaned internally. If entry is not possible, it should
be cleaned by flushing with steam and/or a suitable solvent, see Plant
Operating Manual, Volume 3 - LPG Operations.

10.06.06

Pipeline Testing
LPG pipelines should be pressure tested regularly in accordance with the following
schedule, or more frequently where required by local legislation:
(a) Every 12 months:
(i) Pipelines, regardless of age, which run outside the depot boundaries.
(ii) Pipelines where a leak could be expected to affect third parties.

(b) Every two years:


(i) All other pipelines which have been in service for five years or more.
(ii) All other buried pipelines.
(iii) All lines which am water cleared.

(c) Every five years - all other lines.


See the Plant Operating Manual, Volume 3 - LPG Operations for further
details.

10.06.07

Cylinder Testing
In the absence of local regulations, LPG cylinders should be given a thorough
inspection every five years. Thorough visual examination necessitates removing loose
paint, scale, etc. Shell thickness should be checked by measuring pits, gouges, etc.

Hydraulic testing should be applied if them is any doubt about the strength of a
cylinder, and after repairs or exposure to fire.
See the Plant Operating Manual, Volume 3 - LPG Operations and Recommended
Procedures for Visual Inspection and Requalification of ICC Cylinders in LP Gas
Service issued by the National LP Gas Association, USA.

10.06.08

Emergency Valves and Systems


The closure of emergency valves, other than excess-flow valves, as required by
10.05.08, and their daily re-opening at the start of operations, provides a continuous
check on their operation. Excess-flow valve operation should also be checked
periodically, preferably without wasting product, e.g. by quick operation of valves.
The remaining emergency equipment and systems should also be checked
periodically, e.g. fire drills.

10.07.00

10.07.01

FIRE PRECAUTIONS

General
The possibility that a major outbreak of fire could lead to direct name impingement on
pressure vessels can be minimised by good plant design, layout, and operating
practice, and by educating and training personnel in both routine operations and
emergency action.
Consultation and cooperation should take place with the local fire authority and with
safety/fire control personnel of local industry as applicable.

10.07.02

Means of Access
Means of access must be provided to all main units of a plant, e.g. storage, cylinder
filling, bulk vehicle filling/discharge points.

10.07.03

Cooling Water Supply for LPG Bulk Storage


The minimum quantity of cooling water to be made available for fire control of bulk
storage vessels should be the sum of that provided by fixed water spray/deluge
systems, fire hoses and mobile equipment. It should be calculated on the basis of 8.5
litres/min/m of corrected vessel surface area calculated as follows:

10.07.04

Number of Vessels

Corrected Vessel Surface

One

That vessel

Two

The larger of the two plus half the other

Three

The largest vessel plus half the other two

Four or more

The largest vessel plus half the next three in size

Storage Vessel Cooling-water Facilities


The main points are as follows:
(a) Rate of Cooling Water
Each LPG storage vessel should be equipped with fixed water-cooling-facilities
which will ensure that the whole surface of the vessel and its supports are wetted.
The rate of water application should be not less than 4 litres/min/m of actual
surface area.

(b) Control of Cooling Water


The water supply to each vessel and to each other drenching system, e.g.
cylinder filling area, should be equipped with an independent control valve sited
outside the immediate hazardous area.

(c) Drainage
Design of the cooling water spray/deluge system should facilitate complete
drainage of dry sections. If brine is used for cooling water, the ability to flush the
system with fresh water should be considered.

10.07.05

Other Fixed-spray Systems

(a) Cylinder Filling


The cylinder filling area should be provided with a fixed water-spray system
which will isolate filling machines or filling carousels from the surrounding
areas.

(b) Cylinder Storage


Fixed-spray systems are not necessary for outdoor cylinder storage areas, or
for indoor areas provided that open-walled buildings of fireproof construction
area used and multi-directional approach is possible with fire hoses. Fixedspray systems should be provided in enclosed storage areas The water
application rate should be 4 litres/min/m of cylinder surface area for the
designed storage capacity.

(c) Bulk Lorry/RTW Discharge/Fill Points


Fixed water-spray systems are not necessary for bulk lorry/RTW discharge
/fill points unless the bulk lorry, trailer or RTV is used for storage
purposes and remains at the filling/discharge point on a permanent or
semi-permanent basis. ln such cases, fixed water-spray systems should be
provided to supply cooling water at the rates specified in 10.07.03 and
10.07.04.

10.07.06

Fire-water Main
A fire-water main should be sited well clear of all hazardous areas to provide
adequate water supplies to fixed-spray systems as outlined in 10.07.04 and 10.07.05
and hose streams as stated in 10.07.08. The fire-water main should be designed to
supply water at the higher of the following rates:
(a) 8.5 litres/min/m of corrected storage vessel surface area.
(b) Actual rate of water application from fixed water-cooling-facilities on vessels
(minimum 4 litres/min/m) plus that required for a minimum of four 2-inch hoses
equipped with spray nozzles and enough water for the cylinder filling area spray
system.

10.07.07

Water Pressure
The fire-water main should provide a pressure of 10 bars ga (150 lbf/in ga) for firewater hose streams at the farthest and most elevated parts of the plant under full fire
water usage.

10.07.08

Standpipes
The fire-water main should be equipped with standpipes located approximately 50m
apart.
Sufficient standpipes should be provided for each main working area of the plant (e.g.
lorry loading point, cylinder filling area, pump/manifold area, storage vessels) to be
reached by two fire-water hose streams from different directions, irrespective of wind
conditions.

10.07.09

Reserve Water Supply


At least two hours supply of water, at the rate specified in 10.07.06, should be
available, and if there is any doubt regarding the availability, continuity or pressure of
the local supply, a reserve tank and pumps must be installed.

10.07.10

First-aid Fire Extinguishers


The main points are as follows:
(a) Cylinder Filling Areas
There should be one 12-kg capacity (or equivalent) hand extinguisher per 50m
(500 ft) of floor area, with a minimum of three.

(b) Cylinder Storage Areas


There should be one 12-kg capacity (or equivalent) hand extinguisher per 100 m
(1000 ft) of floor area, with a minimum of two.

(c) Pumps or Compressors


At each pump or compressor station there should be one 12.-kg capacity (or
equivalent) hand extinguisher.

(d) Lorry Discharge/Fill Point


At each lorry discharge/fill point there should be at least one 12-kg capacity (or
equivalent) hand extinguisher.
(e) Types of Extinguisher

Dry chemical powder CO2 and BCF extinguishers are recommended for control of
fires involving LPG. Foam extinguishers should not be supplied.

10.08.00

FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL

10.08.01

Prevention
Most LPG fuses can be prevented. The most effective way of achieving this is by
using only equipment suitable for LPG service and by strict observance of safe
operating procedures, which must be taught to all personnel engaged in LPG
operations.
Most LPG fires result from the ignition of product which has escaped from its
containing system. Escape is sometimes due to equipment failure, but is more often
the result of human error, i.e. incorrect procedures.
It is therefore necessary to ensure that the safety requirements and procedures set
out here, and in other publications referred to, are fully understood and complied with
by all personnel.

10.08.02

General
The characteristics of LPG necessitate using different fire fighting/control techniques
from those applied to general petroleum products. However, as it may be necessary
to protect LPG plant and facilities from fires in adjacent plant and property, all
supervisory personnel engaged in LPG operations should know how to deal with all
types of fire, not merely those involving LPG.
It should be ensured that at least all supervisory personnel fully understand the
general fire-fighting recommendations of the Plant Operating Manual, Volume 1,
07.00.00. They should also take the programmed learning course - Shell Safety
Series No 3 - Fire Fighting.

10.08.03

Extinguishing Fires
Immediate action is the most important factor in fire control. The first few seconds
count, as fires develop and spread very quickly unless prompt and efficient action is
taken.
LPG fuses at the point of leakage can be extinguished by enveloping them with a
water spray, or a suitable smothering agent, e.g. dry chemical powder, or by a direct
attack at the base of the flame. However, LPG fires should not, except in special
circumstances, be extinguished until the escape Of product has been stopped, when
the fire should be allowed to burn out. (if flames play on any LPG containers which
cannot be moved, an attempt should be made to extinguish the fire even though
might lead subsequently to the escape of unburnt LPG).
Because of the dangers of accidental re-ignition of vapour clouds, which can be
explosive and affect large areas, LPG fires should not be extinguished (except in
cases of flame impingement as already mentioned) unless the escape of product can
be stopped immediately afterwards.

10.08.04

Fire Control Plan


A plan of action for use in the event of a major LPG product leakage with a fire or risk
of fire is essential.
The plan must be carefully prepared, fully understood and agreed by all LPG plant
supervisory personnel. It should be based on the following:
(a)

Plant personnel should be fully aware of the specialised techniques


necessary for combating LPG leakages and LPG fires.

(b)

If leakage and/or fire occurs, it is the duty of all personnel to use the
equipment provided or to carry out their allotted task as detailed in the fire
control plan.

(c)

All personnel should know how to identify fire control equipment suitable for
use with LPG, also its location and how to use it.

(d)

LPG plant personnel must know the position and method of operation of all
safety valves in the plant.

(e)

Plant personnel must be familiar with the standard recognition markings of


fire control first-aid and all safety equipment, must know the location of
emergency exits and water hydrant points and must be familiar with the
sound of the Emergency (fire) alarm.

The fire control plan must be displayed in a prominent position, e.g. plant notice
board, after explanation to all personnel. It should include the following instructions,
expanded to suit the local location/facilities:
(i)

Sounding the emergency (fire) alarm.

(ii)

Stopping the LPG supply to any leakage point/fire.

(iii)

Summoning the fire brigade.

(iv)

Fire control, with first-aid fire-fighting equipment.

(v)

LPG vapour dispersal.

(vi)

Operation of LPG vessel fixed water-sprinkler systems, starting of fire


pump(s) and application of water hose jets/sprays for containing/extinguishing
rules.

(vii)

Cooling of vessels/cylinders and other equipment/facilities.

(viii)

Stopping all operations in the affected area, including pumps and closure of
valves.

(ix)

Removal of all sources of ignition in cases of LPG leakage.

(x)

Evacuation of vehicles.

(xi)

Evacuation and mastering of personnel.

(xii)

Establishing an emergency fire-control centre, with telephone.

(xiii)

Traffic control.

(xiv)

Stations and duties of all personnel.

(xv)

Policing of affected areas.

(xvi)

Any other specialised duties.

(xvii)

Posting of fire brigade, ambulance, police telephone numbers, etc.

See also Plant Operating Manual, Volume 1.07.00.00 and Volume 3.01.00.00.

10.08.05

Fire Drills and Training


Drills for all plant personnel should be held at monthly or more frequent intervals
making use of the fire control plan and the equipment provided, and practicing that
specialised techniques required for fighting LPG fires or dispersing/diluting LPG
vapour clouds.
The exercises should include:
(a)

All of incident, e.g. major spillage, LPG bulk lorry fire, jetty fire.

(b)

Discharging extinguishers due for recharging and replenishment.

(c)

Running, the fire pump, activating the sprinkler system, laying water hoses
and practising spray/jet technique.

(d)

Sounding and testing fire alarms (neighbours and the fire brigade should be
warned in advance).

(c)

Use of protective clothing, breathing apparatus and any other specialised


safety equipment available to exercise all concerned in their application.

(f)

Occasional participating by that local fire brigade.

Selected plant personnel should receive practical training in fire fighting (including
LPG fires) and all supervisory personnel should take the following programmed
learning courses:
Shell safety Series No 3 - Fire Fighting
Shell Safety Series No 4 - Safe Handling of LPG