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MEKANIKA FLUIDA-HIDROLIKA

Oleh:

FAROUK MARICAR

FAR
OUK
PSD

Hydraulic Jump
A hydraulic jump occurs when flow changes from a supercritical flow
(unstable) to a sub-critical flow (stable).
There is a sudden rise in water level at the point where the hydraulic
jump occurs.
Rollers (eddies) of turbulent water form at this point. These rollers cause
dissipation of energy.
A hydraulic jump occurs in practice at the toe of a dam or below a sluice gate
where the velocity is very high.

Hydraulic Jump

General Expression for Hydraulic Jump:


In the analysis of hydraulic jumps, the following assumptions are made:
(1) The length of hydraulic jump is small. Consequently, the loss of head
due to friction is negligible.
(2) The flow is uniform and pressure distribution is due to hydrostatic

before and after the jump.


(3) The slope of the bed of the channel is very small, so that the
component of the weight of the fluid in the direction of the flow is

neglected.

Location of hydraulic jump


Generally, a hydraulic jump occurs when the flow changes from
supercritical to subcritical flow.
The most typical cases for the location of hydraulic jump are:
1. Jump below a sluice gate.
2. Jump at the toe of a spillway.
3. Jump at a glacis.
(glacis is the name given to sloping floors provided in hydraulic structures.)

Location of hydraulic jump

The net force in the direction of flow = the rate of change of moment in that direction

(V2 V1)

The net force in the direction of the flow, neglecting frictional resistance and the
component of weight of water in the direction of flow,
R = F1 - F 2 .
Therefore, the impulse-moment yields

F1 F2

Q
g

(V2 V1 )

Where F1 and F2 are the pressure forces at section 1 and 2, respectively.

A1 y1 A2 y2

(V2 V1 )

g
Q2 1
1
A1 y1 A2 y2
(

)
g A2
A1

Q2
Q2
A1 y1
A2 y2
gA1
gA2
y = the distance from the water surface to the centroid of the flow area

Q2
Q2
A1 y1
A2 y2
gA1
gA2
Comments:

This is the general equation governing the hydraulic jump for any
shape of channel.
The sum of two terms is called specific force (M). So, the equation can
be written as:

M1 = M2
This equation shows that the specific force before the hydraulic jump
is equal to that after the jump.

Hydraulic Jump in Rectangular Channels

A1 B y1

y1
y1
2

A2 B y2

Q2
Q2
A1 y1
A2 y2
gA1
gA2
using

, we get

Q
q
B

y2
y2
2

Q2
y1
Q2
y2
(By1 )( )
( By2 )( )
g B y1
2
g B y2
2

q 2 y2 y1 y22 y12

g y1 y2
2
2 q2
y1 y2 ( y2 y1 )
g
2
2
q
2
2
y2 y1 y2 y1
0
g

This is a quadratic equation, the solution of which may be written as:

y1
y2

2q 2
y1


2
g y1

y2
y1

y
2
q
2


2
g y2

y2 1

y1 2

8 q 2
1
g y13

y1 1

y2 2

8 q 2
1
g y23

where y1 is the initial depth and y2 is called the conjugate depth. Both are called

conjugate depths.
These equations can be used to get the various characteristics of hydraulic jump.

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2
q
But for rectangular channels, we have yc3
g
3

y
1
y
2
Therefore,
1 18 c
y1 2
y1

y1 1
1
y2 2

yc
1 8
y2

These equations can also be written in terms of Froudes number as:

y2 1
2
1 18F1
y1 2
y1 1
1
y2 2

8 F22

F1
F2

V1
g y1
V2
g y2
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Head Loss in a hydraulic jump (HL):


Due to the turbulent flow in hydraulic jump, a dissipation (loss) of energy
occurs:

HL E E1 E2

Where, E = specific energy


For rectangular channels: Es

q2
y
2 g y2
2

q
q2

y2
hence, H L y1
2
3
2 g y1
2 g y2
After simplifying, we obtain

( y2 y1 )3
E H L
4 y1 y2
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Height of hydraulic jump (hj):


The difference of depths before and after the jump is known as the
height of the jump,

hj y2 y1
Length of hydraulic jump (Lj):
The distance between the front face of the jump to a point on the
downstream where the rollers (eddies) terminate and the flow becomes
uniform is known as the length of the hydraulic jump. The length of the

jump varies from 5 to 7 times its height. An average value is usually


taken:

Lj 6hj
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Gradually Varied Flow


Non-uniform flow is a flow for which the depth of flow is varied.
This varied flow can be either Gradually varied flow (GVF) or
Rapidly varied flow (RVF).
Such situations occur when:
- control structures are used in the channel or,
- when any obstruction is found in the channel,

- when a sharp change in the channel slope takes place.

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Classification of Channel-Bed Slopes


The slope of the channel bed is very important in determining the
characteristics of the flow.

Let
S0 : the slope of the channel bed ,
Sc : the critical slope or the slope of the channel that
sustains a given discharge (Q) as uniform flow at the critical
depth (yc).
yn is is the normal depth when the discharge Q flows as
uniform flow on slope S0.

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The slope of the channel bed can be classified as:


1) Critical Slope C : the bottom slope of the channel is equal to the critical slope.

S0 Sc

or

yn yc

2) Mild Slope M : the bottom slope of the channel is less than the critical slope.

S0 Sc

or

yn yc

3) Steep Slope S : the bottom slope of the channel is greater than the critical slope.

S0 Sc

or

yn yc

4) Horizontal Slope H : the bottom slope of the channel is equal to zero.

S0 0.0
5) Adverse Slope A : the bottom slope of the channel rises in the direction of the
flow (slope is opposite to direction of flow).

S0 negative
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