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SUMMER INTERNSHIP PROJECT REPORT

National Aviation Company of India Ltd

Submitted By:
SHILPA PANWAR
Enrollment No. - R260107032
External Guide:

Internal Guide:

Capt. Ajit Singh

Wing Cmdr. P. K. Gupta

General Manager, Operations Department

Professor

NACIL

U.P.E.S.

Kolkata

Gurgaon

An Internship report submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements

for

Bachelors of Business Administration (Aviation Operations)

August 2009
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Bidholi, Dehradun.

OPTIMUM UTILISATION OF FUEL TO DECREASE OPERATING COST


National Aviation Company of India Ltd

Submitted By:
SHILPA PANWAR
Enrollment No. - R260107032
External Guide:

Internal Guide:

Capt. Ajit Singh

Wing Cmdr. P. K.

Gupta
General Manager, Operations Department

Professor

NACIL

U.P.E.S.

Kolkata

Gurgaon

An Internship report submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements


for
Bachelors of Business Administration (Aviation Operations)

August 2009
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Bidholi, Dehradun, India.

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This is to acknowledge with sincere thanks for the assistance, guidance and support
that I have received during the summer training. I place on record my deep sense of
gratitude to the management of National Aviation Company of India Ltd. for giving
me an opportunity to pursue my summer training. My special thanks to Capt. Ajit
Singh, General Manager (Operations) for his constant advice and support.

I must also thanks Ms. Shobha Moorthy, Manager, Personal Relations, Human
Resources Department, NACIL (India) Ltd. who gave me this opportunity to work
with their prestigious organization.

I also want to mention the help and knowledge given by, Mr. K. Chakraborty, Head
of technical section and Mr. R.K.Bala, Head of Flight Dispatch section, NACIL
(India) Ltd. Also, at this point of time I cant forget to mention the help given by Mr.
K. Rai, Mr. Palik, and Mr. G. Chakraborty.

I wish to make a special mention of MR. P. K. Gupta, University of Petroleum and


Energy Studies, Gurgaon, for his deep involvement and continuous guidance. He has
been of immense assistance.
It was indeed a wonderful experience to work with NACIL
SHILPA PANWAR
BBA (A.O.)
UPES, (NCR) Gurgaon

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BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Ms SHILPA PANWAR a student of University of Petroleum and Energy
Studies, Gurgaon, pursuing BBA (A.O.) has successfully completed Summer Training at
NACIL during June-July 2009. As part of her curriculum, the Project Report entitled
Optimum Utilisation Of Fuel To Decrease Operating Cost, submitted by the student to
the undersigned is an authentic record of her original work, which she has carried out under
my supervision and guidance.

I wish her all the best.

Capt. Ajit Singh


General Manager
Operations Department
National Aviation Company
of Indian Limited(NACIL)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1BACKGROUND AND CONCEPT
1.2EFFECT OF RISE IN PRICE
1.3PURPOSE OF STUDY
1.4LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
Chapter 2: ORGANISATION
Chapter 3: IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM
3.1 Problem Statement
Chapter 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/DESIGN/PLAN
Chapter 5: ANALYSIS & FINDINGS
Chapter 6: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
APPENDICES
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

LIST OF TABLES:
TABLE NO.
TABLE NO.1
TABLE NO.2
TABLE NO.3

CONTENT
APU USAGE AND COST INCURRED
FUEL DESICION FACTORS
PILOTS DECION OF FUEL TAKEN FOR

TABLE NO. 4
TABLE NO. 5

A DAY IN JULY
APU SAVINGS
TOTAL SAVINGS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1

BACKGROUND AND CONCEPT


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ATF or AIRCRAFT TURBINE FUEL is the fuel which is used to operate aircraft as it
provides a large amount of energy so as to give a lift to tonnes of heavy aircraft. It is essential
for the safe operations of aircraft that a continuous supply of fuel is available during all its
phases of flight.
It is fuel that sustains a flight. Fuel management for a pilot is essentially fuel
conservation. That means careful flight planning and then alertly monitoring fuel consumption.
Fuel management begins on ground with a careful assessment of actual quantity on board and
a verification of the proper fuel type. Adequate fuel is essential but correct and sufficient fuel
is vital.

FUEL forms a major percentage of an aircrafts direct operating cost and shall be managed
efficiently consistent with safety of operations and economy. The fuel policy of the airlines is
in accordance with the policy stipulated by DGCA in AIP (India).
Conservation begins from engine start-up, since fuel consumed can never again be conserved.
Conservation should continue all the way to shut down. Fuel forms a major percentage of the
aircrafts direct operating cost and should be managed efficiently consistent with safety of
operations and economy.

Fuel is also a direct and variable cost to all airlines; therefore reductions in fuel burn have
direct benefits to an airlines bottom line. Fuel cost is one of the most important factors in the
total operating cost for airlines, representing more than 40% of the total industry costs at the
level of fuel prices in 2008. An aircrafts fuel burn on a route is not linear with distance and an
aircraft burns a relatively large amount of fuel in the initial climb and a lower account of fuel
while flying typical descent profiles.

THE EFFECT OF HIGH FUEL PRICES:

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The doubling of jet fuel prices from an average of $90/b in 2007 to peak at $180/b in July
2008 was the principle cause of the airline industry slipping from net profits of $12.9bn in
2007 to an estimated loss of $5bn in 2008. The fuel bill rose from $136bn in 2007 (28 percent
of operating costs) to $174bn (32 per - cent of operating costs) in 2008. At its peak in the
middle of the year fuel costs were well over 50 percent of operating costs and rising. Largely
as a result of the strains to cash flow caused by this unprecedented shock, over 30 airlines have
ceased scheduled operations, with the majority going out of business.
Rising fuel prices have compounded the airline industrys troubles. Still struggling to recover
from the downturn in air travel, airlines have found themselves facing not only tight
competition, which limits their ability to raise revenues, but also surging fuel prices. From the
relatively low price levels of the late 1990s, airline fuel, a major expense for airlines, has risen
dramatically in price.
Because of the rise in the cost of each flight and the stagnation in ticket prices, airlines
had to increase the percent of seats they sold on each flight in order to break even.
With airlines stymied in their attempts to raise prices to cover surging fuel expenditures,
airlines continued to focus on cutting costs instead. As a result, airlines dropped unprofitable
routes and attempted to reduce expenditures on their remaining routes. The industry also made
strides toward reducing its fuel consumption. Many airlines have tried to reduce the weight of
their airplanes and thereby raise fuel efficiency standards. Despite the industrys efforts to
conserve fuel, fuel consumption can only be reduced so much, particularly in the short term.
Because of their limited ability to curtail fuel expenses, airlines have had to look to other areas
to reduce expenses. Unlike jet fuela resource for which airlines have no alternative capital
is a resource that can sometimes be substituted for labor. In addition, many airlines have made
greater use of outsourcing to handle jobs such as routine maintenance.
In the current year it is still falling and airlines are trying their level best (by hook or by crook)
to survive in the market and see the sunshine of good days again. Though brief signs of
recovery were seen in the beginning this year but these signs are just fake reliefs as losses
incurred by the industry are worsening day by day.

1.3) PURPOSE OF STUDY:

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1.)
2.)
3.)
4.)

To study the current operational procedure of AIR INDIA.


To identify ways to reduce fuel consumption.
To calculate the reduction in operational cost of airline.
To study the impact of operating cost reduced.

1.4) LIMITATIONS OF STUDY:


1) Time available was not enough for detailed and more appropriate analysis.
2) Sufficient and required data availability..
3) Companys policy.

CHAPTER 2. ORGANISATION

Page

AIRINDIA (NACIL)
Air India, a state-owned airline is the national flag bearer of India. This airline has been flying
a worldwide network of passengers and cargo. This airline is administered under NACIL
National Aviation Company of India Limited, which was created to facilitate AIRINDIA
INDIAN AIRLINES merger in 2007. Air India is 16th largest airline in Asia, flying to 28
destinations across 100 cities worldwide.
Details:
Founded
Hubs

1932 as Tata Airline.


Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport( Primary Hub)
Indira Gandhi International Airport( Secondary Hub)
Chennai International Airport( Secondary Hub)
Frankfurt International Airport (International Hub)

Frequent Flyer Program

Flying Returns

Subsidiaries

Air India Express and Air India Cargo.

Destinations

25(excluding subsidiaries and code shares)

Fleet Size

28(+40 on orders)

Company slogan

Your palace in the sky

Headquarters

Mumbai, India

Key people

Arvind Jadhav, CMD


Amod Sharma, Director

Website:
Parent Company

http://www.airindia.com/
NACIL

AIR INDIA, which is based in Mumbai, India, made Frankfurt airport its international hub on
1st march 2009 for its North-American operations. One more achievement which will be
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10

another feather in Air Indias hat is membership of STAR ALLIANCE, worlds largest airline
alliance, in coming year.

AWARDS AND RECOGNITIONS:


Preferred International Airline award for travel and hospitality from Awaz
Consumer Awards 2006.
Best International West Bound Airline out of India for three successive years by
Galileo Express Travel World Award.
Best Short-Haul International Airline and Best Corporate
Responsibility Initiative by Galileo Express Travel World Award in 2008.

Social

Readers digest trusted brand award.


It entered Guinness Book of World Records for the largest evacuation
by a
civil airliner. Over 111,000 people were evacuated during Persian Gulf War in 1990
from Amman to Mumbai.

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
A.) FOR ORGANIZATION (OVERALL)

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11

HCMEIFDANGR
B.) FOR FLIGHT OPERATIONS:

SPECIAL FACILITIES:

DMS
GaM
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12

Special maharajah lounge.

AIR INDIAS MARKET SHARE:

DESTINATIONS
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13

NACIL carriers connect 93 destinations (60 domestic and 33 international) in 24 countries as


of February, 2009.
Below is a list of all destinations served by the four constituent carriers of the National
Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL):

Air India, Air India Express, Indian Airlines and Air India Region
Country
Kenya
China

City
Nairobi
Hong Kong, Shanghai

Japan
Bangladesh
India

Osaka, Tokiyo
Dhaka
Port Blair, Hyderabad, Tirupati , Visakhapatnam,
Dibrugarh, Guwahati, Jorhat, North Lakhimpur,
Silchar, Gaya, Patna, Raipur, Vasco Da Gama,
Ahmedabad, Jamnagar, Rajkot, Surat, Vadodara,
Kulu, Jammu, Leh, Srinagar, Ranchi, Bangalore,
Mangalore, Calicut, Cochin, Trivandrum, Bhopal,
Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur, Khajuraho,
Aurangabad, Mumbai, Nagpur, Pune, Imphal,
Shilling, Aizawl, Dimapur, Bhubaneswar,
Amritsar, Pathankot, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur,
Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli,
Agartala, Allahabad, Kanpur, Luchnow, Varanasi,
Kolkata, Siliguri,

Maldives
Nepal
Sri Lanka
Burma
Malaysia
Singapore
Thailand
Afghanistan

Mal
Kathmandu
Colombo
Yangon
Kuala Lumpur
Bangkok
Kabul

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14

Bahrain
Kuwait
Oman
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
France
Germany
United Kingdom
Canada
United States of America

Muscat , Salalah
Doha, Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh
Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Dubai, Sharjah
Paris
Frankfurt
London
Toronto
Chicago, Newark, new York city

FLEET:
As of May,2009 NACIL has a fleet of 148 Aircraft with 64 orders which is distributed amongst
Air India , Air India Express , Air India Cargo and Indian Airlines , Air India Regional.

NACIL will expand its Fleet to around 160 by the end of the next fiscal, inducting as
many as 30 new aircraft manufactured by the US-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes
and France-based Airbus S.A.S. over the next 12 months.

NACIL will induct 4 737-800s, 3 777-200LRs and 4 777-300ERs from Boeing


Commercial Airplanes & 8 A319-100s, 4 A320-200s and 7 A321-200s from Airbus
S.A.S..

By March 2011 all 111 new aircraft would have joined into fleet to bring down the
average age of aircraft to 18 months. These are part of 111 (68 Boeing and 43 Airbus)
aircraft order placed in January 2006

PRODUCTION/OPERATIONS PROCESS

NACIL envisages increased operations within India, and to/from the UK, Europe, North
America & the Gulf as well as expansion to new markets such as Australia, South Africa and
South America.

A new hub in Europe for trans-Atlantic operations is also under consideration.

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15

NACIL is also in the process of joining the Star Alliance. The merger and the recent
decision to join the Star Alliance require NACIL to align processes and systems
between erstwhile AI and IA and vis--vis the Star Alliance standards.

Accordingly NACIL desires to carry out a complete revamp of its commercial


processes, systems and infrastructure, based on industry best-practices, so that the
airline is in a position to deliver an improved product & enhanced customer value,
comparable to that offered by leading airlines the world over.

NACIL aims to redefine the product that it offers to its passengers, upgrading at the
same time its sales, marketing, airport handling and other related activities &
processes; incorporating features value enhancements, supported with requisite
systems, best-in-class processes, and organizational structure that supports such
processes.

NACIL therefore wishes to appoint a Consultant to advise it in defining / upgrading /


revamping of processes, systems & organization in various areas of commercial
functioning in an airline.

SWOT ANALYSIS OF AIR INDIA(NACIL)


A SWOT Analysis of NACIL was conducted by observing the market, services and company
itself. The analysis revealed the following dimensions:

STRENGTHS
Networking and scheduling
Fleet Strength
Market Share built during the monopoly phase
Government Infrastructure which can be upgraded at a comparatively low cost.
Enjoys the strength of NRI traffic as it operates on certain international routes.

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16

WEAKNESSES
Bureaucratic Organization
Strict Hierarchical System followed in the organization
Low employee morale and motivation
Bad Reputation, Poor Service (as compared to competitors mainly in-flight service and
ground staff handling).
Poor HR Strategies
High Competition, Loss of market share
High cost , poor cost control
Inefficient usage of resources
Poor Aircraft maintenance
Highest manpower ratio to aircraft.
Poor reservation services
Corruption in company

OPPORTUNITIES
To increase flight operations on those routes, which have a high tourism potential, so as
to reap the benefits of an upward moving Tourism Industry.
Awareness and realization among the employees of the growing competition.
The decision to increase the fleet strength
To gear up to the domestic competition at a time, when the majority share is still in
Indian Airlines kitty.

THREATS
Growing competition from the private airlines.
Customer services being redefined by private airlines.
Dissatisfied travel agents may prove to serious threat of IA existing market share.
Recession and its negative outcomes those are not in control.

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CHAPTER 3: IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM


3.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

An airlines flight operations and related activities incur huge part of operating cost and
fuel shares the largest percentage of that cost. This study highlights the areas of

operations where fuel is consumed.


Recommendations have been drawn to optimize the use of fuel reserves with the airline
and calculate the cost of savings on yearly basis.

CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/DESIGN/PLAN

The project required data for a point of time for the purpose of observation. This is why the
data collected is cross-sectional data. Sources of both Primary and Secondary data have been
selected very carefully to ensure authenticity.
Primary data has been collected through two means:

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18

Observations

Informal Personal Interview

Secondary Data:

Operations manual
Internet
Magazines
News articles
Case studies

CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS & FINDINGS

1.) APU USAGE:


APU (auxiliary power unit) provides electric power supply and conditioned air
when aircraft is parked at the apron and its main engines are shut down. It is
also used to start aircrafts engines to develop required pressure for the aircraft
before take off. In this process it eats up an unavoidable amount of fuel.
AIRCRAFT Daily flights
arriving
A320
family(320/
321/319)
Total fuel
consumed
in a day
Total

(avg.)
22

Daily flights

Fuel

Time on

departing(avg.)

consumption(

ground

21

per hour)
130kg

1 hr
(avg.)

21*130kg/hr*1 hr+1*130kg/hr*24 hr=2730kg+3120kg


=5850kg
5850kg*Rs41.980=Rs245583/day=Rs89637795/year

expense
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19

Table no.1

2.) EXTRA FUEL ONBOARD:


(A)
1

SECTOR FUEL
(in Kgs.)
TRIP FUEL
(inclusive of IFR
approach at
destination)= a
PERFORMANC
E FACTOR=b

TOLERANCE =c

SECTOR FUEL
(B)

A300

A320

A321

A330

DO228

AS PER FLIGHT PLAN CALCULATION

--------

3% of trip
------------------------fuel
(minimu
m 400
kgs.)
6% for forecast winds OFP, 10% for seasonal winds OFP, subject to
a minimum of 300 kgs for A319/A320, 400 kgs for A321, 600 kgs
for A300/A330
(A)=(a+b+c)

ALTERNATE
FUEL

(C)

A319

---------

AS PER FLIGHT PLAN CALCULATION


CONTINGENCY FUEL (IN KGS.)

TAXIOUT FUEL

300

150

150

200

300

30

APU FUEL

600

150

150

200

400

40

OVERSHOOT
FUEL
HOLDING FUEL
AT ALTERNATE

400

100

100

150

300

20

2300

1200

1200

1500

2600

120

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20

VFR
APPROACH AT
ALTERNATE
TAXI-IN FUEL
TOTAL
CONTINGENCY
FUEL

400

100

100

150

400

20

200

100

100

100

200

20

4200

1800

1800

2300

4200

250

Table no.2
Fuel to be taken onboard for a particular sector is calculated by flight dispatch department
keeping TRIP FUEL, PERFORMANCE, TOLERANCE AND CONTINGENCY amount
required for an aircraft in mind. But even after best possible calculation of fuel, captains
decision for fuel to be taken onboard is considered final decision. Pilots due insecurity about
trouble and emergencies enroute ask for extra fuel which not only increases the load on aircraft
but many at times dispatchers have to take a decision of offloading luggage or passenger from
aircraft which in turn reduces revenues and increases the amount of burn off fuel by the
aircraft. Following table gives an idea about the extra fuel carried on board.

Commander

Required fuel

Total fuel

C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13

onboard(a)
12520
10050
10400
9500
5900
7985
9775
6000
8000
7000
10620
10400
9810

onboard(b)
14000
11500
10400
10200
6000
9000
11000
6800
12500
8500
11000
12000
11000

Trip fuel

Extra fuel

5070
5880
4730
4970
1735
3690
4660
2810
2825
2950
5420
5430
5737

onboard(c)
1480
1450
0
700
100
1015
225
800
4500
1500
380
1600
1190
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C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
Extra fuel

9300
10695
11955
11500
10100

10500
13000
12000
13000
10700

5775
6005
5550
4780
5880

1200
2305
45
1500
600
1144kg

onboard
(avg.)
Extra fuel

150kg*21=3150 kg=3150kg*365

burn off for a

days=1149759 kg

1149759 kg

year (for
short haul
flights)
Cost of yearly

1149759 kg*Rs41.980=Rs4,82,66,883

Rs4,82,66,883

extra burned
off fuel.
Table no. 3

3.) WEIGHT ONBOARD:

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Weight of operating aircraft includes all the weights shown above. Even a tonne
of extra weight increases fuel burn off by 15% to 20% and all these levels of
weight shown in diagram, if not utilized at optimum levels or more than that,
can be a main reason for increased operating cost.

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4.) FLYING OPERATIONS AND TECHNIQUES: Different flying patterns


and activities from a take off to landing including the actions like take off, climb,
cruise, descend and land have their own amount of fuel consumed. All these factors
are taken into consideration while making a flight plan. Flying technique of pilot
effects the aircrafts drag to lift ratio affecting engine power and fuel consumption in
turn. Maximum numbers of AIR INDIAS pilots are not following modern and more
efficient techniques of flying and even if they are following these techniques they
are not doing that very often.
Holding
Fuel: 1200
kg

Descend
: 150 kg

Taxi
out
fuel:
150 kg

Taxi-in
fuel 150
kg
Trip fuel: calculated as
fuel: as per plan

alternate

Per flight plan

5.) TAXIING PROCEDURE: Before and after any take off or landing
respectively the taxiing procedure consume a large amount of fuel and not only fuel
but to some extent it is a reason of noise pollution. AIR INDIA cannot follow fuel
efficient technique like taxiing in or out with single engine operating, in Kolkata as
this kind of practice is restricted there because of safety norms followed there.
Towing is a practice followed at times but not very often which in turn here also
results in fuel consumption.

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6.) FLIGHT PLANS: final flights plans are made after every required amount is
added moreover a margin is given for uncertain situations but the problem is strict
adherence of flight plan by pilots and other related people. Flights plans are efficient
and calculated keeping a minute detail in mind but convincing an airman about the
plans authenticity is a question.
7.) MONITORING AND MAINTENANCE: Performance and life of an
aircraft is another factor affects the consumption of fuel. A new, more efficient
aircraft can reduce the fuel consumption because of performance factor by 8%-10%.
AIR INDIAS fleet do have good fuel efficient aircrafts but because of long time in
airline and old parts resulting in constant depreciation in performance factor of
aircraft is making the situation difficult for airline day by day.
8.) RNAV: Instruments like IFR, VFR and other navigational aids increase the
distance of approach resulting in extra fuel consumption. Descending patterns of
aircrafts are also noise creating and fuel consuming ones as engines at that time if
working consume large amount of fuel.
9.) FUEL PRICES AT DIFFERENT SECTORS: Fuel prices at different
sectors vary by a huge number every month causing some stations a big problem as
for them the expense or operating cost increases to a large extent because of the
prices. For e.g. ATF price is Rs 36,252 per kilolitre in Delhi while at the same time
the prices for Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai would be Rs 37,367, Rs 40,230.05, Rs
35,821.34 kiloliter respectively.
10.)
GROUND OPERATIONS: ground operations also have an important part
to play in raising operating cost day by day. This section comes into play many at
times in AIR INDIA. Efficiency of companys ground operations is must as delays
that result from inclement weather; mechanical failures or late arrivals increase fuel
usage resulting in increased fuel consumption.

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25

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:


There are many factors, in AIR INDIA, responsible for over fuel consumption and increased
operating cost in general. A few recommendations made after arriving on results are following:
1.) APU USAGE: Must start an APU 10 minutes before departure and for the time an
aircraft is on ground they should use GSE to provide power to aircraft. An APU is 6%
to 25% more fuel consuming as compared to an electrical GSE.
AIRCRAFT

A320
family(320/32
1/319)
Total fuel
consumed in
a day
Total expense
yearly saving

Daily flights
arriving
(avg.)
22

Daily flights
departing(avg.)

Fuel
consumption(
per minute)
2.17 kg/minute

Time
APU is
on
21
10
minutes
(avg.)
21*2.17kg/min*10 minutes+1*2.17kg/min*10 min=455.7+21.7
=477.4kg/day
OR
21*2.17kg/min*10 minutes+1*122.2kg/hr*24hr=455.7+2932.8
=3388.5 kg /day
3388.5 kg *Rs41.980=Rs142249.23/day=Rs51920969/year
37716826.05 RS/YR
TABLE NO. 4

2.) DELIVER A FLEXIBLE FLIGHT PLAN


For additional optimization ability; an automated flight planning process can have a
dynamic economic impact by optimizing route, altitude, speed, payload and fuel.
Utilizing new flight planning techniques working in concert with new navigational
technology, todays automated flight planning system skillfully employs 4D cost indexbased flight planning. Used in conjunction with the onboard flight-management
computer, this method optimally calculates flying speed based on winds and aircraft
weight, resulting in a more flexible, fuel-efficient flight plan.

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3.) ACHIEVE IDEAL TRIM:


Even the most capable aircrafts efficiency can be improved with effective load
planning tools. By shifting an aircrafts center of gravity to the aft limit, a load planner
can achieve ideal trim. Once this ideal-trim position is determined and the cargo is
loaded as planned, the aircrafts lift capability is increased and its drag reduced. The
result: another incremental improvement in the efficiency of an airlines operations that
leads to fuel savings.

4.) MINIMIZE FLIGHT AND GATING-RELATED DELAYS:


Cost savings can also occur by improving the efficiency of your ground operations.
Delays that result from inclement weather, mechanical failures or late arrivals increase
fuel usage. Using an automated flight display and movement control system helps
optimize operational efficiency and increase aircraft utilization by enabling you to
swap aircraft when disruptions would otherwise cause delayed flights. With complete
and reliable information about current operations and maintenance events, you can
evaluate problems and determine cost-effective solutions to lower fuel-related costs.

5.) FUEL TANKERING:


Airlines uplift more fuel at an airport where price is cheaper as compared to the next
airport of landing. Fuel prices may vary from airport to airport. So, to take advantage
of the fuel price differences airlines follow this technique of Tankering.
Since uplift of additional fuel increases gross weight and thereby the fuel consumption,
certain quantity of additional fuel carried (15% to 30%) is consumed before the next
landing. In view of this, the fuel price difference such as offset the cost of the extra
burn off and yet to be profitable.

The following factors should be taken into account in determining economic tankering
of fuel.

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27

1.)
2.)
3.)
4.)

Fuel price difference should offset additional burn off.


Fuel is available for economic tankering.
Performance and payload considerations permit.
To avoid undue wear and tear in operating to maximum landing weight, additional
uplift of fuel should be normally restricted up to landing weights of aircraft.

Note: in some cases additional fuel may have to be uplifted to cater for non-availability of
fuel at a particular station, in which case it will not be subject to these weights.
Savings from every sector ranges from Rs 600 per tonne to Rs 12000. If Tankering is
done at every sector then on an average for every flight about Rs 4500 per sector can be
saved. Resulting in yearly saving of Rs 3, 44, 92,500. (Data taken from April 2009 sector
fuel sheet of AIR INDIA)
6.) TAXIING TECHNIQUES: Single engine taxi should be the normal departure
procedure unless conditions preclude it. Many airports do not allow single engine
taxiing but his technique should be followed while taxiing in and out an aircraft. If this
norm cant be followed then towing of aircraft is second best option which also reduces
the wear and tear of aircrafts engine.
1 minute of single engine taxi- out and taxi-in per sector can save up to 2.78 or 3
kg of fuel each (excluding the extended distance). This will turn into yearly saving
of Rs 1930660.
Five key areas to focus on in Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
a. Limiting weight

b. Engine start sequence


c. Limiting thrust
d.

Stabilization times

e. Checklists

7.) FLIGHT OPERATIONS :


Flight techniques can prove to be more fuel-efficient as compared to a few other
techniques. These techniques can actually be used as follows:

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a. Post landing: This procedure reduces the use of reverse thrust to slow an
aircraft on landing. Noise levels, engine wear, and fuel consumption are
reduced by using idle reverse thrust and no auto brake when landing on an
uncontaminated runway of more that 8,000 feet. Immediately after the
touchdown of main landing gear, the reverse levers are pulled to the idle
position. The aircraft is left to slow down and then manual braking is applied.
This measure can reduce fuel consumption by 0.09%.
b. Take-off technique: ICAO has approved aircraft to retract the flaps and
accelerate at a lower altitude with flaps retracted. This reduces drag and
improves aircraft efficiency, reducing fuel consumption and lowering exhaust
emissions. This should be used wherever it is allowed; from past records it is
proved that this can reduce annual fuel consumption by 0.10 %.
c. Economic climb: AIR INDIA can use economic climb as a technique to reduce
friction for smooth operations. Speed is gained as soon as flap retraction is
complete and the aircraft turns towards the intended direction of flight. This
policy can be used at about a few no. of the airports AIR INDIA operates. This
measure can reduce annual fuel consumption by 0.12 %.which will end up
saving Rs.9016183/yr.

8.) CDA: In January 2008, a new technique named CONTINUOUS DESCENT


APPROACH of descending came in being. This new procedure eliminates the
repeated engine thrusts required to execute the standard "step-down" descent from
cruise altitude. In a continuous descent, the aircraft glides along a three-degree
downward slope, with the engine nearly at idle, until the plane is approximately ten
miles from the runway, at which time pilots power up the engines again for landing.
Past records says that CDAs conserve 114 to 212 kgs of fuel per flight, depending on
the size of the plane. That will mean a savings Rs52449602/year. In addition to saving
money on fuel, freight and passenger jet companies can benefit from increased
efficiency, capacity and safety.
9.) AIRCRAFT SURFACE, STRUCTURE AND LIFE: fleets performance plays a
vital role in fuel consumption patterns. The more fresh and optimum working parts of

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aircraft, less the consumption of fuel. Moreover some changes and add-on to aircrafts
structure can work wonders in increasing aircrafts performance. Adding of winglets is
one of those. Winglets reduce the drag and friction and hence fuel consumption is
reduced because of reduced power applied by engines. Paint can be removed from the
aircraft or light paints can be used to reduce weight on board and optimize
performance.

RESULT OF RECCOMENDED COST CUTTING MEASURES


Total fuel saved by all those techniques in practical usage:
Action

Money saved

Reduced APU usage

Rs37716826.05/yr

No extra fuel onboard

Rs4,82,66,883/yr

Tankering

Rs 3, 44, 92,500/yr

Taxi-in and out

Rs1930660/yr

Descend

Rs52449602/yr

Climb

Rs9016183/yr.

Total savings /yr

Rs 18,38,72,654/yr

TABLE NO. 5

APPENDICES
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Aerodrome (AD) A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations
and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and
surface movement of aircraft.
Aerodrome, alternate An aerodrome to which may proceed when it becomes either
impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of intended landing.
Aerodrome visual aids Aircraft movements at airports are primarily guided and controlled
through visual aids (VA), such as indicators and signaling devices, markings, markers,
signs and lights. As these visual aids must be readily understood by pilots worldwide,
standardization of their location and light characteristics is of prime importance. An
aerodrome lighting system includes :
i)
approach lights
ii)
runway edge lights;
iii)
runway threshold lights;
iv)
runway end lights;
v)
runway center line lights;
vi)
runway touchdown zone lights;
vii)
stop way lights;
viii)
obstacle lights; and
ix)
Taxiway center line and edge lights.
Air traffic control (ATC) An integrated system consisting of air traffic control facilities
and equipment, communication services, landing and navigation aids, air traffic control
standards, rules and regulations.
Airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) An aircraft system based on secondary
surveillance radar (SSR) transponder signals which operates independently of groundbased equipment to provide advice to the pilot on potential conflicting aircraft that are
equipped with SSR transponders.
Aircraft ground handling The processing of passenger, baggage, cargo and mail,
including aircraft crew, by an airline or its appointed handling agent at an airport. IATA
industry standards and procedures covering aircraft ground handling practices and
procedures, and functional specifications for ground support equipment are contained in
the IATA Airports Handling Manual. Guidance material on aircraft ground handling
procedures and practices, including load control, handling of special loads and unit load
devices, is contained in the IATA Principles of Aircraft Handling.
Approach, visual An approach by an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight when either part
or all of an instrument approach procedure is not completed and the approach is executed
in visual reference to terrain.
Area navigation (RNAV) A method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any
desired flight path within the coverage of station-reference navigation aids or within the
limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these.
Center of lift (CL) the point at which a mass in equilibrium may be said to be supported.
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Center of pressure (CP) The point on an immersed surface at which the pressure resultant
may be taken to act.

Climb phase The operating phase defined by the time during which the engine is operated
in the climb operating mode.

Coordinated Universal Time See Universal Time, Coordinated (UTC)

Co-pilot (CP) A licensed pilot serving in any piloting capacity other than as pilot-incommand (PIC) but excluding a pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of
receiving flight instruction.

Crew member (CM) A person assigned by an operator to duty on an aircraft during flight
time.
Drag As applied to heavier-than-air aircraft, an aerodynamic force exerted by the air upon
an aircraft in a direction opposite to the direction of the aircrafts motion which retards its
speed.
Flight level (FL) A surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific
pressure datum 1,013.2 hectopascals (hPa) and is separated from other such surfaces by
specific pressure intervals.
Flight Operations That part of an airline organization responsible for the safe and
efficient operation of its fleet, including the training and assignment of flight crew and the
monitoring of their performance.
Flight Operations Officer A crew member responsible for assisting the pilot-in-command
in flight preparation and the execution of the flight.
Flight plan, filed (FPL) The flight plan as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or a
designated representative, without any subsequent changes.
Flight plan, operational The operators plan for the safe conduct of the flight based on
considerations of aero plane performance, other operating limitations and relevant
expected conditions on the route to be followed and at the aerodromes concerned
Flight rules, instrument (IFR) The rules and regulations established by government
authorities covering aircraft flight operations under conditions that preclude the use of
visual flight rules (VFR). Originally, IFR was applied only when visual flight was
impossible because of weather conditions. At present, instrument flight rules are also used
to obtain the safety separation of the ATC system even when weather conditions permit
VFR.
Flight rules, visual (VFR) The flight rules authorizing a pilot to operate with see and
avoid (q.v.) separation and navigate by visual reference to the ground. Visual flights are

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only permitted in airspace that has not been designated as positive control airspace and
when weather conditions are such that flight by visual reference is possible.
Holding pattern An oval pattern flown by reference to ground-based navigation aids, for
the purpose of having an aircraft wait over a specific air traffic control fix. Holding
patterns are used to hold or delay aircraft until they can be cleared for approach and
landing. See also holding stack.
Holding point A specified location, identified by visual or other means, in the vicinity of
which the position of an aircraft in flight is maintained in accordance with air traffic
control clearances.
Lift/drag (L/D) ratio The ratio of lift to drag i.e., a measure of expressing the
aerodynamic efficiency of an airfoil. Note. The term lift refers to the component of the
total aerodynamic force acting upwards at right angles to the drag to support an aircraft to
become airborne.
Pilot-in-command (PIC) The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft
during flight time
Runway, non-instrument A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual
approach procedures
Runway surface condition (RSCD) Whenever water is present on a runway, a description
of the runway surface conditions on the center half of the width of the runway, including
the possible assessment of water depth and slippage, where applicable, should be made
available using the following terms:
i) Damp the surface shows a change of color due to moisture;
ii) Wet the surface is soaked but there is no standing water;
iii) Water patches significant patches of standing water are visible; and
iv) Flooded extensive standing water is visible.

Runway visual range (RVR) The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the center line
of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or
identifying its center line.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

a.)Books of research
1. Kothari C.R. research & methodology (2005): published by sultan chand & sons
2. Monthly news letter issue
3. Monthly magazine of AIR INDIA
b.) AIR INDIA INDIAN airlines operations and flight dispatch manual.
c.) Internet sites:
1.

http://flysafe.faa.gov

2.

www.landings.com

3.

Www.wikipedia.com

4.

www.airindia.com

5.

Www.airliners.com

6.

www.iata.org

7.

www.icao.int/td

8.

www.dgca.com

9.

www.groundsupportworldwide.com

10.

www.indianavitaion.net

11.

Www.Airdisaster.com

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