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# MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

## SCHOOL OF CIVIL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

HYDRAULICS LABORATORY

NAME

## :______ZAPANTA, JOHN MICHAEL M.____________________

STUDENT NO.

: _____2013150752___________________________________

COURSE-SECTION

TITLE

DATE PERFORMED

DATE SUBMITTED

## ENGR. KEVIN PAOLO V. ROBLES

INSTRUCTOR

EXPERIMENT NO. 9
ENERGY LOSSES IN BENDS
I. INTRODUCTION
Technical Data
The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate
calculations. If required, these values may be checked as part of the
experimental procedure and replaced with your own measurements.
Diameter of Pipe work d = 0.0196 m
Derivation The energy loss which occurs in pipe fittings (so-called secondary
loss) is commonly expressed in terms of a head loss (h, meters) in the form:
h = Kv2 / 2g
where K = the loss coefficient and v = mean velocity of flow into fitting.
Because of the complexity of flow in many fittings, K is usually determined by
experiment. For the pipe fitting experiment, the head loss is calculated from
two manometer readings, taken before and after each fitting, and K is then
determined as
K = (h) (2g) / v2
Due to the change in pipe cross - sectional area through the enlargement and
contraction, the system experiences as additional change in static pressure.
This change can be calculated as
V12 / 2g - V2 2/ 2g
To eliminate the effects of this area change on the measured head losses, this
For the gate valve experiment, pressure difference before and after the gate
is measured directly using a pressure gauge. This can then be converted to
an equivalent head loss using the equation
1 bar = 10.2 m water
The loss coefficient may then be calculated as above for the gate valve.

II. OBJECTIVES
To determine the loss factors for flow through a range of pipe fittings
including bends, a contraction, an enlargement, and a gate-valve.

## A. Thermometer - apparatus that indicates the temperature of a medium

B. Hydraulic Bench - very useful apparatus in hydraulics and fluid mechanics. Water
from here is transported to other parts using pump.

C. Stopwatch a handheld time piece designed to measure the amount of time elapsed
from a particular time when it is activated to the time when the piece is deactivated.

D. Energy Losses in Bends and Fitting Apparatus a device used to measure liquid
pressure in a system by measuring the height to which a column of a liquid rises
against gravity.

IV. PROCEDURE

(EQUIPMENT SET-UP)
1. Set up the losses apparatus on the hydraulic bench so that its base is
horizontal (this is necessary for accurate height measurements from the
manometers). Connect the test rig inlet to the bench flow supply and run the
outlet extension tube to the volumetric tank and secure it in place.
2. Open the bench valve, the gate valve, and the flow control valve and start
the pump to fill the test rig with water. In order to bleed air from pressure
tapping points and the manometers close both the bench valve and the test
rig flow control valve and open the air bleed screw and remove the cap from
the adjacent air valve. Connect a length of small-bore tubing from the air
valve to the volumetric tank. Now, open the bench valve and allow flow
through the manometers to purge all air from them; then, tighten the air
bleed screw and partly open both the bench valve. And the test rig flow
control valve. Next, open the air bleed screw slightly to allow air to enter the
top of the manometers, re-tighten the screw when the manometer levels
reach a convenient height.
3. Check that all manometer levels are on scale at the maximum volume flow
rate required (approximately 17 liters/min). These levels can be adjusted
further by using the air bleed screw and the hand pump supplied. The air
bleed screw controls the air flow through the air valve, so when using the
hand pump, the bleed screw must be open. To retain the hand pump pressure
in the system, the screw must be closed after pumping.

## PROCEDURE- TAKING A SET OF RESULTS

1. It is not possible to make measurements on all fittings simultaneously;
therefore, it is necessary to run two separate tests.
2. Exercise A measures losses across all pipe fittings except the gate valve,
which should be kept fully open. Adjust the flow from the bench control valve
and, at a given flow rate, take height readings from all of manometers after
the levels have steadied. In order to determine the volume flow rate, a timed
volume collection using the volumetric tank. This is achieved by closing the
ball valve and measuring (with a stopwatch) time taken to accumulate a
known volume of fluid in the tank, which is read from the sight glass. You
should collect fluid for at least one minute to minimize timing errors.
3. Repeat this procedure to give a total of at least five sets of measurement
over a flow range from approximately 8 - 17 liters per minute. Measure the
outflow water temperature at the lowest flow rate; this together with the
table detailing the Kinematic Viscosity of Water at Atmospheric Pressure is
used to determine the Reynold's number.
4. Exercise B measures losses across the gate valve only. Clamp off the
connecting tubes to the miter bend pressure tapping (to prevent air being
drawn into the system). Start with the gate valve closed and open fully both
the bench valve and the test rig flow control valve. Now, open the gate valve
by approximately 50% of one turn (after taking up any backlash). For each of
at least 5 flow rates, measure pressure drop across the valve from the
pressure gauge; adjust the flow rate by the use of the test rig flow control
valve.
Once measurements have started, do not adjust the gate valve. Determine
the volume flow rate by timed collection. 5. Repeat this procedure for the
gate valve opened by approximately 70% of one turn and then approximately
80% of one turn.

Given:
Mitre
1 = 0.290
2 = 0.258
= 60
= 0.0108 m3

## Head Loss=|h1h2|=|0.290 m0.258 m|=0.032 m

3

V 0.0108 m
m
Flow Rate= =
=1.80 x 104
t
60
s

m3
Q
s
m
Velocity= =
=0.596583
A
0.00030172
s
4

1.80 X 10

K=

v 2 (0.596583)
=
=0.01814 m
2g
2(9.81)

h (2 g) ( 0.032m ) ( 2 ) (9.81)
=
=1.764035
v2
(0.596583)2

VII. CONCLUSION
This experiment, Energy Losses in Bends, was done in order for us to
determine the loss factors in the pipe fittings such as to sudden contraction,
sudden enlargement, valves, bends and other pipe fittings. The laboratory
assistant prepared the hydraulic bench, the fitting apparatus, and other
equipment for this experiment. The group was able to record the readings in
all the manometer levels as we observe a flow rate of approximately 1.80 x
10-4 m3 /s.
As the group performs this experiment, we found out that the
manometer level gave the reverse reading, so in order to lessen the error,
the group just get the absolute value of their differences. It was also
observed from the experiment that as the water flow through a pipe, it lost its
energy - especially in different cases such as sudden contraction or
enlargement, and other pipe fittings.

## From these, it can be concluded that there is an increase in pressure

near the outer wall of the bend. Based from the equation, frictional force is
inversely proportional to the pipe diameter but directly proportional to the
pipe length, square of average flow rate, roughness inside the pipe and
viscosity. By the end of this experiment, the group found out that one
possible source of error might be due to the illogical use of the apparatus
itself. In addition, it might be also due the inaccuracy when it comes to

## VIII. APPLICATION TO ENGINEERING

Most of the irrigation system components influence the hydraulic power
requirements. For example, the hydraulic power are used for distribution,
even if they transfer water horizontally, pipe friction will create an additional
resistance felt at the pump, which is effect will required extra power to
overcome it. If channels are used (open channels), extra power is still needed
because although the water will flow freely by gravity down the channel, the
input end of the channel needs to be high enough above the field to provide
the necessary slope or hydraulic gradient to cause the water to flow at a
sufficient rate. So the outlet from the pump of the channel needs to be
slightly higher than the filed level. Thus requiring an increased static head
and therefore an increased power demand.

IX. REFERENCES
A. Uy, F. A., Tan, F., & Monjardin, C. E. (2015). Laboratory Manual in Fluid
Mechanics
B. http://iitg.vlab.co.in/?sub=62&brch=176&sim=1635&cnt=1
C. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/ah810e/AH810E04.htm