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EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY I

SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY


OBJECTIVES
At the end of the lesson, the student is expected to:
1. Discuss the definitions of educational technology given by authorities;
2. Determine the scope of educational technology;
3. Distinguish the terms instructional technology, instructional media, instructional aids,
audiovisual aids, and instructional materials.
WHAT IS EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY?
Educational Technology is the development, application, and evaluation of systems,
techniques, and aids to improve the process of human learning. (Council for Educational
Technology of the United Kingdom, as cited by Lucido, 1997)
Educational Technology is the application of scientific knowledge about learning and the
conditions of learning to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching and learning.
In the absence of scientifically established principles, educational technology implements
techniques of empirical testing to improve learning situations. (National Center for Programmed
Learning, United Kingdom, as cited by Lucido, 1997)
Educational technology is a systematic way of designing, implementing, and evaluating the
total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in
human learning and communication and employing a combination of human and non-human
resources to bring about more effective instruction. (Commission on Instructional Technology,
USA, as cited by Lucido, 1997)
Educational technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization,
management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. (Association for
Educational Communication and Technology)
Educational Technology is the systematic approach to designing and evaluating learning and
teaching methods and methodologies and to the application and exploitation of media and the
current knowledge of communication techniques in education, both formal and informal.
(Scottish Council of Educational Technology, as cited by Singh, 2005)
Educational Technology is the field of study which is concerned with the practice of using
educational methods and resources for the ultimate goal to facilitate the learning process.
(Lucido, 1997)
Educational Technology is concerned with the design and evaluation of curricula and learning
experiences and with the problems of implementing and renovating them. (Rowntree, 1979, as
cited by www.books.google.com)
Educational Technology is a systematic, iterative process for designing instruction or training
used to improve performance. (Hoffman, 1994-2009, as cited by www.books.google.com)

The definitions of educational technology discloses in common that educational technology


encompasses the used of instructional media as part of the complex process of teaching and
learning and stresses its ultimate goal of improving any teaching-learning situation.
In a restricted or limited interpretation, educational technology may mean the popular use of
audiovisual aids and technological resources, while, generally speaking, educational technology
covers the complex process of teaching and learning.
Educational technology, as a systematic process, undergoes four phases:

Identification of objectives
Design of learning experiences
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the learning experiences; and
Improvement of the learning experiences in order to achieve the desired outcome.

SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY


Instructional Technology
Primarily concerned with instruction or the teaching-learning process rather than the design and
operation of educational institutions
Instructional Media
Means of communication available for educational purposes other than the teacher
Media emphasizes the interaction that occurs between the teacher and the learner
Audiovisual Aids
Materials for instruction that employ the used of the sense of sight, hearing or a combination of
these modalities.
Instructional Materials
Tools or equipment used by the teachers as media to aid in the teaching-learning process
HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the lesson, the student is expected to:
1. Cite highlights of educational technology in history;
2. Trace the history of educational technology in the Philippines; and
3. Illustrate how instructional computing, instructional media, and instructional design
converged into an entire educational technology.
BRIEF HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Highlights in the History of Educational Technology
Stone Age people knew how to make a picture to represent an object
Cave dwellers painted pictures of animals on the walls of caves. (The New Book of Knowledge)

The Hebrews and Phoenicians were the first to use an alphabet


A group of Greek teachers known as Sophists, with their clever arguments and oratorical style,
were credited for the basic philosophical foundations of Western thought.
In the 15th century, Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press.
Technological innovations, including the development of textbooks, blackboards, and
improvement of pen and ink, were seen in the 19 th century.
In medieval Europe, monks made books, called manuscript books, by writing on parchment with
pens made from quills.
Johann Amos Comenius
Achieved fame as a reformer and writer of innovative textbooks and other educational works.
Wrote Janus Linguarium Reserata (The Gate of Language Unlocked), a Latin language textbook
that taught basic vocabulary of eight thousand words and Latin grammar.
Recognized as the pioneer of modern instructional technology with his publication of 1657 of
Orbis Sensualium Pictus (The Visible World Pictured), the first illustrated textbook specifically
designed for use by children in an instructional setting.
Well-known educators exerted great influence on the educative process over the years.
Johann Friedrich Herbart came with five formal steps to teaching now known as Herbartian
method of teaching. The five steps consist of:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Preparation
Presentation
Comparison and Abstraction
Generalization
Application

Johann Heinrich Peztallozi believed that teaching is more effective if it proceeds from concrete to
abstract, hence the use of real and actual objects involving more senses.
Friedrich Froebel, known as the Father of the Kindergarten, emphasized the use of actual objects,
which could be manipulated by learners.
Edward Lee Thorndike conducted scientifica investigation of learning, resulting to the
development of the first scientific theory of learning; often regarded as the father of instructional
technology
John Dewey advanced the ideas of pragmatism
Visual education began in the late 19th century. Photography was invented, but became widely
accepted not until the 1920S; Public lectures were illustrated through the use of magic lanterns
that projected slides and stereopticons, the earliest visual display devices.
The first visual instruction department which collected and distributed lantern slides to schools
was organized in New York in 1904. This began the audiovisual and media science departments.

The first school museum to open in the United States was the St. Louis Educational Museum in
1905. The museum, which housed collections of art objects, models, photographs, charts, real
objects, and other instructional materials gathered around the world, was the forerunner of the
present-day media center. It was renamed the Division of Audiovisual Education for the St. Louis
Schools in 1943.
Films came into classrooms in the early 20th century.
A series of historical and scientific films for school use was developed by Thomas Edison.
Theatrical films were also used as educational tools.
The first educational film catalog was published in 1910 in the United States.
Films for regular instructional use were adopted by the first public school system of Rochester,
New York.
Dr. Sidney Pressey published his earliest paper on programmed learning about a machine which
tested and confirmed a learning task.
The Ohio State University and a Cincinnati radio station launched the Ohio School of the Air in
1929.
The first instructional television program was launched by Iowa State University in 1932.
The first all-electronic digital computer, ABC, was invented by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at
Iowa State University in 1939.
By the 1940s, the first practical tape recorders were developed.
Edgar Dale developed the Cone of Experience, a hierarchy of learning experience in 1946.
John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert invented the first large-scale, general purpose electronic
digital computer, ENIAC at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946.
This first generation computer is based on vacuum tube technology.