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Training has an important role in exposing the real life situation in an

industry. It was a great experience for me to work on training at 132 kV
Madhauli Substation, NCL through which I could learn how to work in a
professional environment. Now, I would like to thank the people who guided
me and have been a constant source of inspiration throughout the tenure of
my summer training. I am sincerely grateful to Mr. Dilip Singh (Assistant
Engineer) at 132 kV substation, NCL who rendered me his valuable
assistance, precious time, constant encouragement and able guidance which
made this training actually possible.

1.1 Types of substation
Steps in designing a substation
Earthing & Bonding
Substation Earthing Calculation Methodology
2.3 Earthing Material
2.4 Layout of Substation
2.5 Design of Busbar
Single line diagram of singrauli Substation
4.1 Current Transformer
4.2 Capacitor Voltage Transformer
4.3 CVT Frequency Response
4.4 Bus Voltage Representation of CVT
Circuit Breaker
5.1 SF6 Circuit Breaker
5.2 Vacuum Circuit Breaker
Protective Relay
6.1 Differential Relay
6.2 Overcurrent Relay
6.3 Directional Relay
6.4 Buchholz Relay
7.1 Isolator
7.2 Wavetrap
7.3 Busbars
7.4 Substation Grounding System
Earth Wires & OPGW
Support Structure (POLE)
Types of Conductor for Power Transmission
DC Supply Room (Battery)
Lightening Arrester

The present day electrical power is generated, transmitted
and distributed in the form of the alternating current. The electric power is produced at power
plant stations which are located at favorable places generally quite away from the consumers.
It is delivered to the consumers through a large network of transmission and distribution. At
many places in the power system, it may be desirable and necessary to change some
characteristics e.g. voltage, ac to dc, frequency, power factor etc. of electric supply. This
accomplished by suitable apparatus called substation. For example; generation voltage (11
KV or 33 KV) at the power station is set up to high voltage (say 220 KV or 132 KV) for
transmission of electric power. The assembly of apparatus (e.g. transformer etc.) used for this
purpose in the substation. Similarly near the consumers localities, the voltage may have to be
step down to utilization level. This job is again accomplished by suitable apparatus called
substation. The assembly of apparatus to change some characteristic of electric power supply
is called substation
Types of Substation:
(A) According to the service requirement:
1) Transformer substation
2) Switch substation
3) Power factor correction substation
4) Frequency change substation
5) Converting substation
(B) According to the constructional features:
1) Indoor substation
2) Outdoor substation
3) Underground substation
4) Pole mounted substation

* It supplies power to coal mines and townships of Jayant,Nigahi

Amlori and Dudhichua with central workshop Jayant,Nehru Shatabadi

Indian oil,IDL industry and CMPDIL Jayant


Rough description of 132kvMadhauli Substation

Capacity 28*40 MVA

Rough description of singrauli 33/11 kV substation




Transformer is a static machine, which transforms the potential of alternating

current at same frequency. It means the transformer transforms the low voltage
into high voltage and high voltage to low voltage at same frequency. It works on
the principle of static induction principle. When the energy is transformed into a
higher voltage, the transformer is called step up transformer but in case of other
is known as step down transformer.
* Current Transformer:- A current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of
alternating electric currents. Current transformers, together with voltage (or
potential) transformers (VT or PT), are known as instrument transformers. When
current in a circuit is too high to apply directly to measuring instruments, a current
transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in
the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording
instruments. A current transformer isolates the measuring instruments from what
may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit. Current transformers are
commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry.
An essential objective of current transformer design is to ensure the primary and
secondary circuits are efficiently coupled, so the secondary current is linearly
proportional to the primary current. The CT's primary circuit consists of a single
'turn' of conductor, with a secondary of many tens or hundreds of turns. Usage:Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring
the operation of the power grid. Often, multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for
various uses. For example, protection devices and revenue metering may use
separate CTs to provide isolation between metering and protection circuits, and
allows current transformers with different characteristics (accuracy, overload
performance) to be used for the devices. The primary circuit is largely unaffected
by the insertion of the CT. Load, or burden, of the CT should be a low resistance. If
the voltage time integral area is higher than the core's design rating, the core
goes into saturation toward the end of each cycle, distorting the waveform and
affecting accuracy.
* CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER (PT):- A capacitor voltage transformer
(CVT), or capacitance coupled voltage transformer (CCVT), is a transformer used
in power systems to step down extra high voltage signals and provide a low
voltage signal, for metering or operating a protective relay. Components In its
most basic form, the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which
the transmission line signal is split, an inductive element to tune the device to the
line frequency, and a voltage transformer to isolate and further step down the
voltage for the metering devices or protective relay. The tuning of the divider to
the line frequency makes the overall division ratio less sensitive to changes in the
burden of the connected metering or protection devices. In practice, capacitor C1
is often constructed as a stack of smaller capacitors connected in series. This
provides a large voltage drop across C1 and a relatively small voltage drop across
C2. As the majority of the voltage drop is on C1, this reduces the isolation level of

the voltage transformer. This makes CVTs more economical than the wound
voltage transformers under high voltage (over 100kV), as the latter one requires
more winding and materials

fig-current transformers

fig-potential transformer


Circuit Breaker
There are two types of C.B.:
1) Sulphur hexafluoride circuit breaker (SF6)
2) Vacuum circuit breaker
SF6 circuit breaker are being used in 132KV and Vacuum circuit breaker are being
used in 33KV side. SF6 Circuit Breaker In such circuit breaker, sulphar
hexafluoride (SF6) gas is used as the arc quenching medium. The SF6 is an
electronegative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. The SF6
circuit breaker have been found to a very effective for high power and high
voltage service. SF6 circuit breakers have been developed for voltage 115 KV to
230 KV, power rating 10 MVA. Ratings: Make- Crompton Greaves Rated
voltage- 132 Kv Rated normal current- 3150A C.T. ratio- 800-400-200/1 Gas
weight- 8kg Gas Pressure- 7 kg/sq. cm Weight of oil- 150 liters
SF6 Circuit Breaker It consists of fixed and moving contacts. It has chamber,
contains SF6 gas. When the contacts are opened, the mechanism permits a high
pressure SF6 gas from reservoir to flow towards the arc interruption chamber. The
moving contact permits the SF6 gas to let through these holes.

Vacuum Circuit Breaker Vacuum circuit breakers are circuit breakers which are
used to protect medium and high voltage circuits from dangerous electrical
situations. Like other types of circuit breakers, vacuum circuit breakers literally
break the circuit so that energy cannot continue flowing through it, thereby
preventing fires, power surges, and other problems which may emerge. These
devices have been utilized since the 1920s, and several companies have
introduced refinements to make them even safer and more effective.

Protective Relay

Relay Panel In a power system it is inevitable that immediately or later some

failure does occur somewhere in the system. When a failure occurs on any part of
the system, it must be quickly detected and disconnected from the system. Rapid
disconnection of faulted apparatus limits the amount of damage to it and prevents
the effects of fault from spreading into the system. For high voltage circuits relays
are employed to serve the desired function of automatic protective gear. The
relays detect the fault and supply the information to the circuit breaker. The
electrical quantities which may change under fault condition are voltage,
frequency, current, phase angle. When a short circuit occurs at any point on the
transmission line the current flowing in the line increases to the enormous
value.This result in a heavy current flow through the relay coil, causing the relay
to operate by closing its contacts. This in turn closes the trip circuit of the breaker
making the circuit breaker open and isolating the faulty section from the rest of
the system. In this way, the relay ensures the safety of the circuit equipment from
the damage and normal working of the healthy.
Differential Relay
Differential Relay A differential relay is one that operates when vector difference
of the two or more electrical quantities exceeds a predetermined value. If this
differential quantity is equal or greater than the pickup value, the relay will
operate and open the circuit breaker to isolate the faulty section.
Over Current Relay
This type of relay works when current in the circuit exceeds the predetermined
value. The actuating source is the current in the circuit supplied to the relay from
a current transformer. These relay are used on A.C. circuit only and can operate
for fault flow in the either direction. This relay operates when phase to phase fault
Directional Relay
This type of relay is in the conjunction with main relay. When main relay sense any
fault in the system, it immediately operates the trip relay to disconnect the faulty
section from the section. FIG- Directional Relay
Buchholz relay is a safety device mounted on some oil filled power transformers
and reactors, equipped with an external overhead oil reservoir. The Buchholz
Relay is used as a protective device sensitive to the effects of dielectric failure
inside the equipment. The relay has multiple methods to detect a failing

transformer. On a slow accumulation of gas, due perhaps to slight overload, gas

produced by decomposition of insulating oil accumulates in the top of the relay
and forces the oil level down. Afloat switch in the relay is used to initiate an alarm

Differential relay

Buchholz relay

Over current relay

When numbers of generators or feeders operating at the same voltage have to be
directly connected electrically, bus bar is used as the common electrical
component. Bus bars are made up of copper rods operate at constant voltage. The

following are the important bus bars arrangements used at substations: Single bus
bar system Single bus bar system with section alisation.
Auxiliary bus bar system In large stations it is important that break downs and
maintenance should interfere as little as possible with continuity of supply to
achieve this, duplicate bus bar system is used. Such a system consists of two bus
bars, a main bus bar and a spare bus bar with the help of bus coupler, which
consist of the circuit breaker and isolator. In substations, it is often desired to
disconnect a part of the system for general maintenance and repairs. An isolating
switch or isolator accomplishes this. Isolator operates under no load condition. It
does not have any specified current breaking capacity or current making capacity.
In some cases isolators are used to breaking charging currents or transmission
lines. While opening a circuit, the circuit breaker is opened first then isolator while
closing a circuit the isolator is closed first, then circuit breakers. Isolators are
necessary on supply side of circuit breakers, in order to ensure isolation of the
circuit breaker from live parts for the purpose of maintenance. A transfer isolator
is used to transfer main supply from main bus to transfer bus by using bus coupler
(combination of a circuit breaker with two isolators), if repairing or maintenance of
any section is required.



Insulators proposed for use on this Project will be polymeric-type post insulators. They provide
a connection between conductors and structures and ensure electrical insulation between the
high voltage of the conductors and the (earthed) pole. The length of the insulators depends on
line voltage, clearance requirements and environmental considerations. For example,
additional length is required for acidic or salty air, neither of these conditions occurs within the
Project Area. Special galvanised steel of aluminium fittings connect both the line end of the
insulator to the conductors and the pole end to the structure.

Typical post insulators are shown on the

pole structure in Photo


Conductors (wires) are the part of the power-line which transports high voltage
electricity. Conductors proposed to be used for the power-line would consist of a
stranded aluminium alloy with an overall diameter of around 33.8 mm. Each pole
structure would support six conductors, plus two earth wires to protect the line
from lighting strikes. For a typical double circuit 132 kV pole, the distance
between pairs of conductors on steel poles will be approximately 1.9 m on the
vertical plane and 4.6 m on the horizontal plane (Figure 3.1). Electrical continuity
on angle structures is provided by bridging conductors which are suspended
beneath the main conductors or around the outside of the pole connecting the
terminated conductors on either side of the pole. Where necessary, these
conductors are restrained by bridging insulators to maintain electrical clearance.
The minimum electrical clearance distance from the ground to the lowest point of
the conductors is 6.7 m; however as noted above, larger clearances are often
required by the DTMR over road and rail crossings. 7.8 Support

structures( POLE) :- Poles are self-supporting structures used to keep the high
voltage conductors separate from each other, clear from vegetation, the ground
and other obstacles. Minimum clearance requirements between energized
conductors and various types of obstacles are specified by the Electrical Safety

Regulations 2002. For this Project a mixture self-supporting concrete or steel poles
are envisaged. The distance between support structures (span) and their height is
determined by topography and clearance requirements. Poles are made in a range
of heights, generally in 1 m increments, to allow optimum height of structure to be
provided at each site. The standard overall length of a typical double-circuit RVPNL
concrete pole is around 25 to 40 m long. When installed, the out of ground height
to the top of the pole will typically be in the range of 20 to 35 m, with taller and
shorter structures used as required to suit the terrain and other constraints.
Typically, shorter poles are found on elevated areas such as hills, with taller poles
in gullies or where additional clearance is required over a mid-span obstacle. The
duty of a pole structure is related to the method by which it supports the
conductors and this in turn influences the type of structure used. The two means
of conductor support are intermediate and tension.


A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems and
telecommunications systems to protect the insulation and conductors of the
system from the damaging effects of lightning. The typical lightning arrester has a
high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge (or switching
surge, which is very similar) travels along the power line to the arrester, the
current from the surge is diverted through the arrestor, in most cases to earth. In
telegraphy and telephony, a lightning arrestor is placed where wires enter a
preventing damage to electronic instruments within and ensuring the safety of
individuals near them. Smaller versions of lightning arresters, also called surge
protectors, are devices that are connected between each electrical conductor in
power and communications systems and the Earth. Their purpose is to limit the
rise in voltage when a communications or power line is struck by lightning or is
near to a lightning strike. If protection fails or is absent, lightening that strikes the
electrical system introduces thousands of kilovolts that may damage the
transmission lines, and can also cause severe damage to transformers and other
electrical or electronic devices. Lightning produced extreme voltage spikes in
incoming power lines can damage electrical home appliances. FIG- Lightning
Arresters Types of Lightning Arresters for outdoor application There are several
types of lightening arrester in general use. They differ only in constructional
details but operate on the same principle, providing low resistance path for the
surges to the round.
1. Rod arrester
2. Expulsion type lightning arrester
3. Valve type lightning arrester
1.Rod arrester It is a very simple type of diverter and consists of two rods, which
are bent at right angles with a gap in between. One rod is connected to the line
circuit and the other rod is connected to earth. The distance between gap and

insulator (i.e. distance P) must not be less than one third of the gap length so that
the arc may not reach the insulator and damage it.
Generally, the gap length is so adjusted that breakdown should occur at 80% of
spark-voltage in order to avoid cascading of very steep wave fronts across the
insulators. Under normal operating conditions, the gap remains non-conducting.
On the occurrence of a high voltage surge on the line, the gap sparks over and the
surge current is conducted to earth. In this way excess charge on the line due to
the surge is harmlessly conducted to earth
2. Expulsion type arrester This type of arrester is also called protector tube and is
commonly used on system operating at voltages up to 33kV. It essentially consists
of a rod gap AA in series with a second gap enclosed within the fiber tube. The
gap in the fiber tube is formed by two electrodes. The upper electrode is
connected to rod gap and the lower electrode to the earth. One expulsion arrester
is placed under each line conductor. On the occurrence of an over voltage on the
line, the series gap AA spanned and an arc is stuck between the electrodes in the
tube. The heat of the arc vaporizes some of the fiber of tube walls resulting in the
production of neutral gas. In an extremely short time, the gas builds up high
pressure and is expelled through the lower electrode, which is hollow. As the gas
leaves the tube violently it carries away ionized air around the arc. This deionizing effect is generally so strong that the arc goes out at a current zero and
will not be reestablished.
Expulsion type arrester
3. Valve type arrester Valve type arresters incorporate non linear resistors and are
extensively used on systems, operating at high voltages. It consists of two
(i) series spark gaps and (ii) non- linear resistor discs in series. The non-linear
elements are connected in series with the spark gaps. Both the assemblies are
accommodated in tight porcelain container. The spark gap is a multiple assembly
consisting of a number of identical spark gaps in series. Each gap consists of two
electrodes with fixed gap spacing. The voltage distribution across the gap is line
raised by means of additional resistance elements called grading resistors across
the gap. The spacing of the series gaps is such that it will withstand the normal
circuit voltage. However an over voltage will cause the gap to break down causing
the surge current to ground via the non-linear resistors. The non-linear resistor
discs are made of inorganic compound such as thyrite or metrosil. These discs are
connected in series. The non-linear resistors have the property of offering a high
resistance to current flow when normal system voltage is applied, but a low
resistance to the flow of high surge currents. In other words, the resistance of
these non-linear elements decreases with the increase in current through them
and vice-versa.
Non-linear resistor discs Under normal conditions, the normal system voltage is
insufficient to cause the breakdown of air gap assembly. On the occurrence of an
over voltage, the breakdown of the series spark gap takes place and the surge

current is conducted to earth via the non-linear resistors. Since the magnitude of
surge current is very large, the non-linear elements will offer a very low resistance
to the passage of surge. The result is that the surge will rapidly go to earth instead
of being sent back over the line. When the surge is over, the non-linear resistors
assume high resistance to stop the flow of current. FIG- Valve type arrester
POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION:- Power line communication (PLC) carries
data on a conductor that is also used simultaneously for AC electric power
transmission or electric power distribution to consumers. It is also known as power
line carrier, power line digital subscriber line (PDSL), mains communication, power
line telecommunications, or power line networking (PLN). A wide range of power
line communication technologies are needed for different applications, ranging
from home automation to Internet access which is often called broadband over
power lines (BPL). Most PLC technologies limit themselves to one type of wires
(such as premises wiring within a single building), but some can cross between
two levels (for example, both the distribution network and premises wiring).
Typically transformers prevent propagating the signal, which requires multiple
technologies to form very large networks. Various data rates and frequencies are
used in different situations. A number of difficult technical problems are common
between wireless and power line communication, notably those of spread
spectrum radio signals operating in a crowded environment. Radio interference,
for example, has long been a concern of amateur radio groups







It is used to calibrate relays & other measuring meters. It is also called heart of a
power system. The room where these batteries are kept is painted black & is also
fully/nearly closed so that batteries cant get exposed to sun light so they dont
leak or their efficiency remain as rated

The implant training was completed successfully. I learnt things like how actually
substation works.
I also learnt maintenance and tests carried out in substation.
I understood the operation and real time working of different equipments in the
The training will definitely help me in my future