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# FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF VIBRATIONS

## Free Vibration of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

Equation of Motion: mx cx kx 0

k
c
; ; cc 2m n ; d n 1 2
m
cc

Underdamped Response
xt Ae

nt

v0 n x0 2 x0 d 2

sind t ; A

2
d

; tan 1

x 0 d
v0 n x0

## xt a1 a2t ent where a1 x0 ; a2 v0 n x0

Overdamped Response
n
xt e nt a1e

a2

2 1 t

2 1 t
n

a2 e

a1

v0 2 1 n x0
2 n 2 1

v0 2 1 n x0
2 n 1
2

Logarithmic Decrement

1
n

ln

X1
where n is the number of complete cycles and
X n 1

4 2 2

## Harmonically Excited Vibration

Equation of Motion: mx cx kx F t
Fixed-Base Harmonic Excitation F t F0 cos t

xt X cost where X

F0

k m c
2 2

2
2
FT
k 2 c

Force Transmissibility:

F0 k m 2 2 c 2

c
; tan 1
2
k m

## Harmonic Excitation due to Base Motion

k 2 c

X
Displacement Transmissibility:

F
Force Transmissibility: T
kY n

k m c
2 2

2
k 2 c

2
2
k m 2 c

## Harmonic Excitation due to Rotating Unbalance

xt X cost where X

me 2

k M c
2 2

c
; tan 1
2
k M
1

2
FT
k 2 c
Force Transmissibility:

me 2 k M 2 2 c 2

Lagranges Equation
d T
dt q j

T D V

q q q
j
j
j

## dissipation function, V the potential energy, q j the generalized coordinates and Q j

the generalized forces.

## Vibrations of Continuous Systems

x
x
Wave Equation Solution: yx, t A sin B cos C sin t D cos t
c
c

## Transverse Vibration of Strings or Cables

Boundary Conditions: Fixed yx, t 0 ; c

## Longitudinal Vibration of Bars

Boundary Conditions: Fixed ux, t 0 ; Free

u x, t
0; c
x

x, t
0; c
x

where is

## mass per unit volume

Torsional Vibration of Shafts
Boundary Conditions: Fixed x, t 0 ; Free
mass per unit volume

where is

## Lateral Vibration of Beams

General Solution: yx, t A cosh x B sinh x C cos x D sin x
Undamped Natural Frequencies: n n l

EI
where is mass per unit length
l 4

## Boundary Conditions: Simply Supported / Pinned

Free

yx, t 0 and

2 y x, t
0;
x 2

2 y x, t
3 y x, t
y x, t
and

0
0 ; Fixed yx, t 0 and
0.
2
3
x
x
x

Vibration Control
Undamped Dynamic Absorbers

ma 2 F0
Amplitude of Primary Mass: X
k k a m 2 k a ma 2 k a2

## Amplitude of Absorber Mass: X a

Natural Frequencies: n
a

where

k a F0
k k a m k a ma 2 k a2

1 2 1
1

2
2
2 2

ma

, a , a
m
p

ka
and p
ma

k
m

4 1 2 2 2 1 1