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# CONFIDENTIAL

FINAL EXAMINATION
SEMESTER I
SESSION 2011/2012
COURSE CODE

SEE 4433

COURSE NAME

LECTURERS

## DR. AWANG JUSOH

DR. MOHD JUNAIDI
DR. TAN CHEE WEI

PROGRAMME

SEE

SECTION

01, 02

TIME

2 HOURS 30 MINUTES

DATE

INSTRUCTION TO CANDIDATE

## THIS EXAMINATION BOOKLET CONSISTS OF 09 PAGES INCLUDING THE FRONT COVER.

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Question 1
(a)

Figure 1(a) shows a hybrid distributed generation system, which consist of a wind

turbine and a few solar panels. The hybrid system is connected to the utility grid.

Figure 1(a)
(i) Discuss the importance of power electronics in the sector of renewable energies.
[6 marks]
(ii) Describe the suitable power electronic converters to be placed in the "Black Box"
(Figure 1(a)) as well as the energy conversion involved in every stage. Note that
the wind turbine generates variable frequencies depending on the input wind speed
while the solar panels generate variable DC governed by the sunlight.
[7 marks]
(b)

Figure 1 (b) shows the output voltage waveform of a rectifier. The input of the

rectifier is a single-phase supply with line frequency of 50 Hz and the load consists of an
unknown inductor in series with a 20 resistor.

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Figure 1(b)
(i) Name the type of rectifier that produced the above output waveform. Then, sketch
the circuit of the named rectifier with complete labels.
[3 marks]
(ii) What is the impact on the output waveform generation if the inductive load is very
large? Hence, calculate the minimum value of the inductor if the average output
voltage of the abovementioned rectifier is 138.89 V under the stated assumption.
[6 marks]
(iii) Based on the similar assumption in Q1(b)(ii), determine the power absorbed by
the resistor.
[3 marks]

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Question 2
(c)

(SMPS) as compared to linear power supply.
[5 marks]

(b)

Using relevant diagram, explain how the duty cycle (D) of a chopper is controlled.
[4 marks]

(d)

Design a buck-boost converter that has a source that varies from 10 to 14 V. The
output is regulated at -12V. The load varies from 8 to 16 W. The switching frequency
is 100 kHz and the output voltage ripple must be less than 1 percent for any operating
condition.
(i) Sketch the converter diagram
[2 marks]
(ii) Determine the range of the duty cycle ratio of the switch and the load resistance.
[4 marks]
(iii) Specify the value of minimum inductor size for CCM operation.
[3 marks]
(iv) Determine the maximum average inductor current
[3 marks]
(v) Determine the capacitor value
[4 marks]

## Refer to Table 2 for your design

Vs, (V)
10
10
14
14

P (W)
8
16
8
16

R ()

Table 2

Lmin (H)

IL (A)

C (F)

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Question 3
(a)

Explain
(i) Why harmonics need to be considered in inverter design.
[3 marks]
(ii) Why dead-time is required in bridge circuit
[2 marks]

(b)

## It is possible to control both frequency and magnitude of a Pulse Width Modulation

(PWM) inverter output voltage. Using relevant diagram, explain the signals and parameters
involved in controlling the frequency and magnitude of PWM inverter output voltage.
[6 marks]
(c)

## Quasi Square-Wave is another technique used in inverters switching schemes. Answer

the following question if the fundamental frequency of the inverter output is of 50 Hz.
(i) If the firing angle (overlap angle) of the output waveform is at 18 degree, which
supply by an average voltage of 150 V, calculate the output fundamental
amplitude. Give a reason why the inverter was chosen to start at this particular
time.
[3 marks]
(ii) Calculate the total harmonic distortion (THDv) of the inverter output voltage by
considering the first three harmonics only.
[3 marks]
(c)

Figures 3(a-b) show the output voltage and its frequency spectrum of a single-phase

full bridge inverter using PWM control technique. If the fundamental frequency of the
inverter is 50 Hz, answer the following questions.

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Figure 3(a)

Figure 3(b)
(i) Identify the type of PWM technique used to produce the output of Figure 3(a).
Then, find the modulation ratio, MR and the modulation index, MI.
[3 marks]
(ii) Find the input dc voltage value of the inverter.
[1 marks]
(iii) Find value of the frequency carrier.
[2 marks]
(iv) Find the frequencies of the side-band harmonics.
[2 marks]

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Question 4
(a)

Using the fundamental equations of DC motor, explain the parameters to be varied for

## speed control of separately excited dc motors?

[6 marks]
(b)

Explain how the speed of DC motor can be controlled beyond the motor base speed.
[4 marks]

(c)

The speed of a 20 hp, 600 V, 900 rpm separately excited dc motor is controlled by a

three-phase full converter. The field circuit is also controlled by a three-phase full converter.
The ac input to the armature and field converters is three-phase, Y connected, 415 Vrms,
50 Hz. The armature resistance is Ra = 0.25 , the field circuit resistance is Rf = 145 , and
the motor voltage constant is Kv = 1.2V/A rad/s. The viscous friction and no-load losses can
be considered negligible. The armature and field currents are continuous and ripple free.
(i) If the field converter is operated at the maximum field current and the developed
torque is Td = 116 Nm at rated speed, determine the delay angle of the armature
converter a
[5 marks]
(ii) If the field circuit converter is set for the maximum field current, the developed

## torque is Td = 116 Nm and the delay angle of the armature converter is a = 0,

determine the speed of the motor
[5 marks]

(iii) For the same load demand as in (b), determine the delay angle of the field
converter if the speed has to be increased to 1800 rpm.
[5 marks]
Given, the average voltage of three-phase full converter is:

Vo =

3Vm,LL
cos

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Question 5
(a)

Figure 5(a) shows the speed characteristics of a small scale variable speed spinning

machine which consists of a 3-phase induction motor that supplied by a single phase
residential power socket of 240 Vrms, 50 Hz.

Figure 5(a)
(i) Sketch the circuit configuration of the above mentioned AC drive system. Label
all the components clearly.
[3 marks]
(ii) Explain how the variable speed characteristic of the drive system can be achieved
if the motor is to be operated under maximum torque capability.
[4 marks]
(iii) If the supply to the 3-phase induction motor is controlled by using PWM
technique, explain what would be the impact on the output generation if the
modulation ratio, MR is varied but the carrier frequency is kept constant.
[4 marks]
(b)

## A three-phase 4 poles induction motor which is rated at 10 horsepower, 460 Vrms,

operates at the line frequency of 50 Hz and rotates at full-load speed of 1350 rpm. The motor
is driven by an inverter. The motor is controlled to achieve constant Volt/Hertz operation.
i.

Plot the torque-speed graph for the motor to operate under the following frequencies:
50 Hz, 35 Hz, and 20 Hz. Label all the synchronous frequency clearly.
[4 marks]

ii. Calculate the per unit slip for each of the frequencies.
[3 marks]
iii. If the inverter gives modulation index of 0.8, calculate the required modulation index

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if the motor need to be operated at the rotor mechanical speed of 18 Hz under
constant Volt-Hertz ratio at full load condition.
[4 marks]
iv. Under the rated condition, calculate the speed of the motor (in rpm) at 90% of the