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15 tayangan11 halamanA Critical State Model for Overconsolidated Structured Clays

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A Critical State Model for Overconsolidated Structured Clays

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15 tayangan

A Critical State Model for Overconsolidated Structured Clays

© All Rights Reserved

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compgeo

Jirayut Suebsuk a, Suksun Horpibulsuk b,, Martin D. Liu c

a

Department of Civil Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

School of Civil Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

c

Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Australia

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 16 August 2010

Received in revised form 30 March 2011

Accepted 30 March 2011

Available online 6 May 2011

Keywords:

Constitutive model

Plasticity

Bounding surface theory

Structured clays

Destructuring

a b s t r a c t

This paper presents a generalised critical state model with the bounding surface theory for simulating the

stressstrain behaviour of overconsolidated structured clays. The model is formulated based on the

framework of the Structured Cam Clay (SCC) model and is designated as the Modied Structured Cam

Clay with Bounding Surface Theory (MSCC-B) model. The hardening and destructuring processes for

structured clays in the overconsolidated state can be described by the proposed model. The image stress

point dened by the radial mapping rule is used to determine the plastic hardening modulus, which varies along loading paths. A new proposed parameter h, which depends on the material characteristics, is

introduced into the plastic hardening modulus equation to take the soil behaviour into account in the

overconsolidated state. The MSCC-B model is nally evaluated in light of the model performance by comparisons with the measured data of both naturally and articially structured clays under compression

and shearing tests. From the comparisons, it is found that the MSCC-B model gives reasonable good simulations of mechanical response of structured clays in both drained and undrained conditions. With its

simplicity and performance, the MSCC-B model is regarded as a practical geotechnical model for implementation in numerical analysis.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Reconstituted clay behaviour has been studied for the last four

decades. The critical state theory is one of the major developments

of the constitutive model for clays. The models of the Cam Clay

family such as the Cam Clay (CC) model [40] and the Modied

Cam Clay (MCC) model [39] are used widely to describe clay

behaviour in the reconstituted state. The models give good agreement between experimental and model simulation results. However, recent studies [26,4,27,7,8,43,19] have shown that natural

clay is structured and its behaviour is different from its behaviour

in the reconstituted state. Cement stabilised clay is also identied

as articially structured clay [33,16,18]. The critical state theory,

which is widely accepted for simulating clay behaviour [42,35],

has been extended to simulate structured clay behaviour by considering the effect of soil structure [14,21,22,41,30,3,25]. Taiebat

et al. [46] have proposed a model taking into account the effect

of destructuring and anisotropy on the stressstrain response.

The Structured Cam Clay (SCC) model [30] is a simple and predictive critical state model for structured clays. It was formulated

simply by introducing the inuences of soil structure on the volumetric deformation and the plastic deviatoric strain into the MCC

Corresponding author. Tel.: +66 44 22 4322; fax: +66 44 22 4607.

E-mail addresses: suksun@g.sut.ac.th, suksun@yahoo.com (S. Horpibulsuk).

0266-352X/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compgeo.2011.03.010

model. A key assumption of the SCC model is that both the hardening rule and destructuring of structured clay are dependent on

plastic volumetric deformation. A simple elliptical yield surface

with a non-associated ow rule is used for predicting the behaviour of clays in naturally structured states. The SCC model successfully captures many important features (particularly volumetric

hardening/destructuring) of the naturally structured clay behaviour with insignicant cohesion.

However, the cohesion and strain softening, which are generally

very signicant for naturally structured stiff clays [4,27,8] and

articially structured clays such as cement-stabilised clays [48,

5,21,18], cannot be taken into account by the SCC model. For better

simulation of cemented clays, the modied effective concept was

introduced into the SCC model [17].

Suebsuk et al. [45] developed a general constitutive model

based on the critical state framework for destructured, naturally

structured and articially structured clays. The proposed model

is the Modied Structured Cam Clay (MSCC) model. It was formulated based on the SCC model for cemented clay [17]. In the MSCC

model, the inuence of soil structure and destructuring were introduced into the yield function, plastic potential, and hardening rule

to describe the mechanical behaviour of structured clays. The soil

structure increases the mean effective yield stress under isotropic

compression (p0y ) and structure strength (p0b ). The destructuring

mechanism in the MSCC model is the process of reducing the

649

Nomenclature

a

b

CSL

De

Dei

ev

epv

epd

ed

e

eIC

G0

h

ICL

K0

j

k

destructuring index due to the volumetric deformation

critical state line

additional voids ratio sustained by soil structure

additional voids ratio sustained by soil structure at the

initial virgin yielding

volumetric strain

plastic volumetric strain

plastic deviatoric strain

deviatoric strain

voids ratio

voids ratio at reference stress (1 kPa) on ICL

shear modulus in terms of effective stress

non-dimensional parameter, describing the effect of

material characteristics on the hardening modulus

intrinsic compression line (of destructured soil)

bulk modulus in terms of effective stress

gradient of unloading or swelling line of structured

clays

gradient of normal compression line of destructured

clays

structure. The destructuring behaviour of the MSCC model is divided into two parts for volumetric deformation and shearing.

The destructuring due to shearing causes a reduction in structure

strength that is directly related to the plastic deviatoric strain, epd .

The strain softening can be described by the MSCC model when

the stress states are on the state boundary surface.

In the MSCC model, a yield surface separates elastic behaviour

(i.e., stress states inside the yield surface) from elastoplastic behaviour (i.e., stress states on the yield surface). However, in reality,

even in the overconsolidated state, naturally structured clays, articially structured clays and many geomaterials often exhibit a

non-recoverable behaviour upon unloading and repeated loading

[4], which results in overestimation of the soil strength and the

lack of a smooth transition between elastic and elastoplastic

behaviour. To obtain accurate predictions of the deformational response, it is necessary to improve the MSCC model to better simulate the soil behaviour in the overconsolidated state. It is noted

herein that the traditional term overconsolidated state is also

used for structured clay to indicate the relative position of the current stress in relation to its limit state surface or bounding surface

that the yield stress (stress history) is caused by both mechanical

and chemical effects.

There are two basic theories that have been widely used in

modelling the plastic deformation of soils for loading inside the

limit surface. One is the multi-surface plasticity (MS) theory, which

was originally applied to metal with the kinemetic hardening (KH)

rule [20,34] and then the Mrozs multi-surface plasticity concept

was applied to soil stressstrain modelling by Prevost (1977,

1978). The other is the bounding surface plasticity (BS) theory,

which was formulated with the kinemetic hardening rule

[13,9,24]. Those concepts have been extended to many soil models

for geomaterials (e.g.,[1,44,22,41,38,32,3]. However, the major setback of MS theory and KH rule is that the numerical computation is

complex and requires considerable memory for the conguration

of the sub-yield and stress reversal surface. The bounding surface

model with the radial mapping rule proposed by Dafalias and Herrmann [11] and Dafalias [10] removed the above deciencies. Many

advanced soil models have been developed based on the radial

mapping rule [2,47,52,50,51]. This version of bounding surface

l0

M

g

w

p0

p0b

p0b0

p0c

p00

p00j

p0j

p0y;i

q

qj

SCL

n

YSRiso

gradient of critical state line on qp0 plane

modied stress ratio, q=p0 p0b

parameter describing the shape of the plastic potential

mean effective stress

mean effective stress increasing due to structure or

structure strength

initial of structure strength in the qp0 plane

reference size of the loading surface

reference size of yield surface or stress history

reference size of the structural bounding surface

mean effective stress at image stress point

initial yield stress of isotropic compression line of structured soil

deviatoric stress

deviatoric stress at image stress point

structured compression line

destructuring index due to the shear deformation

isotropic yield stress ratio, p0y =p0 [6]

plasticity is introduced in the current modelling of plastic deformation of structured soil inside the bounding surface.

To keep a model simple for practical use, it is impossible to include all features of the soil behaviour in a model. A complex model with many features should be avoided because it may have

hidden inaccuracies, numerical instabilities, lack of a converged

solution and other errors [49]. In this paper, the bounding surface

theory with radial mapping rule was employed with the MSCC

model to simulate the stressstrain behaviour of overconsolidated

structured clays because this theory is simple and predictive. The

proposed model is called the Modied Structured Cam Clay with

Bounding Surface Theory (MSCC-B) model. The MSCC-B model is

presented in a four-dimensional space consisting of the current

stress state, the current voids ratio, the stress history and the current soil structure. The MSCC-B model requires six parameters in

addition to the standard parameters from the MCC model. The ve

parameters (b, Dei, p0b0 , n and w) are the same as those of the MSCC

model and have clear physical meaning. A new constant material

parameter, h, is proposed in the study to take into account the effect of the material characteristics on the plastic hardening modulus in the overconsolidation state.

Finally, the MSCC-B model is evaluated in the light of the model

performance. The MSCC-B model was implemented in a single element elastoplastic calculation for simulating the behaviour of

structured clays in both naturally and articially structured states.

Test data over a wide range of the mean effective stress and degree

of cementation under both drained and undrained shearing were

used in the verication.

The MSCC model was developed based on the following key

assumptions: (1) the reconstituted or destructured soil behaviour

can be described adequately by the MCC model with the intrinsic

properties obtained from a reconstituted sample, (2) the structured

soil behaviour is divided into the elastic and virgin yielding regions

by the current yield surface and (3) the destructuring is only related to the plastic strain (insignicant for stress state inside the

yield surface).

650

is shown in Fig. 1. The current yield surface (the structural yield

surface) is dened by its current stress state (q, p0 ), stress history

(p00 ) and structure strength (p0b ). The structural yield surface in

the qp0 plane is assumed to be elliptical in shape and passes

through the origin of the stress coordinates. The p0b affects the origin of structural yield surface that moves to the left side of the

mean effective stress axis. The structural yield surface is thus given

in terms of the conventional triaxial parameters as follows:

f q2 M2 p0 p0b p00 p0 0;

the shape of the plastic potentials, which pass through a stress state

(q1 ; p01 ).

where p00 is the reference size of the yield surface and M is the gradient of failure envelope in the qp0 plane.

The elastic behaviour inside the yield surface is assumed to be

the same as in traditional Cam Clay family. It is dened by the bulk

modulus (K0 ) and shear modulus (G0 ). These parameters are determined by the following basic equations:

K0

G0

1 e

p0 ;

31 2l0 0

K;

21 l0

clay, l0 is Poissons ratio and e is the voids ratio.

The plastic potential with the inuence of soil structure takes

the form

2

3

!w2

2

M2 4 p0 p0b 0

0

0

0 25

gq

pp pb p pb 0;

1w

p0p p0b

2

where p0p is a reference size parameter and w is a parameter describing the shape of the plastic potential. The p0p can be determined for

any stress state (q, p0 ) by solving the above equation. Fig. 2 shows

Fig. 1. The material idealisation of structured clays for the MSCC model.

of structured clays.

651

Fig. 6. Inuence of h on the aepv curve under the drained shearing test.

the hardening rule during virgin compression along a general

stress path, is proposed as follows:

e eIC j ln p0 Dei

p0y;i

p00

b

k j ln p00 ;

p0y;i is the initial isotropic yield stress and Dei is an additional voids

ratio between the intrinsic compression line (ICL) and the structured compression line (SCL) at the p0y;i (Fig. 1a). Eq. (5) shows that

as the stress increases, De approaches zero. The rate of the removal

of soil structure, i.e., represented by De, is dependent on destructuring index b (Liu and Carter [28,29]). For the deformation range of

experimental data and practical applications concerned, Eq. (5) is

valid and effective for determination of volumetric deformation.

Based on the voids ratio in Eq. (5), the plastic volumetric strain

increment can be formulated as follows:

M

dp00

b De

depv k j

:

Mg

1 ep00

and Carter [30,31]. In the MSCC model, the destructuring law is

proposed to describe the reduction in the modied effective stress

[45]. Destructuring during shearing consists of two processes: degradation of structure and crushing of soilcementation structure.

The degradation of structure occurs when the stress state is on

the yield surface whereas the crushing of the soilcementation

structure happens at post-failure during strain softening. The p0b

is assumed to be constant up to the virgin yielding. During virgin

yielding (during which plastic deviatoric strain occurs), the p0b

gradually decreases due to degradation of the structure until the

failure state. Beyond this state, a sudden decrease in the p0b occurs

due to the crushing of the soilcementation structure and diminishes at the critical state. The reduction in p0b due to the degradation of structure (pre-failure) and the crushing of the soil

cementation structure (post-failure) are proposed in terms of the

plastic deviatoric strain as follows:

7

h

i

p0b p0b;f exp nepd epd;f for post-failure crushing;

Fig. 5. Inuence of h on the soil behaviour under the undrained shearing test: (a)

the stress path, (b) the stressstrain behaviour and (c) the development of excess

pore pressure.

strength at failure (peak strength), epd;f is the plastic deviatoric strain

at failure and n is the destructuring index due to shearing in

652

Table 1

Parameters for a parametric study on the effect of h.

Parameter/symbol

Physical meaning

Value

Unit

Voids ratio at reference stress (p0 = 1 kPa) on ICL

Gradient of unloadingreloading line of SCL in eln p

Non-dimension parameter describing the destructuring by volumetric plastic strain

Additional of voids ratio between ICL and SCL at yield stress

Mean effective yield stress on SCL

0.147

1.92

0.027

0.6

1.92

100

kPa

Shear modulus

Non-dimension constant parameter dene the shape of plastic potential

Initial structure strength on in qp0 plane

Non-dimension constant parameter describing the destructuring by shearing

1.2

3000

2.0

20

10

kPa

kPa

k

eIC

j

b

Dei

p0y

M

G0

w

p0b0

n

Table 2

Physical properties of the base clays.

Properties

Pappadai clay

Ariake clay

Reference

Chandler [8]

2.73

29.832.6

Horpibulsuk

[15,18]

2.70

135150

65

35

0.420.72

50

0.680.90

Intact

120

63

1.241.47

55

44

1

3.654.05

Cemented

Specic density

Natural water

content (%)

Liquid limit (%)

Plasticity index (%)

Activity

Clay fraction (%)

Silt fraction (%)

Sand fraction (%)

In-situ voids ratio

Sample type

parameters of MSCC have been presented clearly in the paper by

Suebsuk et al. [45].

structured clays

In 1975, Dafalias and Popov rstly proposed the concept of

bounding surface plasticity. Then a bounding surface theory with

radial mapping rule was proposed by Dafalias and Herrmann

[11] and Dafalias [10]. This version of bounding surface plasticity,

i.e., the bounding surface model with radial mapping rule, is introduced in the modelling of plastic deformation of structured soil inside the bounding surface. For structured clay, the bounding

surface is referred to as the structural bounding surface, which is

affected by the soil structure. The variation of the structural

bounding surface is dependent on destructuring as well as hardening, both of which are assumed to be determined due to the change

in plastic volumetric deformation and plastic deviatoric deformation following that of classic plasticity [42,31].

Based on the bounding surface theory with the radial mapping

rule and the framework of the MSCC model, Fig. 3 shows the schematic diagram for illustrating the change of stress state (eln p0

plane and qp0 plane) under isotropic compression loading for path

16. Point 1 is an initial in situ state for a clay whose structural

bounding surface is dened by isotropic yield stress on SCL, p0y;i

and structure strength, p0b . As loading continues along stress path

12, subyielding occurs, and the loading surface expands (inside

the structural bounding surface). Supposing that the loading surface and the structural bounding surface coincide at point 2, that

is, p0c;2 p00j;2 (where p0c;2 and p00j;2 are the reference size of the loading and structural bounding surfaces at point 2, respectively), virgin yielding commences at this point and continues along the

path 23.

Unloading starts at point 3 and continues along the stress path

34, i.e., dp0c < 0 and p0c p00j . Subsequently, the current loading

surface enters inside the structural bounding surface. When the

stress path changes direction again at point 4 with dp0c > 0;

Table 3

Testing programme for triaxial tests on the base clays.

p0 before shearing

(kPa)

e before

shearing

Shearing

condition

Strain or displacement

rate

500

800

1500

2500

700

1042

1600

0.875

0.8725

0.839

0.766

0.895

0.862

0.856

D

D

D

D

U

U

U

0.20.6%/day*

0.189%/day*

0.4%/day*

0.189%/day*

4%/day*

4.3%/day*

5%/day*

50

4.098

0.0025**

5.00

4.00

2.00

400

500

1000

3.673

3.668

3.657

D

D

D

0.0025**

0.0025**

0.0025**

3.70

1.85

10.00

5.00

100

200

200

400

3.650

3.589

3.707

3.673

U

U

U

U

0.0075**

0.0075**

0.0075**

0.0075**

Base clay

Sample No.

YSRiso

TN14

TN15

TN18

TN17

TN5

TN3

TN11

4.52

2.825

1.50

1.00

3.22

2.167

1.40

Cemented Ariake

clay

AW6-50

1.40

AW18-400

AW18-500

AW181000

AW9-100

AW9-200

AW18-200

AW18-400

*

dea/dt.

**

mm/min.

The perfectly hysteresis loop is assumed for the MSCC-B model,

and hence p0c;3 p0c;5 . At point 5, the loading surface coincides with

the structural bounding surface, i.e., p0c;5 p0oj;5 . In this case, virgin

yielding recommences at point 5 and continues for loading along

stress path 56. For isotropic condition, the expansion and contraction of the loading surface is only dependent on the plastic deformation. The change of stress state under shearing can be explained

in the same way, but p0b0 decreases due to the destructuring law

(Eqs. (7) and (8)). The plastic deviatoric strain inuences the stress

path direction when g > 0.

Test type

Parameter/symbol

Unit

Value

k*

eIC

kPa

0.206

3.17

0.009

0.1

0.32

2300

kPa

kPa

1000

0.83

40,000

480

10

2.0

b

Dei

p0y

h

M

G0

p0b0

n

w

*

Table 5

Parameters for MSCC-B model for cemented Ariake clay.

Test type

Parameter/

symbol

Unit

Aw = 6%

Aw = 9%

Aw = 18%

Isotropic compression

test

k*

0.44

0.44

0.44

eIC

kPa

4.37

0.06

0.05

2.0

70

100

4.37

0.03

0.01

2.5

370

800

4.37

0.01

0.001

2.72

2000

1000

kPa

kPa

1.44

4000

50

10

0.9

1.73

8000

75

10

0.5

1.32

40,000

730

10

0.1

Drained or undrained

shearing test

b

Dei

p00

h

M

G0

p0b0

n

w

*

The bounding surface theory for modelling the elastoplastic

deformation of material with the radial mapping rule [47,52] was

extended for this study. The structural bounding surface is dened

by the stress history, p00j , and structure strength, p0b . The clay behaviour is divided into the virgin yielding (p0c p00j ) and subyielding

(p0c < p00j ), where p0c is a reference size of loading surface. Similar

to the MSCC model, the equation for the structural bounding surface is assumed to be elliptical and can be expressed as follows:

f q2 M 2 p0 p0b p00j p0 0:

The loading surface is dened as the surface on which the current stress state remains. For simplicity, the loading surface is assumed to be the same shape as the structural bounding surface

and with an aspect ratio similarly equal to M.

Table 4

Parameters for MSCC-B model for intact Pappadai clay.

653

Pappadai clay.

The plastic potential adopted in the MSCC-B model is the same

as that proposed in the MSCC model as shown in Eq. (4).

3.1.2. Destructuring law

The volumetric hardening and destructuring law presented in

the previous section (Eq. (6)) were adopted in the formulation of

the hardening modulus for the MSCC-B model with the assumption

that p00j p00 and dp00j dp00 . The destructuring law due to shearing

presented in a previous section (Eqs. (7) and (8)) is used in the

MSCC-B model.

3.1.3. Mapping rule

The mapping rule is an essential part of a bounding surface theory based on which the stiffness of soil deformation during subyielding state is dened. A detailed discussion on the signicance

of mapping rule can be found in a paper by Yang et al. [51]. The original radial mapping rule was modied for structured clay in this

study since this method is both simple and effective for many conventional stress paths. The image stress point on the structural

bounding surface is used for determining the plastic volumetric

strain. The schematic diagram for the mapping rule is shown in

Fig. 4. An association between any stress point and the image stress

point is described by the intersection of the structural bounding

surface with the straight line passing through the origin and the

current stress state, based on the assumption that the hardening

modulus at the current stress point (H) is related to the hardening

modulus at its corresponding image stress point (Hj) as well as to

the ratio of the image stress ratio (a). The variation of a is assumed

to be a function of both the current stress state (q, p0 ) and the

image stress state (qj ; p0j ) as follows:

cemented Ariake clay.

654

Fig. 9. Comparison of measured and simulated CID test of intact Pappadai clay: (a)

stress ratiodeviatoric strain curve and (b) volumetric straindeviatoric strain

curve.

s

p0 =p0j q=qj

2

10

when p0j and qj are known. The p0j and qj values for any p00j are determined from the structural bounding surface (Eq. (9)). The parameter

p0

q

p0

a becomes the unique value (a 0 00 ) at the critical state

pj qj p0j

when p0b is zero due to the complete removal of cementation structure (destructuring).

11

12

@f

M 2 p0 p0b :

@p00j

14

The plastic strain increment in the subyielding state is dened

in terms of the hardening modulus, yield function and plastic potential in the same way as that in the virgin yielding state as previously successfully done by Dafalias and Herrmann [11], Bardet

[2] and Yu et al. [52]. Thus,

15

2

Hj M p

where

p0b

!

1 ep00j

@g

;

M

@p0 j

bDe

k j

Mg

16

@g

are given as

@p0 j

!

1

2

p0j p0b 0

0

p

2

p

B p0 p0

p

b

C

C

M2 B

p

b

B

2 p0j p0b C

0

0

C:

B

1 w@

wpj pb

A

0

@f

@f

@f

dp0 dq

dp0 0:

@p0 j @q j @p00j 0j

1 ep00j

depv 0:

M

b De

k j

Mg

Based on the state boundary surface theory, the variation of the

structural bounding surface (dp00j ) is related to the plastic volumetric strain increment (depv ). It is developed based on Eq. (6) as

follows:

1 ep00j

depv :

M

bDe

k j

Mg

@f

@f

dp0 dq M2 p0 p0b

@p0 j @q j

!

1 @F 0 @F

@g

:

dev

dp dq

Hj @p0 j @q j

@p0 j

dp00j

Fig. 10. Comparison of measured and simulated CID test of cemented Ariake clay

with 6% cement content: (a) stress ratiodeviatoric strain curve and (b) volumetric

straindeviatoric strain curve.

13

@g

@p0 j

17

A specic feature of the bounding surface theory is that the

hardening modulus (H) is not only dependent on the location of

the image point but also on a function of the distance from the

stress point to the structural bounding surface with the following

requirements [12,23,52]:

H 1 if a 0;

H Hj

18a

if a 1:

18b

The restriction imposed by Eqs. (18a) and (18b) ensures that the

clay behaviour is almost purely elastic when the stress state is far

away from the structural bounding surface and that the stress point

and the structural bounding surface move together when the current stress state lies on the structural bounding surface. The hardening modulus for the MSCC-B model under monotonic loading

condition is proposed to satisfy the restriction Eqs. (18a) and

(18b) as follows:

H Hj h Hj;i

1 a2

19

material characteristics on H and Hj,i is the initial hardening modulus at the image stress point, which is calculated by Eq. (16).

3.3. Model parameters

There are 12 parameters for the MSCC-B model. Six parameters

(k , eIC , j, M, p00 , G0 or l0 ) are the basic parameters adopted from the

MCC model. Five parameters (b, Dei, p0b0 , n and w) are the structural

parameters describing the hardening and destructuring behaviour

for the original MSCC model. The last parameter is h, which is newly presented in this paper to describe the effect of the material

characteristics on the hardening modulus in the overconsolidated

state. The parameters denoted by a superscript are the

Fig. 11. Comparison of measured and simulated CID test of cemented Ariake clay

with 18% cement content: (a) stress ratiodeviatoric strain curve and (b) volumetric

straindeviatoric strain curve.

655

the parameter determination can be found in the papers by Horpibulsuk et al. [17] and Suebsuk et al. [45].

The effect of h on the shear behaviour is illustrated in Figs. 5 and

6 using the model parameters listed in Table 1. Fig. 5a shows the

effect of h on the undrained stress path. It is clear that h signicantly affects the hardening and destructuring behaviours for

structured clay in the overconsolidated state. An increase in h increases both the stiffness and strength of the clay, as shown in

Fig. 5a and b. The smoothness of the excess pore pressuredeviatoric strain curve is illustrated in Fig. 5c for various h. At the same

deviatoric stress, a decrease in h leads to a larger deformation produced by the shearing. Fig. 6 presents the inuence of h on the relationship between aepv under drained shearing. The parameter h

insignicantly affects the soil stiffness when it is smaller than 1.

The parametric studies (Figs. 5 and 6) show that the destructuring depends on both epv and ed. Its behaviour can be predicted by

Eqs. (6)(8). The plastic volumetric strain occurs at the early stage

of loading. If a < 1, the stress state stays inside the structural

bounding surface, and the destructuring is caused by the change

in plastic volumetric strain due to dp0c and the degradation of soil

structure due to the deviatoric strain. The destructuring gradually

occurs as shown by the smooth stressstrain relationship. When

a = 1, the loading surface and structural bounding surface coincide,

and the MSCC-B and MSCC models are the same.

In this section, the MSCC-B model is veried by a comparison

between measured and simulated data. The tested results of intact

Fig. 12. Comparison of measured and simulated CIU test results of intact Pappadai

clay: (a) deviatoric stressdeviatoric strain curve and (b) excess pore pressure

deviatoric strain curve.

656

Pappadai clay [6,8] and cemented Ariake clay [15,18] were used for

this verication.

The physical properties of both clays are presented in Table 2.

The testing programmes of the Pappadai and cemented Ariake

clays are summarised in Tables 3. The model parameters were obtained with the following steps:

(a) The isotropic compression test results of structured samples

and reconstituted (remoulded) samples were taken to determine compression parameters. The k and eIC were determined from the intrinsic compression line, ICL [4]. The

three additional structural parameters (p0y;i , Dei and b) were

determined from the structured compression line, SCL

[30,45]. The j was determined from the unloadreloading

line of the structured sample.

(b) Undrained and drained shearing test results of isotropic consolidated structured clay were taken to determine the

parameters (M, p0b0 , G0 , w, n and h) at various isotropic yield

stress ratios (YSRiso). The gradient of critical state line M

and initial structure strength p0b0 was obtained from the

stress path (vide Fig. 1b). The shear modulus G0 was approximated from the qed curve. The parameters w and n are

dependent on the type of clays and the degree of cementation [45]. The parameter w were estimated from the shape

of the structural bounding surface. For natural clay, the plastic potential is approximately elliptical, and w can be taken

as 2. For cemented clay, it is usually less than 2 [45]. The

parameter n was estimated from the stressstrain response,

and its value is 1 6 n 6 100 [45]. The parameter h was

obtained by plotting the simulated aepv curve compared

with measured data.

Fig. 13. Comparison of measured and simulated CIU test of cemented Ariake clay

with 9% cement content: (a) deviatoric stressdeviatoric strain curve and (b) excess

pore pressuredeviatoric strain curve.

Pappadia clay and cemented Ariake clay, respectively.

4.1. Isotropic compression

Fig. 7 shows the comparison between the measured and simulated data for the isotropic compression of intact Pappadai clay.

The tested data can be captured well by the model simulation.

The smooth e ln p0 curve for pre- and post-yield states is

seen. The meta-stable voids ratio, which cannot be degraded with

the increase in conning stress, is predicted by the MSCC-B model.

The lower the b, the smaller the destructuring. Fig. 8 compares the

model simulation results of the isotropic compression curves with

the measured data for the cemented Ariake clay at different cement contents. The simulations were performed with a single set

of intrinsic parameters. The results show that samples with higher

cement content exhibit smaller destructuring, which is controlled

by b. The MSCC-B model simulation broadly matches the experimental results better than the original MSCC model, which cannot

simulate the subyielding behaviour. From the comparisons, it is

seen that the destructuring by shearing does not affect the isotropic compression response, and thus the simulation of isotropic

compression is only controlled by six parameters (k , eIC , j, p0y;i , b

and Dei ).

4.2. Drained triaxial shearing

The results of the model simulation of isotropically consolidated drained compression (CID) shearing of the intact Pappadai

clay are shown in Fig. 9. For moderate to large deviatoric strain

Fig. 14. Comparison of measured and simulated CIU test of cemented Ariake clay

with 18% cement content: (a) deviatoric stressdeviatoric strain curve and (b)

excess pore pressuredeviatoric strain curve.

657

this simulation. The MSCC-B model gives more realistic predictions

than those predicted by the original MSCC model. The smooth

stressstrain relationship can be captured by the MSCC-B model.

By comparison of the stress ratiodeviatoric strain curve and volumetric straindeviatoric strain curve, it is seen that the MSCC-B

model provides a good simulation.

Figs. 10 and 11 present the comparison of measured and simulated data for the cemented Ariake clay at different cement contents. The test data covers the range of cement contents from 6%

to 18% with the variation of conning stress from 50 kPa to

1000 kPa. The smooth stressstrain response was simulated along

the loading path. The MSCC-B model gives good results for the

stressstrain curve and the volumetric deformation curve.

results of intact Pappadai clay by MSCC and MSCC-B models.

Fig. 17. Comparisons of experimental and simulated on CIU test results of intact

Pappadai clay by MSCC and MSCC-B models.

Fig. 12 compares the measured and simulated results of the intact Pappadai clay with various YSRiso from 7.50 to 1.50. Figs. 13

and 14 compare the measured and simulated results of the cemented Ariake clay at various YSRiso and cement contents. It is found

that the deviatoric stress and excess pore pressure versus deviatoric strain can be predicted well by the MSCC-B model.

From the simulation of compressibility and shearing for naturally and articially structured clays, it is concluded that the

MSCC-B model can describe the inuence of articial cementation

structure on soil behaviour.

MSCC model

To demonstrate the improvement of MSCC-B model, simulations of structured soil behaviour made by the MSCC-B model

are compared with those of the original MSCC model as shown in

Figs. 1517 for Pappadai clay. It is seen that there are the following

improvement in model simulation for the MSCC-B model.

Fig. 16. Comparisons of experimental and simulated on CID test results of intact

Pappadai clay by MSCC and MSCC-B models.

captured. This is especially important for highly overconsolidated soils.

(2) The peak strength and the smooth transition from hardening

to softening behaviours, for both drained or undrained situations, have been better represented by the boundary surface theory. This improves the overall accuracy of stress

and strain relationship.

658

5. Conclusion

Based on an extensive review of the available experimental

data, a critical state model with bounding surface theory to

describe the mechanical behaviour of naturally and articially

structured clays in the overconsolidated state was proposed. A fundamental hypothesis of the development is that the hardening and

destructuring of structured clay are dependent on both the plastic

volumetric strain and deviatoric strain. The key feature of the

MSCC-B model is that the plastic deformation for stress state inside

the yield surface can be well-captured.

The hardening modulus for structured clay was formulated

based on the bounding surface theory with the radial mapping

rule. It is suitable for describing the compression and shearing

behaviours of natural clays and cement-stabilised clays under

monotonic loading in the overconsolidated state. The MSCC-B

model can simulate the stressstrain-strength relationships of

structured clays well over a wide range of YSRiso. Generally speaking, a reasonable good agreement between the model performance

and experimental data is achieved. The model can be used as a

powerful tool for simulating structured clay behaviour in the overconsolidated state.

Acknowledgements

The rst author thanks the Ofce of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand, for Ph.D. study nancial support under the programme Strategic Scholarships for Frontier Research Network. The

nancial support and facilities provided by the Suranaree University of Technology are appreciated. The authors are grateful to

the reviewers for their constructive and useful comments, which

improve the quality of this paper.

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