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Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

Section 1 Interference: Practice


Problems

1.Violet light falls on two slits separated by


5

1.9010 m. A first-order bright band appears


13.2mmfromthecentralbrightbandonascreen
0.600mfromtheslits.Whatis?

3.In a double-slit experiment, physics students use a

laser with = 632.8nm.Astudentplacesthe


screen1.000mfromtheslitsandfindsthefirstorderbrightband65.5mmfromthecentralline.
Whatistheslitseparation?

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

2.Yellow-orange light from a sodium lamp of

wavelength596nmisaimedattwoslitsthatare
separatedby1.90105m. What is the distance
from the central band to the first-order yellow band
ifthescreenis0.600mfromtheslits?

4.CHALLENGE Yellow-orange light with a


wavelengthof596nmpassesthroughtwoslitsthat
5

areseparatedby2.2510 m and makes an


interference pattern on a screen. If the distance from
2
the central line to the first-orderyellowbandis2.0010 m,
how far is the screen from the slits?

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

3.In a double-slit experiment, physics students use a

laser with = 632.8nm.Astudentplacesthe


screen1.000mfromtheslitsandfindsthefirstorderbrightband65.5mmfromthecentralline.
Whatistheslitseparation?

SOLUTION:

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5.InthesituationinExampleProblem2,whatwould

be the thinnest film that would create a reflected red


(= 635nm)band?

SOLUTION:

Page 1

Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

5.InthesituationinExampleProblem2,whatwould

be the thinnest film that would create a reflected red


(= 635nm)band?

SOLUTION:

6.A glass lens has a nonreflective coating placed on it.


If a film of magnesium fluoride is placed on the glass,
how thick should the layer be to keep yellow-green
light (=555nm)frombeingreflected?Seethe
sketch in Figure9.

6.A glass lens has a nonreflective coating placed on it.


If a film of magnesium fluoride is placed on the glass,
how thick should the layer be to keep yellow-green
light (=555nm)frombeingreflected?Seethe
sketch in Figure9.

SOLUTION:

Because nfilm > nair, there is a phase inversion


on the first reflection. Because nglass > nfilm,
there is a phase inversion on the second
reflection. For destructive interference to keep
yellow-green from being reflected:

For the thinnest film, m = 0.

SOLUTION:

Because nfilm > nair, there is a phase inversion


on the first reflection. Because nglass > nfilm,
there is a phase inversion on the second
reflection. For destructive interference to keep
yellow-green from being reflected:

For Manual
the thinnest
m = 0.
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7.You can observe thin-film interference by dipping a


bubble wand into some bubble solution and holding
the wand in the air. What is the thickness of the
thinnest soap film at which you would see a black
stripe if the light illuminating the film has a
wavelengthof521nm?Usen=1.33forthebubble
solution.

Page 2

SOLUTION:
Because nfilm > nair, there is a phase change on

Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

7.You can observe thin-film interference by dipping a


bubble wand into some bubble solution and holding
the wand in the air. What is the thickness of the
thinnest soap film at which you would see a black
stripe if the light illuminating the film has a
wavelengthof521nm?Usen=1.33forthebubble
solution.

SOLUTION:
Because nfilm > nair, there is a phase change on
the first reflection. Because nair < nfilm, there is
no phase change on the second reflection.

For destructive interference to get a black


stripe

For the thinnest film, m = 1.

9.CHALLENGE A silicon solar cell has a


nonreflective coating placed on it. If a film of silicon
monoxide, n= 1.45, is placed on the silicon, n= 3.5,
how thick should the layer be to keep yellow-green
light (= 555nm)frombeingreflected?

SOLUTION:
Because nfilm > nair, there is a phase inversion
on the first reflection. Because nsilicon > nfilm,
there is a phase inversion on the second
reflection. For destructive interference to keep
yellow-green from being reflected:

For the thinnest film, m = 0.

8.What is the thinnest soap film (n=1.33)forwhich


lightofwavelength521nmwillconstructively
interfere with itself?

SOLUTION:

Section 1 Interference: Review

10.MAIN IDEA Two very narrow slits are cut close


to each other in a large piece of cardboard. They are
illuminated by monochromatic red light. A sheet of
white paper is placed far from the slits, and a pattern
of bright and dark bands is seen on the paper.
Describe how a wave behaves when it encounters a
slit, and explain why some regions are bright while
others are dark.

SOLUTION:
When a wave encounters a slit, the wave bends.
Light is diffracted by the slits. Light from one
slit interferes with light from the other. If
interference is constructive, there is a bright
band; if destructive, the region is dark.

9.CHALLENGE
Abysilicon
solar
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cell has a
nonreflective coating placed on it. If a film of silicon
monoxide, n= 1.45, is placed on the silicon, n= 3.5,

11.Interference Patterns Sketch the pattern


described in the previous problem.

SOLUTION:

Page 3

Light is diffracted by the slits. Light from one


slit interferes with light from the other. If
interference is constructive, there is a bright
band; if destructive, the region is dark.
Chapter
19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

13.Lucien is blowing bubbles and holds the bubble wand


with a soap film (n=1.33)initvertically.

a. What is the second thinnest width of the soap film


at which he could see a bright stripe if the light
illuminatingthefilmhasawavelengthof575nm?
b. What other widths produce a bright stripe at
575nm?

11.Interference Patterns Sketch the pattern


described in the previous problem.

SOLUTION:

12.Interference Patterns Sketch what happens to the


pattern in the previous two problems when the red
light is replaced by blue light.

The light bands become more closely spaced


than when using blue light.

13.Lucien is blowing bubbles and holds the bubble wand


with a soap film (n=1.33)initvertically.

a. What is the second thinnest width of the soap film


at which he could see a bright stripe if the light
illuminatingthefilmhasawavelengthof575nm?
b. What other widths produce a bright stripe at
575nm?

SOLUTION:
a.Thereisonephaseinversion,soconstructive

For the second thinnest thickness, m = 1.

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SOLUTION:
a.Thereisonephaseinversion,soconstructive
interference will be when

For the second thinnest thickness, m = 1.

SOLUTION:

interference will be when

The light bands become more closely spaced


than when using blue light.

b. For the general case, where m can be any


integer:

Thus, any odd-integer multiple of 108 nm will


produce a bright stripe.

Section 1 Interference: Review

14.Lightofwavelength542nmfallsonadoubleslit.
Use the values from Figure11 to determine how far
apart the slits are.

Page 4

Thus, any odd-integer multiple of 108 nm will


Chapter
19 Practice
Review, and Assessment
produce
a bright Problems,
stripe.

Section 1 Interference: Review

14.Lightofwavelength542nmfallsonadoubleslit.
Use the values from Figure11 to determine how far
apart the slits are.

SOLUTION:
sin = tan totwosignificantdigitsupto9.9.
An increase in the precision of the
measurementreducesthisangleto2.99.

Section 2 Diffraction: Practice


Problems

16.Monochromaticgreenlightofwavelength546nm
fallsonasingleslitwithawidthof0.095mm.The
slitislocated75cmfromascreen.Howwidewill
the central bright band be?

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

17.Yellowlightwithawavelengthof589nmpasses
throughaslitofwidth0.110mmandmakesapattern
on a screen. If the width of the central bright band is
2.6010
screen?

m, how far is it from the slits to the

SOLUTION:

15.Critical Thinking The equation for wavelength


from a double-slit experiment uses the simplification
that issmallsothatsintan. Up to what angle
is this a good approximation when your data has two
significant figures? Would the maximum angle for a
valid approximation increase or decrease as you
increase the precision of your angle measurement?

SOLUTION:
sin = tan totwosignificantdigitsupto9.9.
An increase in the precision of the
measurementreducesthisangleto2.99.

Section 2 Diffraction: Practice


Problems

18.Light from a He-Ne laser (=632.8nm)fallsona


slit of unknown width. A pattern is formed on a
screen1.15maway,onwhichthecentralbright
bandis15.0mmwide.Howwideistheslit?

SOLUTION:

16.Monochromaticgreenlightofwavelength546nm
fallsonasingleslitwithawidthof0.095mm.The
slitislocated75cmfromascreen.Howwidewill
the central bright band be?

SOLUTION:
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Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

18.Light from a He-Ne laser (=632.8nm)fallsona


slit of unknown width. A pattern is formed on a
screen1.15maway,onwhichthecentralbright
bandis15.0mmwide.Howwideistheslit?

SOLUTION:

20.CHALLENGE White light falls on a single slit that


is0.050mmwide.Ascreenisplaced1.00maway.
A student first puts a blue-violet filter (=441nm)
over the slit, then a red filter (=622nm).The
student measures the width of the central bright
band.

a. Which filter produced the wider band?


b. Calculate the width of the central bright band for
both filters.

SOLUTION:
a. Red, because the width of the central bright
band is proportional to wavelength.

b.

19.Yellowlightfallsonasingleslit0.0295mmwide.On
ascreenthatis60.0cmaway,thecentralbright
bandis24.0mmwide.Whatisthewavelengthofthe
light?

SOLUTION:

20.CHALLENGE White light falls on a single slit that


is0.050mmwide.Ascreenisplaced1.00maway.
A student first puts a blue-violet filter (=441nm)
over the slit, then a red filter (=622nm).The
student measures the width of the central bright
band.

a. Which filter produced the wider band?


b. Calculate the width of the central bright band for
both filters.

SOLUTION:
a. Red, because the width of the central bright
band is proportional to wavelength.

b.
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21.White light shines through a grating onto a screen.


Describe the pattern that is produced.

SOLUTION:
A full spectrum of color is seen. Because of the
variety of wavelengths, dark fringes of one
wavelength are filled by bright fringes of
another color.

22.Ifbluelightofwavelength434nmshinesona
diffraction grating and the spacing of the resulting
linesonascreenthatis1.05mawayis0.55m,what
is the spacing between the slits in the grating?

SOLUTION:

Page 6

A full spectrum of color is seen. Because of the


variety of wavelengths, dark fringes of one
wavelength are filled by bright fringes of
Chapter
19 Practice
another
color. Problems, Review, and Assessment

22.Ifbluelightofwavelength434nmshinesona
diffraction grating and the spacing of the resulting
linesonascreenthatis1.05mawayis0.55m,what
is the spacing between the slits in the grating?

SOLUTION:

24.Blue light shines on the DVD in Example Problem 3.


Ifthedotsproducedonawallthatis0.65maway
areseparatedby58.0cm,whatisthewavelengthof
the light?

SOLUTION:

23.A diffraction grating with slits separated by


7
8.6010 m is illuminated by violet light with a
wavelengthof421nm.Ifthescreenis80.0cmfrom
the grating, what is the separation of the lines in the
diffraction pattern?

25.Challenge Lightofwavelength632nmpasses
through a diffraction grating and creates a pattern on
ascreenthatis0.55maway.Ifthefirstbrightband
is5.6cmfromthecentralbrightband,howmany
slits per centimeter does the grating have?

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

Section 2 Diffraction: Review

24.Blue light shines on the DVD in Example Problem 3.


Ifthedotsproducedonawallthatis0.65maway
areseparatedby58.0cm,whatisthewavelengthof
the light?

SOLUTION:

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26.MAIN IDEA Many narrow slits are close to each


other and equally spaced in a large piece of
cardboard. They are illuminated by monochromatic
red light. A sheet of white paper is placed far from
the slits, and a pattern of bright and dark bands is
visible on the paper. Sketch the pattern that would be
seen on the screen.

SOLUTION:
Page 7

Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

Section 2 Diffraction: Review

26.MAIN IDEA Many narrow slits are close to each


other and equally spaced in a large piece of
cardboard. They are illuminated by monochromatic
red light. A sheet of white paper is placed far from
the slits, and a pattern of bright and dark bands is
visible on the paper. Sketch the pattern that would be
seen on the screen.

28.Line Spacing You shine a red laser light through


one diffraction grating and form a pattern of red dots
on a screen. Then you substitute a second diffraction
grating for the first one, forming a different pattern.
The dots produced by the first grating are spread out
more than those produced by the second. Which
grating has more lines per millimeter?

SOLUTION:
, so the greater the dot spacing (x) the

SOLUTION:

narrower the slit spacing (d) and thus more


lines per millimeter.

Band spacing is exactly the same as in the


pattern produced by the two slits, but now light
bands are much thinner and separated by wider
dark bands.

27.Rayleigh Criterion The brightest star in the winter


sky in the northern hemisphere is Sirius. In reality,
Sirius is a system of two stars that orbit each other.
If the Hubble Space Telescope(diameter2.4m)is
pointedattheSiriussystem,whichis8.44light-years
from Earth, what is the minimum separation there
would need to be between the stars in order for the
telescope to be able to resolve them? Assume that
the light coming from the stars has a wavelength of
550@nm.

29.First-Order Dark Bands Monochromatic green


lightofwavelength546nmfallsonasingleslitof
width and location from a screen shown in
Figure22. What is the separation of the first-order
dark bands?

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

28.Line Spacing You shine a red laser light through


one diffraction grating and form a pattern of red dots
on a screen. Then you substitute a second diffraction
grating for the first one, forming a different pattern.
The dots produced by the first grating are spread out
moreManual
than -those
produced
by the second. Which
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grating has more lines per millimeter?

30.Critical Thinking You are shown a spectrometer


and are not told whether it has been constructed with
a prism or a diffraction grating. If you look at a
spectrum of white light passing through the
spectrometer, how could you determine which device
produced the spectrum?

SOLUTION:
Determine if the violet or the red end of the
spectrum makes the largest angle with the
direction of the beam of incident white light. A
prism bends the violet end of the spectrum the
most, whereas a grating diffracts red
Page 8
wavelengths the most.

Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

30.Critical Thinking You are shown a spectrometer


and are not told whether it has been constructed with
a prism or a diffraction grating. If you look at a
spectrum of white light passing through the
spectrometer, how could you determine which device
produced the spectrum?

SOLUTION:
Determine if the violet or the red end of the
spectrum makes the largest angle with the
direction of the beam of incident white light. A
prism bends the violet end of the spectrum the
most, whereas a grating diffracts red
wavelengths the most.

Chapter Assessment
Section 1 Interference: Mastering
Concepts

31.Why is it important that monochromatic light was


used to make the interference pattern in the doubleslit experiment?

SOLUTION:
When monochromatic light is used, you get a
sharp interference pattern; if you use white
light, you get sets of colored bands.
32.Explain why the position of the central bright band of
a double-slit interference pattern cannot be used to
determine the wavelength of the light.

SOLUTION:
All wavelengths produce the line in the same
place.

33.Describe how you could use light of a known


wavelength to find the distance between two narrow
slits.

SOLUTION:

Let the light fall on the double slit, and let the
interference pattern fall on a sheet of paper.
Measure the spacing between the bright
bands, x, and use the equation

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34.Describe in your own words what happens in thin-

SOLUTION:
All wavelengths produce the line in the same
place.

33.Describe how you could use light of a known


wavelength to find the distance between two narrow
slits.

SOLUTION:

Let the light fall on the double slit, and let the
interference pattern fall on a sheet of paper.
Measure the spacing between the bright
bands, x, and use the equation

34.Describe in your own words what happens in thinfilm interference when a colored band is produced by
light shining on a soap film suspended in air. Make
sure you include in your explanation how the
wavelength of the light and the thickness of the film
are related.

SOLUTION:
When the light strikes the front of the film,
some reflects off this surface and some passes
through the film and reflects off the back
surface of the film. When light reflects off a
medium with a higher index of refraction, it
undergoes a phase shift of one-half wavelength;
this happens to the light that initially reflects. In
order for a colored band to be produced, two
light rays must be in phase. If the thickness of
the film is such that the ray reflecting off the
back surface goes through a multiple of half of a
cycle while passing through the film, the light
rays arriving at your eye will be in phase and
constructively interfere. Remember that the
index of refraction of the film determines
whether the wave is inverted, so that the
thickness of the film must equal a multiple of
half a wavelength of the light, divided by the
films index of refraction.

Chapter Assessment
Section 1 Interference: Mastering
Problems

35.Lightfallsonapairofslits19.0m apart and


80.0cmfromascreen,asshowninFigure23.The
first-orderbrightbandis1.90cmfromthecentral
bright band. What is the wavelength of the light?
(Level1)

Page 9

index of refraction of the film determines


whether the wave is inverted, so that the
thickness of the film must equal a multiple of
Chapter
Practice Problems,
Review,
half a19wavelength
of the light,
dividedand
by Assessment
the
films index of refraction.

Chapter Assessment
Section 1 Interference: Mastering
Problems

35.Lightfallsonapairofslits19.0m apart and


80.0cmfromascreen,asshowninFigure23.The
first-orderbrightbandis1.90cmfromthecentral
bright band. What is the wavelength of the light?
(Level1)

36.Oil Slick After a short spring rain shower, Tom and


Ann take their basset hound for a walk and notice a
thin film of oil (n=1.45)onapuddleofwater,
producing different colors. What is the minimum
thickness of a place where the oil creates
constructive interference for light with a wavelength
equalto545nm?(Level1)

SOLUTION:
There is one phase inversion, so constructive
interference will be when

For the minimum thickness, m = 0.

SOLUTION:

36.Oil Slick After a short spring rain shower, Tom and


Ann take their basset hound for a walk and notice a
thin film of oil (n=1.45)onapuddleofwater,
producing different colors. What is the minimum
thickness of a place where the oil creates
constructive interference for light with a wavelength
equalto545nm?(Level1)

SOLUTION:
There is one phase inversion, so constructive
interference will be when

For the minimum thickness, m = 0.

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37.Film Thickness A plastic reflecting film (n=1.83)


is placed on an auto glass window (n=1.52).What
is the thinnest film that will reflect yellow-green light
(=555nm)?Unfortunately,afilmthisthincannot
be manufactured. What is the next-thinnest film that
willproducethesameeffect?(Level2)

SOLUTION:
Because nfilm > nair, there is an inversion on
the first reflection. Because nglass < nfilm, there
isnoinversiononthesecondreflection.

For constructive interference to reflect yellowgreen light:

For the thinnest film, m = 0.

Page 10

Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

37.Film Thickness A plastic reflecting film (n=1.83)


is placed on an auto glass window (n=1.52).What
is the thinnest film that will reflect yellow-green light
(=555nm)?Unfortunately,afilmthisthincannot
be manufactured. What is the next-thinnest film that
willproducethesameeffect?(Level2)

SOLUTION:
Because nfilm > nair, there is an inversion on
the first reflection. Because nglass < nfilm, there
isnoinversiononthesecondreflection.

For constructive interference to reflect yellowgreen light:

38.Insulation Film Winter is approaching and


Alejandro is helping to cover the windows in his
home with thin sheets of clear plastic (n=1.81)to
keep the drafts out. After the plastic is taped up
around the windows, the plastic is heated with a hair
dryer to shrink-wrap the window, which alters the
thickness but not the refractive index of the plastic.
Alejandro notices a place on the plastic where there
is a blue stripe of color. He realizes that this is
created by thin-film interference. What are three
possible thicknesses of the plastic where the blue
stripe is produced if the wavelength of the light is
445nm?(Level2)

SOLUTION:

For the thinnest film, m = 0.

For the next-thinnest film, m = 1.

38.Insulation Film Winter is approaching and


Alejandro is helping to cover the windows in his
home with thin sheets of clear plastic (n=1.81)to
keep the drafts out. After the plastic is taped up
around the windows, the plastic is heated with a hair
dryer to shrink-wrap the window, which alters the
thickness but not the refractive index of the plastic.
Alejandro notices a place on the plastic where there
is a blue stripe of color. He realizes that this is
created by thin-film interference. What are three
possible thicknesses of the plastic where the blue
stripe is produced if the wavelength of the light is
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445nm?(Level2)

SOLUTION:

39.Ranking Task Five different lasers produce


double-slit interference patterns. In each case, the slit
separationis0.035mm.Rankthemaccordingtothe
wavelength of the lasers, from shortest to longest.
Specificallyindicateanyties.(Level3)

A:Thescreenis0.95mfromtheslits,andadjacent
brightspotsareseparatedby12mm.
B :Thescreenis0.95mfromtheslits,andadjacent
brightspotsareseparatedby16mm.
C:Thescreenis1.3mfromtheslits,andadjacent
Page 11
brightspotsareseparatedby20mm.
D:Thescreenis2.8mfromtheslits,andadjacent
brightspotsareseparatedby40mm.

Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

39.Ranking Task Five different lasers produce


double-slit interference patterns. In each case, the slit
separationis0.035mm.Rankthemaccordingtothe
wavelength of the lasers, from shortest to longest.
Specificallyindicateanyties.(Level3)

A:Thescreenis0.95mfromtheslits,andadjacent
brightspotsareseparatedby12mm.
B :Thescreenis0.95mfromtheslits,andadjacent
brightspotsareseparatedby16mm.
C:Thescreenis1.3mfromtheslits,andadjacent
brightspotsareseparatedby20mm.
D:Thescreenis2.8mfromtheslits,andadjacent
brightspotsareseparatedby40mm.
E:Thescreenis2.8mfromtheslits,andadjacent
brightspotsareseparatedby50mm.

SOLUTION:

Chapter Assessment
Section 2 Diffraction: Mastering
Concepts

40.BIG IDEA White light shines through a diffraction


grating. Are the resulting red lines spaced more
closely or farther apart than the resulting violet lines?
Why?

SOLUTION:
The spacing is directly proportional to the
wavelength, and because red light has a longer
wavelength than violet, the red lines will be
spaced farther apart than the violet lines.

41.Why do diffraction gratings have large numbers of


slits? Why are these slits so close together?

SOLUTION:
The large number of grooves in diffraction
gratings increases the intensity of the
diffraction patterns. The grooves are close
together, producing sharper images of light.

42.TelescopesWhy would a telescope with a small


diameter be unable to resolve the images of two
closely spaced stars?

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The large number of grooves in diffraction


gratings increases the intensity of the
diffraction patterns. The grooves are close
together, producing sharper images of light.

42.TelescopesWhy would a telescope with a small


diameter be unable to resolve the images of two
closely spaced stars?

SOLUTION:
Small apertures have large diffraction patterns
that limit resolution.

43.Reverse Problem Write a physics problem with


real-life objects for which the following equation
would be part of the solution:

SOLUTION:
Answers will vary, but a correct form of the
answer is, Light of wavelength 530 nm is
shone through a slit of width 0.20 mm. If a
diffraction pattern is made on a screen 2.00 m
away, what is the distance from the center of the
pattern to the first dark band?

44.Problem Posing Complete this problem so that it


can be solved using the Rayleigh criterion: A
telescope currently being designed is to have an
aperture that is 8.0 m in diameter.

SOLUTION:
Answers will vary. A possible form of the
correct answer would be, .If resolution were
to be diffraction-limited, what would be the
smallest angle that could be resolved if the
incoming light had a wavelength of 550 nm?

45.For a given diffraction grating, which color of visible


light produces a bright line closest to the central
bright band?

SOLUTION:
violet light, the color with the smallest
wavelength

46.When you look at an incandescent lamp through a


pair of funglasses you see thin stripes of spectral
colors going out from the light in eight directions as in
Figure24. You recognize that the glasses act like
Page 12
diffraction gratings. What are the directions of the
scratches in these glasses?

SOLUTION:
violet light, the color with the smallest
Chapter
19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment
wavelength

46.When you look at an incandescent lamp through a


pair of funglasses you see thin stripes of spectral
colors going out from the light in eight directions as in
Figure24. You recognize that the glasses act like
diffraction gratings. What are the directions of the
scratches in these glasses?

Horizontal scratches produce up and down


spectra; vertical scratches produce the left and
right. Two other stripes are from scratches at
o
45 above and below the horizontal.

Chapter Assessment
Section 2 Diffraction: Mastering
Problems

47.Monochromatic light passes through a single slit


0.010-cmwideandfallsonascreen100cmaway,
as shown in Figure25. If the width of the central
bandis1.20cm,whatisthewavelengthofthelight?
(Level1)

SOLUTION:
Horizontal scratches produce up and down
spectra; vertical scratches produce the left and
right. Two other stripes are from scratches at
o
45 above and below the horizontal.

SOLUTION:

Chapter Assessment
Section 2 Diffraction: Mastering
Problems

47.Monochromatic light passes through a single slit


0.010-cmwideandfallsonascreen100cmaway,
as shown in Figure25. If the width of the central
bandis1.20cm,whatisthewavelengthofthelight?
(Level1)

48.Agooddiffractiongratinghas2.510 linespercm.
Whatisthedistancebetweentwolines?(Level1)

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

49.Lightwithawavelengthof455nmpassesthrougha
singleslitandfallsonascreen100cmaway.Ifthe
slitis0.015cmwide,whatisthedistancefromthe
centerofthepatterntothefirstdarkband?(Level2)

SOLUTION:

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Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

49.Lightwithawavelengthof455nmpassesthrougha
singleslitandfallsonascreen100cmaway.Ifthe
slitis0.015cmwide,whatisthedistancefromthe
centerofthepatterntothefirstdarkband?(Level2)

SOLUTION:

51.Monochromaticlightwithawavelengthof425nm

passes through a single slit and falls on a screen


75cmaway.Ifthecentralbrightbandis0.60cm
wide,whatisthewidthoftheslit?(Level3)

SOLUTION:

50.Kaleidoscope The mirrors have been removed


from a kaleidoscope. The diameter of the eyehole at
theendis7.0mm.Iftwobluish-purple specks on the
otherendofthekaleidoscopeseparatedby40m
are barely distinguishable, what is the length of the
kaleidoscope? Use =650nmandassumethe
resolution is diffraction limited through the eyehole.
(Level3)

52.Hubble Space Telescope Suppose the Hubble


Space Telescope,2.4mindiameter,isinorbit
5

1.010 m above Earth and is turned to view Earth,


as shown in Figure26. If you ignore the effect of
the atmosphere, how large an object can the
telescope resolve? Use =515nm.(Level2)

SOLUTION:

51.Monochromaticlightwithawavelengthof425nm

passes through a single slit and falls on a screen


75cmaway.Ifthecentralbrightbandis0.60cm
wide,whatisthewidthoftheslit?(Level3)

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

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Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

52.Hubble Space Telescope Suppose the Hubble


Space Telescope,2.4mindiameter,isinorbit
5

1.010 m above Earth and is turned to view Earth,


as shown in Figure26. If you ignore the effect of
the atmosphere, how large an object can the
telescope resolve? Use =515nm.(Level2)

53.Spectroscope A spectroscope uses a grating with


12,000lines/cm.Findtheanglesatwhichredlight,
632nm,andbluelight,421nm,havefirst-order bright
lines.(Level3)

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:

Chapter Assessment: Applying


Concepts

53.Spectroscope A spectroscope uses a grating with


12,000lines/cm.Findtheanglesatwhichredlight,
632nm,andbluelight,421nm,havefirst-order bright
lines.(Level3)

SOLUTION:

54.Science Fair At a science fair, one exhibition is a


very large soap film that has a fairly consistent
thickness. It is illuminated by a light with a
wavelengthof432nm,andnearlytheentiresurface
appears to be a lovely shade of purple. What would
you see in the following situations?

a. Film thickness was doubled.


b. The film thickness was increased by half a
wavelength of the illuminating light.
c.The film thickness was decreased by one-quarter
of a wavelength of the illuminating light.

SOLUTION:
a. complete destructive interference

b. complete constructive interference

c. complete destructive interference

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55.What are the differences in the characteristics of the


Page 15
diffraction patterns formed by diffraction gratings
4
5
containing 10 lines/cm and 10 lines/cm?


b. complete constructive interference

c. complete destructive interference


Chapter
19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

55.What are the differences in the characteristics of the


diffraction patterns formed by diffraction gratings
4
5
containing 10 lines/cm and 10 lines/cm?

SOLUTION:
The lines in the diffraction pattern are narrower
5
for the 10 lines/cm grating.

56.Laser-Pointer Challenge You have two laser


pointers, a red one and a green one. Your friends
Mark and Carlos disagree about which has the longer
wavelength. Mark insists that red light has a longer
wavelength, while Carlos is sure that green has the
longer wavelength. You have a CD handy. Describe
what demonstration you would do with this
equipment and how you would explain the results to
Carlos and Mark to settle their disagreement.

SOLUTION:
Shine each laser pointer at the grating,
reflecting onto a nearby wall. The color with the
longer wavelength will produce spots with a
greater spacing on the wall because the spacing
is directly proportional to the wavelength.
(Mark is correct; red light has a longer
wavelength than green light.)

57.How can you tell whether a pattern is produced by a


single slit or a double slit?

SOLUTION:
A double-slit interference pattern consists of
equally spaced lines of almost equal brightness.
A single-slit diffraction pattern has a bright,
broad central band and dimmer side bands.

SOLUTION:
Less diffraction results from the short
wavelength of blue light.

59.For each of the following examples, indicate whether


the color is produced by thin-film interference,
refraction, or the presence of pigments.

a. soap bubbles
b. rose petals
c.oilfilms
d. a rainbow

SOLUTION:
a. interference

b. pigments

c. interference

d. refraction

60.Describe the changes in a single-slit diffraction


pattern as the width of the slit is decreased.

SOLUTION:
The bands get wider and dimmer.

ChapterAssessment:MixedReview

61.Record Marieusesanold331/3rpmrecordasa
diffraction grating. She shines a laser, =632.8nm,
on the record, as shown in Figure27. On a screen
4.0mfromtherecord,aseriesofreddots21mm
apartarevisible.(Level1)

58.Optical Microscope Why is blue light used for


illumination in an optical microscope?

SOLUTION:
Less diffraction results from the short
wavelength of blue light.

59.For each of the following examples, indicate whether


the color is produced by thin-film interference,
refraction, or the presence of pigments.
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a. soap bubbles
b. rose petals

a.How many grooves are there in a centimeter along


the radius of the record?
b. Marie checks her results by noting that the ridges
representasongthatlasts4.01minandtakesup16
mm on the record. How many grooves should there
be in a centimeter?
Page 16

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:
The bands get wider and dimmer.

Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

ChapterAssessment:MixedReview

61.Record Marieusesanold331/3rpmrecordasa
diffraction grating. She shines a laser, =632.8nm,
on the record, as shown in Figure27. On a screen
4.0mfromtherecord,aseriesofreddots21mm
apartarevisible.(Level1)

62.Camera When a camera with a 50-mm lens is set


at ,itsaperturehasanopening6.25mmin
diameter.(Level3)

a. ACCDdetectoris50.0mmawayandsenseslight
at =550nm.Whatistheresolutionofthelens?
b. The owner of the camera knows that it has
6.3megapixelsinitsCCD.Themanufacturersays
thateachpixelis7.6m on a side. Compare the size
of the pixel with the resolution of the lens calculated
in part a.

SOLUTION:
a.

a.How many grooves are there in a centimeter along


the radius of the record?
b. Marie checks her results by noting that the ridges
representasongthatlasts4.01minandtakesup16
mm on the record. How many grooves should there
be in a centimeter?

SOLUTION:
a.

b.

63.A glass lens has antireflective coating, n= 1.2, with a


thicknessof125nm.Forwhichcolor(s)oflightdoes
completedestructiveinterferenceoccur?(Level2)

SOLUTION:
Because nfilm > nair, there is a phase inversion
on the first reflection. Because nlens = 1.52 >
nfilm, there is a phase inversion on the second

b.

reflection.

Fordestructiveinterference:

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a camera
with
62.Camera

a 50-mm lens is set


at ,itsaperturehasanopening6.25mmin
diameter.(Level3)

Page 17

Chapter
19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

63.A glass lens has antireflective coating, n= 1.2, with a


thicknessof125nm.Forwhichcolor(s)oflightdoes
completedestructiveinterferenceoccur?(Level2)

SOLUTION:
Because nfilm > nair, there is a phase inversion
on the first reflection. Because nlens = 1.52 >
nfilm, there is a phase inversion on the second
reflection.

Fordestructiveinterference:

The light is reddish-orange. For other values of


m, the wavelength is shorter than that of light.

Chapter Assessment: Thinking


Critically

64.Apply Concepts Yellow light falls on a diffraction


grating. On a screen behind the grating, you see
three spots: one at zero degrees, where there is no
diffraction,andoneeachat+30and30.Younow
add a blue light of equal intensity that is in the same
direction as the yellow light. What pattern of spots
will you now see on the screen?

SOLUTION:
Agreenspotat0,yellowspotsat+ 30and
30,andtwobluespotsslightlycloserin.

65.Apply Concepts Blue light of wavelength passes


through a single slit of width w. A diffraction pattern
appears on a screen. If you replace the blue light
with a green light of wavelength 1.5, what slit width
will produce the original pattern?

SOLUTION:
The angle of diffraction depends on the ratio of
slit width to wavelength. Thus, you would
increase the width to 1.5w.

The light is reddish-orange. For other values of


m, the wavelength is shorter than that of light.

Chapter Assessment: Thinking


Critically

66.Analyze and Conclude At night, the pupil of a


humaneyehasanaperturediameterof8.0mm.The
diameter is smaller in daylight. An automobiles
headlightsareseparatedby1.8m.Howfaraway
can the human eye distinguish the two headlights at
night? Hint:Assumeawavelengthof525nm.
What besides diffraction might be limiting factors?

SOLUTION:

64.Apply Concepts Yellow light falls on a diffraction


grating. On a screen behind the grating, you see
three spots: one at zero degrees, where there is no
diffraction,andoneeachat+30and30.Younow
add a blue light of equal intensity that is in the same
direction as the yellow light. What pattern of spots
will you now see on the screen?

SOLUTION:
Agreenspotat0,yellowspotsat+ 30and
30,andtwobluespotsslightlycloserin.
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65.Apply Concepts Blue light of wavelength passes

Diffraction doesnt limit the sensing ability of


your eyes, which are limited by aperture atPage
a 18
few hundred meters. More probable factors are
the refractive effects of the atmosphere, like

SOLUTION:
The angle of diffraction depends on the ratio of
slit width to wavelength. Thus, you would
increase
the width
to 1.5w. Review, and Assessment
Chapter
19 Practice
Problems,

66.Analyze and Conclude At night, the pupil of a


humaneyehasanaperturediameterof8.0mm.The
diameter is smaller in daylight. An automobiles
headlightsareseparatedby1.8m.Howfaraway
can the human eye distinguish the two headlights at
night? Hint:Assumeawavelengthof525nm.
What besides diffraction might be limiting factors?

Student answers will vary. Answers should


include Youngs two-slit experiment that
allowed him to precisely measure the
wavelength of light.

68.The gemstone opal has an iridescent sheen.


Research and describe how these colors are
produced.

SOLUTION:
Descriptions will vary, but should include a
description of thin-film interference.

SOLUTION:
69.Many telescopes have adaptive optics that reduce
the atmospheric effects that cause stars to twinkle.
Research and describe how these systems work.

SOLUTION:
Student answers will vary. Answers could
include the correction of distorted wavefronts
with a deformable mirror to improve resolution.

Diffraction doesnt limit the sensing ability of


your eyes, which are limited by aperture at a
few hundred meters. More probable factors are
the refractive effects of the atmosphere, like
those that cause stars to twinkle, or the
limitations of the retina and the optic area of the
brain to separate two dim sources.

Chapter Assessment: Writing in


Physics

67.Research and describe Thomas Youngs

contributions to physics. Evaluate the impact of his


researchonthescientificthoughtaboutlight's
nature.
SOLUTION:
Student answers will vary. Answers should
include Youngs two-slit experiment that
allowed him to precisely measure the
wavelength of light.

70.Research and interpret the role of diffraction in


medicine and astronomy. Describe at least two
applications in each field.

SOLUTION:
Student answers will vary. Answers could
include diffraction in telescopes and
microscopes, as well as spectroscopy.

Chapter Assessment: Cumulative


Review

71.How much work must be done to push a 0.5-m


block of wood to the bottom of a 4-m-deep
3
swimmingpool?Thedensityofwoodis500kg/m .

SOLUTION:
The block would float, but to submerge it would
require an extra force downward.

68.The gemstone opal has an iridescent sheen.


Research and describe how these colors are
produced.

SOLUTION:
Descriptions will vary, but should include a
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description of thin-film interference.

Page 19

SOLUTION:
Student answers will vary. Answers could
include diffraction in telescopes and
microscopes,
as well
as spectroscopy.
Chapter
19 Practice
Problems,
Review, and Assessment

Chapter Assessment: Cumulative


Review

71.How much work must be done to push a 0.5-m


block of wood to the bottom of a 4-m-deep
3
swimmingpool?Thedensityofwoodis500kg/m .

73.A concave mirror has a 48.0-cm radius. A 2.0-cmtallobjectisplaced12.0cmfromthemirror.


Calculate the image position and image height.

SOLUTION:

SOLUTION:
The block would float, but to submerge it would
require an extra force downward.

72.What are the wavelengths of microwaves in an oven


iftheirfrequencyis2.4GHz?

SOLUTION:

74.Thefocallengthofaconvexlensis21.0cm.A2.00cm-tallcandleis7.50cmfromthelens.Usethethinlens equation to find the image position and image


height.

SOLUTION:

73.A concave mirror has a 48.0-cm radius. A 2.0-cmtallobjectisplaced12.0cmfromthemirror.


Calculate the image position and image height.

SOLUTION:

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Chapter 19 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment

74.Thefocallengthofaconvexlensis21.0cm.A2.00cm-tallcandleis7.50cmfromthelens.Usethethinlens equation to find the image position and image


height.

SOLUTION:

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