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Tugas 03 Welding Metallurgy

Nama: Andriyansa
NIM: 1506775071
2.1 In one welding experiment, 50-mm-thick steel plates were joined using
electro-slag welding. The current and voltage were 480A and 34V,
respectively. The heat losses to the water-cooled copper shoes and by
radiation from the surface of the slag pool were 1275 and 375 cal/s,
respectively. Calculate the heat source efficiency.
Diketahui: Welding method Electro slag
Base metal = 50 mm-thick steel plate
= 480 A
= 34 V
Heat losses = 1275 cal/s to the water cooled copper shoes
375 cal/s radiation from the surface of the slag pool
Heat source efficiency

Q base metal. t weld

Qnominal .t weld

( 480 .34 )( ( 1275+375 ) . 4.184)

480 .34

= 0.577=57.7%

2.2 It has been reported that the heat source efficiency in electro-slag
welding increases with increasing thickness of the work-piece. Explain
Ketika volume weld metal meningkat hal itu akan membuat laju pendinginan
menurun. Laju pendinginan menurun dapat membuat distribusi panas dibatasi pada
area dan membuat heat input lebih fokus pada satu spot area.
Meningkatkan ketebalan potongan pekerjaan akan meningkatkan ukuran weld pool,
sehingga akan meningkatkan volume logam las.
2.3 (a) Consider the welding of 25.4-mm-thick steel plates. Do you prefer
to apply Rosenthals two- or three-dimensional heat flow equation for fullpenetration electron beam welds? What about beadon-plate gastungsten
arc welds? (b) Suppose you are interested in studying the solidification
structure of the weld metal and you wish to calculate the temperature
distribution in the weld pool. Do you expect Rosenthals equations to
provide reliable thermal information in the pool? Why or why not? (c) In
multi-pass welding do you expect a higher or lower cooling rate in the first
pass than in the subsequent passes? Why?
2.3 (a) Untuk penetrasi penuh pada electron beam weld, lebih memilih
menggunakan aplikasi perhitungan heat flow Rosenthal 3 dimensi. Karena

dapat memproduksi pengelasan dengan penetrasi penuh untuk ketebalan plat

25.4 mm. Sedangkan untuk GTAW, lebih memilih menggunakan perhitungan
heat flow 2 dimensi, karena GTAW akan memproduksi pengelasan dengan
penetrasi tidak penuh dan membuat ukuran HAZ yang besar.
2.3 (b) Perhitungan Rosenthal dapat memberikan informasi thermal untuk analisis
struktur solidification. Karena struktur solidification membutuhkan informasi
tentang temperatur awal dan laju pendingan pada bagian tersebut.
Perhitungan Rosenthal akan memberikan informasi tentang temperatur pada
satu tempat selama proses pengelasan. Informasi tersebut berarti temperatur
awal dimana efektif pada proses pengelasan. Dengan variabel X dan R, dapat
mendeskripsikan besaran T pada tempat R. Besarnya T memberikan informasi
tentang kestabilan dari spot selama pengelasan pada melt atau solid.
2.3 (c) Laju pendinginan pada laju awal lebih besar dari laju berikutnya, karena
temperatur awal dari bidang kerja masih mendapatkan pengaruh dari
temperatur sekitar, sehingga terjadi perbedaan yang besar dari temperatur
weld metal dan bidang kerja lebih kecil dari perbedaan semua laju awal, jadi
laju pendinginan akan menurun.
2.4 Large aluminum sheets 1.6 mm thick are butt welded using GTAW with
alternating current. The current, voltage, and welding speed are 100A,
10V, and 2mm/s, respectively. Calculate the peak temperatures at distance
of 1.0 and 2.0 mm from the fusion boundary. Assume 50% arc efficiency.
Diketahui: Welding method GTAW dengan AC
= 100 A
= 10 V
Kec. Las
= 2 mm/s
= 1.6 mm
= 1.0 mm dan 2.0 mm
= 50%
Peak Temperature?

4.13V Yg C
TpT 0
TmT 0
Qx h

Tp ,1 mm=

4.13 x 0.002 x 0.001 x 2.7 . 106

100 x 10 x 50

298=905.47 K

Tp ,2 mm=

4.13 x 0.002 x 0.002 x 2.7 . 10

100 x 10 x 50

298=880.23 K

2.5 Bead-on-plate welding of a thick-section carbon steel is carried out

using 200A, 20V, and 2mm/s. The preheat temperature and arc efficiency
are 100C and 60%, respectively. Calculate the cross sectional area of the
weld bead.
= 200 A
= 20 V
Welding speed
= 2 mm/s
Preheat temperature
= 1000C
Arc effisiensi
= 60%
Rosenthal equation for two dimension:

2 (T )
2 x 3.14 x ( 1800373 ) x 41.0 [ 0 ]

200 x 20 x 60

[ ] [ ]

r = (x2+y2)1/2
x=0, y=0,

153.0933 g = 1
g = 0.006532 m = 0.257 in

2.6 (a) Do you expect to have difficulty in achieving steady-state heat flow
during girth (or circumferential) welding of tubes by keeping constant
heat input and welding speed? Explain why. What is the consequence of
the difficulty? (b) Suggest two methods that help achieve steady-state
heat flow during girth welding.
2.6(a) The fusion zone increased significantly in size as welding processed. This is
because heat continued to build up during welding and the areas yet to be
welded were preheated, even though both the heat input and the rotation
speed were kept constant throughout the entire welding process. At the
beganing of welding, there was no preheating and the weld bead was too small
to have full penetration.
2.6(b) In the case of automatic girth welding, the welding current and hence the
heat input can be preprogrammed through the use of progammable power
Girth welding especially steady-state heat flow. The heat input per unit length
of weld should be high at the beganing and reduced continuously as welding
2.7 A cold-rolled AISI 1010 low-carbon steel sheet 0.6 mm thick was tested
for surface reflectivity in CO2 laser beam welding under the following

different surface conditions: (a) as received; (b) oxidized in air furnace at

1000C for 20 s; (c) oxidized in air furnace at 1000C for 40 s; (d) covered
with steel powder. In which order does the reflectivity rank in these
surface conditions and why?

Source dari journal J.xie

Reflexifity yang tertinggi dari as received dengan range 65-80%, adapun perbedaan
reflectivity ini karena tingginya elektrik DC current resistivity pada permukaan
lapisan oksida. Sedangkan reflectivity terendah range 20-35% karena reflection
laser beam yang irregular oleh steel powder.
2.8 It was observed in YAG laser beam welding of AISI 409 stainless steel
that under the same power the beam size affected the depthwidth ratio
of the resultant welds significantly. Describe and explain the effect.
Efek ini terjadi karena efek melting ratio yang bertambah sehingga thermal
conduction pada material dari weld zone bertambah pada nilai overlapping yang
tertinggi. Dan akan mengurangi keefektifan sumber panas.
Adanya input energy yang bertambah tidak digunakan untuk melelehkan material
karena energi ini hilang melalui konduksi ke material tersebut.
2.9 Calculate the thermal cycle at the top surface of a very thick carbon
steel plate at 5 mm away from the centerline of the weld surface. Power of
the arc is 2kW, the arc efficiency 0.7, the travel speed 2mm/s, and the
preheat temperature 100C.
Diketahui :
= 5mm
= 2000 W
Arc Efficiency
= 0.7
= 2 mm/s
= 373 K

Rosenthals equation for three dimension

2 (T ) kR
V ( Rx )



V ( Rx )
2 kR

x = V.t
y= 5mm, z= 0, R = (25 x 10-6 + (Vt)2)1/2

Dengan grafiknya sebagai berikut,

Thermal cycle for carbon steel welding at 5 mm from bead

Temperature (K)

Time (second)

2.10 Is the transverse cross section of the weld pool at a fixed value of x
perfectly round according to Rosenthals three-dimensional heat flow
equation? Explain why or why not based on the equation. What does your
answer tell you about the shape of the transverse cross section of a weld
based on Rosenthals three-dimensional equation?
Tidak, karena sesuai dengan persamaan; pada arah potongan melintang pada arah
transversal pada kondisi dimana proses pengelasan terjadi secara isothermal, yang
meliputi proses fusion boundary dan boundary luar dari daerah HAZ yang
mengakibatkan bentuknya semicircular.

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