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Managing Editor

Mahabir Singh

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Anil Ahlawat

(BE, MBA)

No. 12

December 2016

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CONTENTS

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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

OF SOLIDS AND FLUIDS

developed inside the body. The restoring force per

unit area of the body is called stress.

Deforming force : External force which tries to

change in the length, volume or shape of the body

is called deforming force.

Elasticity : It is that property of the material of a

body by virtue of which the body opposes any

change in its shape or size when deforming forces

are applied to it, and recovers its original state as

soon as the deforming forces are removed.

Perfectly elastic body : The body which perfectly

regains its original form on removing the external

deforming force, is defined as a perfectly elastic

body, e.g., quartz is very nearly to a perfectly elastic

body.

Plastic body : The bodies which remain in deformed

state even after removal of the deforming force are

defined as plastic bodies.

Internal restoring force : When an external force

acts at any substance then due to the intermolecular

force there is an internal resistance produced into

the substance called internal restoring force.

At equilibrium the numerical value of internal

restoring force is equal to the external force.

) stress

When deforming force is applied on the body then

the equal restoring force in opposite direction is

Stress =

Restoring force

F

F

= internal = external

Area of the body

A

A

change in size, volume and shape (i.e., configuration

of the body). There are three types of stress

one dimensional then force acting per unit area

is called longitudinal stress. It is of two types :

(a) Compressive stress (b) Tensile stress

Compressive stress = F/A

F

Consider a block of

solid as shown in figure.

Let a force F be applied

to the face which

has

area A. Resolve F into

two components :

F

Fn

F

Ft

(a)

called tangential force.

F

F sin q

\ Normal (tensile) stress = n =

A

A

restoring force acting per unit area tangential to the

surface of the body. Refer to figure (a).

F F cos q

Tangential (shear) stress = t =

A

A

Bulk stress or volume stress :

F = PA

When the force is acting all

along the surface normal to

the area, then force acting

per unit area is known as

volume stress. The effect

of pressure is to produce

change in volume. The shape

of the body may or may not change depending

upon the homogeneity of body.

Difference between pressure and stress :

Longitudinal strain =

Stress

Stress can be either

Pressure is always

normal or tangential to

normal to the area.

the area.

Pressure on a body is Stress can be compressive

always compressive.

or tensile or shear.

Breaking stress : The stress required to cause actual

fracture of a material is called the breaking stress or

ultimate strength.

F

Breaking stress =

A

Dependence of breaking stress : Nature of

material, temperature, impurities.

Independence of breaking stress : Cross

sectional area or thickness, applied force.

Maximum load (force) applied on the wire

depends on cross sectional area or thickness,

nature of material, temperature, impurities.

The ratio of the change in configuration (i.e., shape,

length or volume) to the original configuration of

the body is called strain.

Strain =

Change in configuration

Original configuration

10

Dl

l

V V

Change in volume

x

L

Original volume

DV

V

x

L

) stress-strain Graph

valid and stress is directly proportional to strain is

called proportional limit.

B

A

C

Yield

point

Permanent

set

) strain

radian), through which a face originally

perpendicular to the fixed face gets turned on

applying tangential deforming force.

Stress

Original length

Stress is a tensor.

Change in length

as the change in volume per

unit original volume, when

the body is deformed by

external forces.

Volumetric strain =

Pressure

Pressure is a scalar.

asthe increase in length per unit

original length, when the body

is deformed by external forces.

Ultimate E

tensile Fracture

strength point

Proportional

limit

Strain

removing the deforming force makes the body to

recover completely its original state.

Yield point : The point beyond elastic limit, at

which the length of wire starts increasing without

increasing stress, is defined as the yield point.

becomes so large that the wire breaks down at last,

is called breaking point. At this position the stress

acting in that wire is called breaking stress and

strain is called breaking strain.

Elastic after effect or Elastic relaxation : The

property, by virtue of which a body does not regain

its original form immediately after removing the

deforming force but gains it after some time, is

defined as elastic relaxation.

Elastic fatigue : It is defined as the loss in the

strength (elasticity) of a material caused due to

repeated alternating strains to which the material

is subjected.

Elastic hysteresis : The

strain persists even when

the stress is removed. This

lagging behind of strain

is called elastic hysteresis.

This is the reason why the

values of strain for same

Extension or strain

stress are different while

increasing the load and

while decreasing the load.

Metals with small plastic deformation are

called brittle while metals with large plastic

deformation are called ductile.

Elasticity

restoring forces are strictly

conservative only when the elastic hysteresis

is zero, i.e., the loading and unloading stress strain curves are identical.

The material which have low elastic hysteresis

have also low elastic relaxation time.

Load or stress

Lo

ad

inc

rea

sin

Loa

g

d de

crea

sing

Longitudinal stress

Longitudinal strain

F /A F l

=

Dl

A Dl

l

of volume

Normal stress

F / A PV

B=

=

=

Volumetric strain DV / V DV

Negative sign indicates a decrease in volume

with an increase in pressure.

For ideal gases bulk modulus is of two types :

Isothermal bulk modulus, Biso = P

Adibatic bulk modulus, Badi = gP

The reciprocal of bulk modulus of elasticity is

defined as compressibility (K).

1

K=

B

Modulus of rigidity (G) : Modulus of elasticity

of shape

G=

Tangential stress F / A F

=

=

Shearing strain

q

Aq

) Poissons ratio

lateral strain to the longitudinal strain

is called Poissons ratio.

Lateral strain

DD / D

s=

=

Longitudinal strain

Dl / l

l

l

l DD

D D

D Dl

The negative sign indicates that longitudinal and

lateral strains are in opposite sense.

Relation between Y, B, G and s

9 3 1

Y = 3B(1 2s), Y = 2G(1 + s), = +

Y G B

Elongation of a wire by its own weight equals to

(Mgl/2AY).

Work done in stretching a wire,

1

F

W = load extension= Dl

2

2

This work done is stored in the wire as elastic

potential energy.

So, elastic potential energy density,

or

as the ratio of the stress to the strain.

It depends on the nature of the material of the body

and is independent of its dimensions.

There are three types of moduli of elasticity

Youngs modulus (Y) : The modulus of elasticity

of length

Y=

12

) Modulus of Elasticity

s=

u=

W 1

= stress strain

V 2

) Applications of Elasticity

lift heavy loads is derived by the knowledge of the

of 10.

In case of twisting of a cylinder (or wire) of length L

and radius r, elastic restoring couple per unit twist

is given by

C=

pGr 4

2L

WL3

48YIg

modulus for the material of the beam, and Ig is the

geometrical moment of inertia.

For a beam of circular cross section of radius r,

pr 4

Ig =

4

For a beam of rectangular cross section of

breadth b and thickness d,

Ig =

bd 3

12

) Pressure

load W and supported at the ends is

=

then pressure (P) is defined as the normal force (F)

F

per unit area, i.e., P = .

A

Practical units : atmospheric pressure (atm), bar

and torr

1 atm = 1.01325 105 Pa = 1.01325 bar =

760 torr = 10.33 m of water

1 bar = 105 Pa

1 torr = pressure exerted by 1 mm of mercury

column = 133 Pa

Pressure is of three types

Atmospheric pressure :

Upto top of

Force exerted by air

atmosphere

Air

column on unit cross

column

Sea

Area = 1 m2

section area of sea level level

called

atmospheric

pressure (Po).

F

Po = = 101.3 kN m 2

A

\ Po = 1.013 105 N m2

pressure. It was discovered by Torricelli.

Atmospheric pressure varies from place to

place and at a particular place from time to

time.

Gauge pressure : Excess pressure (P Patm)

measured with the help of pressure measuring

instrument called Gauge pressure.

Pgauge = hrg or Pgauge h

Gauge pressure is always measured with

help of manometer.

Absolute pressure : Sum of atmospheric and

Gauge pressure is called absolute pressure.

Pabs = Patm + Pgauge Pabs = Po + hrg

in a fluid, it experiences an upward force due to the

fluid surrounding it. This phenomenon of force

exerted by fluid on the body is called buoyancy and

force is called buoyant force or upthrust.

Buoyant force, FB = rVg

r = density of fluid, V = volume of displaced fluid

Archimedes principle : It states that the buoyant

force on a body that is partially or totally immersed

in a liquid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced

by it.

Buoyant force acts vertically upward through the

centre of gravity of the displaced fluid. This point

is called centre of buoyancy. It depends upon the

effective acceleration.

If a lift is accelerated downwards with

acceleration a(a < g) then FB = rV(g a)

If a lift is accelerated downwards with a = g

then FB = rV(g a) = 0

If a lift is accelerated upward with acceleration

a then FB = rV(g + a)

Due to upthrust, the weight of the body decreases.

Wapp = W FB (W is the true weight of the body)

Decrease in weight = W Wapp = FB = Weight of

the fluid displaced

Using Archimedes principle, we can determine

relative density (R.D.) of a body as

Density of body

R.D. =

Density of pure water at 4 C

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

13

in a liquid (WL), then

Loss of weight in liquid

Specific gravity of liquid =

Loss of weight in water

W WL

= A

WA WW

Weight of liquid displaced = upthrust = weight of

body

This is known as law of floatation.

The floating body will be in stable equilibrium

when the metacentre lies above centre of gravity

of body.

The floating body will be in unstable equilibrium

when the metacentre lies below centre of gravity

of body.

The floating body will be in neutral equilibrium

when the metacentre coincides with centre of

gravity of body.

If a person floats on his back on the surface of

water, the apparent weight of the person is zero.

) Equation of continuity

14

the fluid characteristics like velocity, pressure and

density at a point do not change with time.

In steady flow, all the particles passing

through a given point follow the same path and

hence a unique line of flow. This line or path

is called a streamline. Streamlines do not

intersect each other.

In an unsteady flow, the velocity, pressure and

density at a point in the flow varies with time.

Laminar flow is the flow in which the fluid particles

move along well-defined streamlines which are

straight and parallel. In this flow, the velocities

at different points in the fluid may have different

magnitudes, but their directions are parallel.

Turbulent flow is an irregular flow in which the

particles can move in zig-zag way due to which

eddies formation take place which are responsible

for high energy losses.

In compressible flow, the density of fluid varies

from point to point, whereas in incompressible

flow, the density of the fluid remains constant

throughout. Liquids are generally incompressible

while gases are compressible.

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

expression of the law of conservation of mass in

fluid dynamics.

A1

v1

v2

A2

v2t

v1t

particles while flowing along path-lines also rotate

about their own axis. In irrotational flow, particles

do not rotate about their axis.

tube of flow in a particular time interval is equal to

the mass of fluid leaving the tube.

m1 m2

=

or r1A1v1 = r2 A2v2

Dt Dt

Here r = r1 = r2 = density of fluid, v = velocity of fluid,

A = Area of cross section of tube

or A1v1 = A2v2 or Av = constant

) Bernoullis Theorem

the law of mechanical energy conservation of fluid

dynamics.

Characteristics of an ideal fluid are :

The fluid is incompressible.

The fluid is non-viscous.

The fluid flow is steady.

The fluid flow is irrotational.

The sum of pressure energy, kinetic energy and

potential energy per unit volume remains constant

along a streamline in an ideal fluid flow i.e.,

1

P + rv 2 + rgh = constant

2

(Energy per unit volume)

or

P v2

+ + gh = constant

r 2

P v2

or

+

+ h = constant

rg 2 g

(Energy per unit weight)

In this equation,

P

is called pressure head,

rg

v2

is called velocity head and h is called

2g

gravitational/potential head.

speed of incompressible fluid.

Volume of the fluid flowing out per second

2hrm g

Q = a1v1 = a1a2

v1 P2

P1

neck

v1 =

r(a12 a22 )

Area = a1

Area = a2

v2

Liquid of

density m

proportional to the surface area of solid surfaces in

area of contact of liquid contact.

layers.

The viscous force is directly

proportional to the relative

velocity between two layers

of a liquid.

It is independent of the

relative velocity of one

body with respect to

another body in contact.

the

normal

reaction

between the two layers of

the liquid.

It is directly proportional

to the normal reaction

between the surfaces in

contact.

2hrm g

a22

r

a12 a22

A2

P2 = P

h

H

(H h)

A1

1

Pa

Horizontal range, R = v1 t

2(H h)

= 2 gh

= 2 h(H h)

g

H

R will be maximum if h =

and Rmax = H.

2

In general as shown in figure, speed of outflow,

v1 = 2 gh +

2(P Pa )

r

) Viscosity

which it opposes the relative motion between its

adjacent layers. It is the fluid friction or internal

friction.

Difference between viscosity and solid friction

Viscosity

Solid friction

layer exerting the friction the friction force is due

force is internal to the to an external body.

liquid.

velocity

dv

dy

dv

is velocity gradient, h is coefficient of viscosity

dy

of fluid and A is contact area of the layers.

Stokes law : When a sphere of radius r moves

uniformly through a viscous liquid then retarding

force experienced by the sphere is, Fv = 6phrv.

Terminal velocity :

When a solid sphere

4

FB = 3 r3g

falls in a liquid then its

accelerating velocity is

Fv = 6rvT

force of liquid and hence

it attains a constant

4

as terminal velocity (vT).

At equilibrium, FB + Fv = W

4 3

4

or

pr sg + 6 phrvT = pr 3rg

3

3

2

2 r (r s)

g

or vT =

9

h

vT

The variation of velocity

with time (or distance)

is shown in the adjacent

graph.

Time or distance

F = hA

Torricellis law :

If the container is open at the top to the

atmosphere then speed of efflux v1 = 2 gh

2

between two layers of a liquid flowing in streamlined

motion is given by

) Poiseuilles Formula

horizontal capillary tube of length l, radius r, across

a pressure difference P, under streamline motion,

is given by

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

15

V=

pPr 4

P

=

8 hl

R

Liquid resistance R =

8 hl

pr

Two capillary tubes are joined in series.

P = P1 + P2 and V is same through the two tubes.

Equivalent liquid resistance, Rs = R1 + R2

Two capillary tubes are joined in parallel. Equivalent

RR

liquid resistance, RP = 1 2 .

R1 + R2

P is same across both tubes.

) reynolds Number

determined by a non-dimensional number called

Reynolds number (Re). Which is defined as

rvd

Re =

h

where r is the density of the fluid having viscosity

h and flowing with mean speed v. d denotes the

diameter of obstacle or boundary of fluid flow.

Although there is not a perfect demarkation for

value of Re for laminar and turbulent flow but some

authentic references take the value as

Re

<1000

Type of

flow

laminar often

may be laminar

turbulent or turbulent

>2000

between

to 2000

16

speed transition from laminar flow to turbulent

flow takes place. This speed is called critical speed.

For lower density and higher viscosity fluid, laminar

flow is more probable.

It is the property of liquid by virtue of which its

free surface possess a tendency to contract so as

to acquire a minimum possible surface area and

behave like a stretched membrane.

Quantitatively, surface tension of liquid is

F W

S= =

l A

where F is the force acting on imaginary length

l drawn tangentially to the liquid surface at rest.

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

drops

When n number of smaller drops of a liquid,

each of radius r, surface tension S are combined

to form a bigger drop of radius R then

Volume of bigger drop = volume of n smaller

drops

1000

4 3

4

pR = n pr 3 or R = n1/3r

3

3

The surface area of bigger drop = 4pR2

= 4pn2/3r2, which is less than the area of n

smaller drops.

In this process energy is released, given by

W = S (4pr2n 4pR2) = 4pSr2n2/3(n1/3 1)

1 1

= 4 pSR2 (n1/3 1) = 4 pSR3

r R

) surface Tension

free surface of liquid at rest without any change in

temperature.

Molecules on the free surface of a liquid at rest

experience maximum downward pulling force

which gives rise to surface tension.

Surface tension depends only on the nature of liquid

and is independent of the surface area or length of

the imaginary line drawn on the free surface of

liquid at rest.

Work done in forming a liquid drop/bubble

Work done in forming a liquid drop of radius

R, surface tension S is W = 4pR2S.

Work done in forming a soap bubble of radius R,

surface tension S is W = 2 4 pR2 S = 8pR2S.

Work done in increasing the radius of a liquid

drop from R1 to R2 is W = 4 pS(R22 R12 ).

Work done in increasing the radius of a soap

bubble from R1 to R2 is W = 8 pS(R22 R12 ).

Dq =

3S 1 1

Jcr r R

) Excess Pressure

Excess pressure inside a soap bubble, P = 4 S/R

Pressure difference (P) across curved surfaces of

radii R1 and R2

direction, then

1

1

R1

R2

P =S

R R

1

then

1

1

P =S +

R2

R R

R

1

because R1 = R and R2 =

S

R

2S

For a spherical surface, P =

R

because R1 = R2 = R

density r at a depth h below the surface of liquid,

then total pressure inside that bubble is

P = P0 + hrg + 2S/R

where P0 is the atmospheric pressure and hrg is the

hydrostatic pressure.

If P1 and P2 are pressures inside the two soap bubbles

and P0 is pressure outside each bubble, then ratio of

3

Angle of contact is defined as the angle between the

diameter 6 mm is fixed to a tree-limb. A monkey

weighing 100 N jumps to catch the free end and

stays there. The elongation of the rope and the

corresponding change in the diameter respectively

are (Youngs modulus of nylon = 4.8 1011 N m2

and Poisson ratio of nylon = 0.2)

(a) 3.32 105 m

(b) 4.41 108 m

9

(c) 8.85 10 m

(d) 1.94 109 m.

2. Water flows in a horizontal A

B

tube as shown in the figure.

The pressure of water changes

by 600 N m2 between A and B where the areas of

cross section are 30 cm2 and 15 cm2 respectively.

2S cos q 2S

r

=

cos q =

rrg

Rrg

R

where S is the surface tension of the liquid, q is

the angle of contact, r is the density of liquid, r is

the radius of capillary tube, R is the radius of the

meniscus and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

If q > 90, i.e., meniscus is convex, h will be

negative, i.e., the liquid will fall in a capillary

tube.

If q = 90, i.e., meniscus is plane, h = 0, so no

phenomenon of capillarity.

If q < 90, i.e., meniscus is concave, h will be

positive, i.e., the liquid will rise in the capillary.

If a capillary tube is of insufficient length as

compared to height to which liquid can rise in the

capillary tube, then the liquid rises upto the full

length of capillary tube but there is no overflowing

of the liquid in the form of fountain. It is so because

the liquid meniscus adjusts its radius of curvature

so that hR = constant, i.e., hR = hR.

h=

P P

their volumes is 2 0 .

P P

contact inside the liquid. It depends on the nature

of solid and liquid both and for concave meniscus,

it is acute while for convex it is obtuse.

The phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid in a

capillary tube is known as capillarity.

The rise or fall in a capillary tube is given by

tube will be

(a) 6300 (b) 1890 (c) 2315 (d) 1680.

3. Water and mercury are filled in two cylindrical

vessels up to same height. Both vessels have a hole

in the wall near the bottom. If the velocity of water

and mercury coming out of the holes are v1 and v2

respectively, then

(a) v1 = v2

(b) v1 = 13.6 v2

(c) v1 = v2/13.6

(d) v1 = 13.6 v2 .

internal and 8.7 cm external radius. It is supported

horizontally from a pan of a balance so that it comes

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

17

is the surface tension of water if an extra weight

= 3.97 g wt is required to pull it away from water ?

(Take g = 980 cm s2)

(a) 72.04 dyne cm1 (b) 35.98 dyne cm1

(c) 54.03 dyne cm1 (d) 18.02 dyne cm1

5. A 45 kg boy whose leg bones are 5 cm2 in area and

50 cm long falls through a height of 2 m without

breaking his leg bones. If the bones can stand a

stress of 0.9 108 N m2, then the Youngs modulus

for the material of the bone is (Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 2.25 109 N m2 (b) 2.76 108 N m2

(c) 4.42 107 N m2 (d) 3.17 109 N m2.

6. Two rods A and B of the same material and same

length have radii r1 and r2 respectively. When they

are rigidly fixed at one end and twisted by the same

couple applied at the other end, then the ratio of

the angles of twist at the ends of A and B is

(a) r2 : r1 (b) r14 : r24 (c) r24 : r14 (d) r13 : r23.

7. A large tank filled with water to a height h is said

to be emptied through a small hole at the bottom.

Find the ratio of time taken for the level of water to

fall down from h to h/2 and h/2 to zero.

(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 + 1 (c) 2

(d) 2 1

8. The lower end of a capillary tube is dipped in water.

Water rises to a height of 8 cm. The tube is then

broken at a height of 6 cm. The height of water

column and angle of contact will be

3

3

(a) 6 cm, sin 1 (b) 6 cm, cos 1

4

4

1

1

(c) 4 cm, sin 1 (d) 4 cm, cos 1 .

2

2

9. The rate of steady volume of water through a

capillary tube of length l and radius r under a

pressure difference of P is V. This tube is connected

with another tube of same length but half the radius

in series. Then the rate of increase of steady volume

through them is (the pressure difference across the

combination is P)

16 V

17 V

V

V

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

.

17

16

16

17

10. A cylindrical vessel is filled with water up to height

H. A hole is bored in the wall at a depth h from

the free surface of water. For maximum range, h is

equal to

H

3H

H

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) H.

2

4

4

18

2 kg are connected by a metal

wire going over a smooth pulley

as shown in the figure. The

breaking stress of the metal is 1 kg

2 109 N m2. What should be the

minimum radius of the wire used

if it is not to break?

(Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 4.6 105 m

(b) 9.2 105 m

4

(c) 2.3 10 m

(d) 2.3 105 m

2 kg

by a tube,

(a) air flows from bigger bubble to the smaller

bubble till the sizes become equal

(b) air flows from bigger bubble to the smaller

bubble till the sizes are interchanged

(c) air flows from the smaller bubble to the bigger

bubble

(d) there is no flow of air.

13. A rectangular film of liquid is extended from

(4 cm 2 cm) to (5 cm 4 cm). If the work done

is 3 104 J, the value of the surface tension of the

liquid is

(a) 0.250 N m1

(b) 0.125 N m1

1

(c) 0.2 N m

(d) 8.0 N m1.

[NEET Phase II 2016]

14. Three liquids of densities r1, r2 and r3 (with

r1 > r2 > r3), having the same value of surface

tension T, rise to the same height in three identical

capillaries. The angles of contact q1, q2 and q3 obey

p

> q1 > q2 > q3 0

2

p

(b) 0 q1 < q2 < q3 <

2

p

(c)

< q1 < q2 < q3 < p

2

p

(d) p > q1 > q2 > q3 > . [NEET Phase II 2016]

2

(a)

(n > 1) are put in a container. The height of each

liquid is h. A solid cylinder of length L and density

d is put in this container. The cylinder floats with

its axis vertical and length pL (p < 1) in the denser

liquid. The density d is equal to

(a) {2 + (n 1)p}r (b) {1 + (n 1)p}r

(c) {1 + (n + 1)p}r (d) {2 + (n + 1)p}r.

[NEET Phase I 2016]

Two wires of same length and of same area of

cross section, one of steel and another of brass are

suspended from the same roof. If we want the lower

ends of the wires to be at the same level, then the

weights added to the steel and brass wires must be

in the ratio of

(a) 4 : 1

(b) 1 : 1

(c) 1 : 2

(d) 2 : 1.

[AIPMT 2015]

17. Consider a water jar of radius R

R

that has water filled up to height H

H

and is kept on a stand of height h.

2r

Through a hole of radius r (r << R)

at its bottom, the water leaks out

h

and the stream of water coming

2x

down towards the ground has a

shape like a funnel as shown in the figure. If the

radius of the cross section of water stream when it

hits the ground is x. Then

1

(a)

(c)

H 4

x =r

H + h

H

x =r

H + h

H

(b) x = r

H + h

1

2

H

.

(d) x = r

H + h

[JEE Main Online 2016]

the variation of the speed v and acceleration a of a

point mass falling vertically in a viscous medium

that applies a force F = kv, where k is a constant,

on the body? (Graphs are schematic and not drawn

to scale)

v

(a)

(b)

v

(c)

v

t

(d)

a

t

a

19. A bottle has an opening of radius a and

length b. A cork of length b and radius

b

(a + Da) where (Da << a) is compressed

to fit into the opening completely (see

figure). If the bulk modulus of cork is

B and frictional coefficient between

the bottle and cork is m then the force

needed to push the cork into the bottle is

(a) (pmBb)a

(c) (pmBb)Da

(b) (2pmBb)Da

(d) (4pmBb)Da

[JEE Main Online 2016]

2

cm then the Reynolds

water tap of diameter

p

number for the flow is (density of water = 103 kg m3

and viscosity of water = 103 Pa s) close to

(a) 5500 (b) 11,000 (c) 550

(d) 1100

[JEE Main Online 2015]

SolutionS

1. (c) : As the monkey stays in equilibrium, the

tension in the rope equals the weight of the monkey.

Hence,

stress T / A

TL

Y=

=

or l =

strain l / L

AY

or elongation,

(100 N) (4.5 m)

l=

(p 9 106 m2 ) (4.8 1011 N m 2 )

=3.32 105 m

Dd / d (Dd )L

=

l/L

ld

Dd 4.5 m

or 0.2 =

or Dd =

0.2 6 3.32 108 m

= 8.85 109m

4. 5

2

30 cm

v

By the equation of continuity, B =

=2

v A 15 cm2

1

1

By Bernoullis theorem, PA + rv 2A = PB + rv B2

2

2

1

1

3

or PA PB = r(2v A )2 rv 2A = rv 2A

2

2

2

3

or 600 N m 2 = (1000 kg m 3 )v 2A

2

or v A = 0.4 m2s 2 = 0.63 m s 1

= 1890 cm3 s1

3. (a)

4. (b) : Let r1 and r2 be the inner and outer radius of

the ring when ring is in contact with water along its

inner and outer circumference. So, when it is pulled

out of water, the total force on it due to surface

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

19

mg

F

or S =

=

2 p(r1 + r2 ) 2 p(r1 + r2 )

3.97 980

=

= 35.98 dyne cm 1

2 (22 / 7)(8.5 + 8.7)

5. (a) : Here, m = 45 kg; h = 2 m; L = 0.50 m;

A = 5 104 m2

Loss in gravitational energy

= gain in elastic energy in both leg bones

1

2

\ 45 10 2

= 2(0.5 0.9 108 strain 2.5 104 )

or strain =

\ Y=

45 10 2

0.9 2.5 104

= 0.04

=

= 2.25 109 N m2

strain

0.04

one end and a torque t is applied at the other end

produces angle of twist q in the wire, then

2tl

pGr 4 q

or q =

, i.e., q 1 / r 4

t=

4

2l

pGr

4

q

r

Thus, 1 = 2

q2 r14

7. (d) : Let R be the radius of the tank and r be the

radius of the hole. Then velocity of water flowing

out of the hole, v = 2 gh . If dh is the fall in height

of water in time dt, then

dh

dh r 2

pR

= pr 2v = pr 2 2 gh ;

=

2 g dt

dt

h R2

Required ratio,

2

h /2

t1

t2

dh

h h h

= h

= 2

= 2 1

0

h

dh

h 0 2

h /2

6 cm, the height of water column will be 6 cm. As

2S cos q

h

2S

h=

or

=

= constant

rrg

cos q rrg

20

8

6

=

cos 0 cos q

or

q = cos1 (3/4)

or cos q =

6 cos 0 3

=

8

4

pPr 4

; when tubes are connected in

8 hl

series, then the rate of flow of water through each

tube (V1) is same. Let (P P1) be the difference in

pressure across the first tube and P1 be the difference

in pressure across the second tube. Then

9. (c) : V =

V1 =

p(P P1 ) r 4

8 hl

or P P1 =

From (i),

V1 =

P1

16

pP1 (r / 2)4

8 hl

or P1 =

16 P

17

8 hl

...(i)

1 pPr 4 V

=

17 8hl 17

V 16V

=

17 17

hole, u = 2 gh

Height of hole from ground level = (H h).

The time taken by water to cover vertical distance

(H h) will be

1

(H h) = gt 2 or t = 2(H h) / g

2

\ Horizontal range,

R = ut = 2 gh 2(H h) / g = 2 h(H h)

Horizontal range will be maximum if dR/dh = 0

1

i.e., 2 (hH h2 )1/2 (H 2h) = 0

2

or H = 2h or h = H/2

11. (a)

12. (c)

13. (b) : Work done = Surface tension of film

Change in area of the film

or

W = T DA

Here, A1 = 4 cm 2 cm = 8 cm2

A2 = 5 cm 4 cm = 20 cm2

DA = 2(A2 A1) = 24 cm2 = 24 104 m2

W = 3 104 J, T = ?

\

T=

3 104 1

W

=

= = 0.125 N m 1

DA 24 104 8

2T cos q

rrg

cos q

For given value of T and r, h

r

Also, h1 = h2 = h3

cos q1 cos q2 cos q3

or

=

=

r1

r2

r3

Since, r1 > r2 > r3, so for positive value of cos q

cos q1 > cos q2 > cos q3

p

For 0 q < , q1 < q2 < q3

2

p

Hence, option is (b) i.e., 0 q1 < q2 < q3 <

2

15. (b) :

h

h

d = density of cylinder

A = area of cross section of cylinder

Using law of floatation,

Weight of cylinder = Upthrust by two liquids

L A d g = nr (pL A)g + r(L pL)Ag

d = npr + r(1 p) = (np + 1 p)r

d = {1 + (n 1)p} r

16. (d) : Let L and A be length

and area of cross section of Steel

Brass

each wire. In order to have L, A

L, A

the lower ends of the wires

to be at the same level (i.e.,

Ws

Wb

same elongation is produced

in both wires), let weights Ws and Wb are added to

steel and brass wires respectively. Then by definition

of Youngs modulus, the elongation produced in the

steel wire is

Ws L

Ys A

and that in the brass wire is

WL

DLb = b

Yb A

DLs =

W/ A

as Y =

DL / L

Ws L Wb L

=

Ys A Yb A

Y

As s = 2

Yb

or

it leaks out through the hole and when it hits the

ground respectively.

Then, as per Bernoullis theorem,

v12 + 2gh = v22

Now, according to Torricellis law, v1 = 2 gH ...(i)

\ 2gH + 2gh = v22

...(ii)

According to continuity equation,

a1v1 = a2v2

or pr 2 2 gH = px 2 2 g (H + h) [Using (i) and (ii)]

x2 = r 2

(L pL)

pL

Ws 2

=

Wb 1

Ws Ys

=

Wb Yb

(given)

1/ 4

H

H

or x = r

H + h

H +h

...(i)

ma = mg kv

dv

dt

dv mg kv

=

or

=

mg kv m

dt

m

Integrating,

v

dv

1

mg kv = m dt

kt

t

1

v

mg

[ln(mg kv )]0 =

m

;

v

=

1

e

k

m

k

Putting (ii) in (i), we get

...(ii)

kt

mg

( kt /m ) or a = ge m

k 1 e

Hence option (c) represents the correct variation.

ma = mg k

Normal stress

Volumetric strain

N

N

=

A (2pa)b

2 pa Da b 2Da

Volumetric strain =

=

a

pa2 b

N

a

\ B=

2 pab 2Da

N = 4pb Da B

\ Required force = Frictional force

= mN = (4pmBb)Da

P=

20. (a)

21

CLASS XI Series 6

CBSE

Thermodynamics

Kinetic Theory

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks each.

(v)

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculator is not allowed.

section-A

constant?

2. Air pressure in a car tyre increases during driving.

Explain.

3. The volume of a given mass of a gas at 27 C and

1 atm is 100 cc. What will be its volume at 327 C?

4. Calculate the number of atoms in 39.4 g of gold.

Molar mass of gold is 197 g mol1.

5. During adiabatic changes, the volume of a gas

is found to depend inversely on the square of its

absolute temperature. Find how its pressure will

depend on the absolute temperature.

section-B

of a gas during (a) isothermal expansion and

(b) adiabatic expansion?

7. A monatomic ideal gas, initially at temperature T1

is enclosed in a cylinder fitted with a frictionless

piston. The gas is allowed to expand adiabatically to

a temperature T2 by releasing the piston suddenly.

If L1 and L2 are the lengths of the gas column before

22

ratio T1/T2?

8. Calculate the number of degrees of freedom of

molecules of hydrogen in 1 cc of hydrogen gas at

NTP.

9. Write any four fundamental postulates of the kinetic

theory of an ideal gas.

OR

At what temperature does all molecular motion

cease ? Explain.

10. Discuss whether the following phenomena are

reversible :

(a) Water fall

(b) Rusting of iron

section-c

11. A vessel A contains hydrogen and another vessel

B whose volume is twice of A contains same mass

of oxygen at the same temperature. Compare

(a) average kinetic energies of hydrogen and

oxygen molecules, (b) root mean square speeds of

the molecules and (c) pressures of gases in A and

B. Molecular weights of hydrogen and oxygen are

2 and 32 respectively.

(a) There is no atmosphere on the moon.

(b) There is fall in temperature with altitude.

13. Estimate the average thermal energy of a helium

atom at (a) room temperature 27 C, (b) the

temperature on the surface of the sun 6000 K,

(c) the temperature of 10 million kelvin (the typical

core temperature in case of a star).

14. Show that the slope of an adiabatic curve at any

point is g times the slope of an isothermal curve at

the corresponding point.

15. Explain why

(a) Two bodies at different temperatures T1 and T2

if brought in thermal contact do not necessarily

settle to mean temperature (T1 + T2)/2.

(b) The coolant in a chemical or a nuclear plant

(i.e., the liquid used to prevent the different

parts of a plant from getting too hot) should

have high specific heat.

(c) The climate of a harbour town is more temperate

than that of a town in a desert at the same

latitude.

the same temperature. If the volume of steam is

1671 cm3, find the change in the internal energy of

the system. Given latent heat of steam = 2256 J g1

and 1 atmospheric pressure = 1.013 105 N m2.

20. Ten small planes are flying at a speed of

150 km h1 in total darkness in an air space that is

20 20 1.5 km3 in volume. You are in one of the

planes, flying at random within this space with

no way of knowing where the other planes are.

On the average about how long a time will elapse

between near collision with your plane. Assume for

this rough computation that a safety region

around the plane can be approximated by a sphere

of radius 10 m.

connected to each other via a stopcock. The

cylinder A contains a gas at standard temperature

and pressure, while the cylinder B is completely

evacuated. The entire system is thermally insulated.

The stopcock is suddenly opened.

Answer the following :

(a) What is the final pressure of the gas in A and B?

(b) What is the change in internal energy of the gas?

(c) What is the change in temperature of the gas?

(d) Do the intermediate states of the system (before

settling to final equilibrium state) lie on its

P-V-T surface?

OR

(a) The difference between two specific heats of a

gas is 5000 J kg1 K1 and the ratio of specific

heats is 1.6. Find the two specific heats.

(b) A cylinder containing one gram molecule of

the gas was compressed adiabatically until its

temperature rose from 27 C to 97 C. Calculate

the work done on the gas. Given g = 1.5.

21. (a) When a molecule (or an elastic ball) hits a

(massive) wall of container, it rebounds with

the same speed. When a ball hits a massive bat

held firmly, the same thing happens. However,

when the bat is moving towards the ball, the

ball rebounds with a different speed. Does the

ball move faster or slower?

(b) When gas in a cylinder is compressed by

pushing in a piston, its temperature rises.

Guess an explanation of this in terms of kinetic

theory.

(c) What happens when a compressed gas pushes

a piston out and expands ? What would you

observe?

T1 and T2 are mixed. There is no loss of energy.

Find the temperature of the mixture if the masses

of the molecules are m1 and m2 and the number of

molecules in the gases are n1 and n2 respectively.

with air at temperature (T1, T2), volumes (V1, V2)

and pressures (P1, P2) respectively. If the valve

joining the two vessels is opened, what will be the

temperature inside the vessel at equilibrium ?

shaken. Consider the coffee as the system.

(a) Has any heat been added to it? (b) Has any

work been done on it? (c) Has its internal energy

changed? (d) Does its temperature rise?

section-D

cycle tyre. He noticed that both the volume and

pressure of the air in the tyre were increasing

simultaneously. He was a bit confused as he had

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

23

inversely with volume as per Boyle's law. Next day

he talked to his Physics teacher about this

phenomenon. The teacher thought it to be an

important phenomenon and therefore explained to

the whole class.

Answer the following questions :

(a) What are the values displayed by Ramesh and

the teacher?

(b) What is your opinion to correct the

explanation for the given observation?

section-e

find the expression for work done during adiabatic

expansion. Write two limitations of first law of

thermodynamics.

OR

What is an isothermal process? State two essential

conditions for such a process to take place. Show

analytically that work done by one mole of an ideal

gas during isothermal expansion from volume V1

to volume V2 is given by

W = RT loge

V2

V1

which is compressed isothermally?

25. What is Carnot engine ? Derive an expression for

the efficiency of a Carnot engine. On what factors

does it depend?

OR

Consider a P-V diagram in which the path followed

by one mole of perfect gas in a cylindrical container

is shown in figure.

temperature T is 3/2 RT, find the heat supplied

to the gas when it is taken from state 1 to 2, with

V2 = 2V1.

26. Show that the pressure exerted by an ideal gas is

1

P = r v2, where r is the density and v is the root

3

mean square velocity.

OR

Using the law of equipartition of energy, determine

the values of CP, CV and g for (a) monatomic,

(b) diatomic and (c) triatomic gases.

solutions

DQ = DU + DW

DQ = nCV DT + DW

(Q DU = nCVDT)

If system has constant temperature inspite of heat

supplied then DT = 0 and DQ = DW. It means heat

supplied (DQ) to the system is used in doing work

(DW) against the surrounding.

2. A car tyre has a fixed volume (V). When car

is driven, the temperature (T) of air in its tyre

increases. So, according to Charles law, P T

at constant V, pressure of the air in the car tyre

increases.

3. Here, T1 = 27 C = 300 K, V1 = 100 cm3

T2 = 327 C = 600 K, V2 = ?

At constant pressure, V T

or

V1 T1

=

V2 T2

V2 =

V1T2

100 600

=

= 200 cm3

T1

300

Molar mass of the gold, M = 197 g mol1

Number of gold atoms in 39.4 g of gold

NA

6.023 1023 mol 1

m=

39.4 g

M

197 g mol 1

= 1.205 1023

1

constant

5. Given, V 2 \ V =

T

T2

PV

But

= constant

T

=

(a) Find the work done when the gas is taken from

state 1 to state 2.

(b) What is the ratio of temperature T1/T2,

if V2 = 2V1?

24

P constant

= constant or P T3

2

T

T

constant during an isothermal change. As internal

energy is a function of temperature only, so it will

remain constant during an isothermal change.

As DT = 0, so DU = CV DT = 0

(b) Adiabatic expansion : For an adiabatic change,

DQ = 0, so from first law of thermodynamics,

DQ = DU + DW = 0 or DW = DU

During adiabatic expansion, work is done by a

gas i.e., DW is positive, so DU must be negative.

Hence internal energy of a gas decreases during an

adiabatic expansion.

7. For an adiabatic process, TV g 1 = constant

For a monatomic gas, g = 5/3

\ TV2/3 = constant

Let A = area of cross-section of the cylinder.

Then, T1(L1A)2/3 = T2(L2A)2/3

\

T1 L2

=

T2 L1

2 /3

= 22400 cc

Number of molecules in 1 cc of H2

6.023 1023

= 2.688 1019

22400

Since each diatomic molecule has 5 degrees of

freedom.

\ Total number of degrees of freedom

= 5 2.688 1019 = 1.344 1020

=

rigid elastic spheres and identical in all respects

for a given gas and different for different gases.

(ii) The size of a molecule is negligible as compared

to the average distance between molecules.

(iii) The molecules are in a state of continuous

random motion, moving in all directions with

all possible velocities.

(iv) The molecules exert no force on each other

or on the walls of the container except during

collision.

OR

All molecular motion ceases at absolute zero or

at 0 K. According to the kinetic interpretation of

temperature internal energy of an ideal gas is purely

kinetic,

3

2 E

E = kBT or T =

2

3 kB

of molecules

\ For temperature = 0 K, average kinetic energy = 0

Thus at 0 K, the velocity of molecules becomes zero.

or

fall of the water, the major part of its potential

energy is converted into kinetic energy of the water.

However, on striking the ground, a part of it is

converted into heat and sound. It is not possible to

convert the heat and the sound produced along with

the kinetic energy of water into potential energy so

that the water can not rise back to its initial height.

Therefore, water fall is not a reversible process.

(b) Rusting of iron : During rusting, iron gets

oxidised by the oxygen of the air. Since it is a

chemical change so it is not a reversible process.

11. (a) For all gases at the same temperature, average

kinetic energy per molecule is same and is

3

E = kBT

2

As the gases in both vessels are at the same

temperature, so the ratio of their average kinetic

energy per molecule = 1 : 1.

(b) As vrms =

\

vH

=

vO

3RT

M

MO

32

=

= 4 :1

MH

2

1m 2

v

3 V rms

Masses of both gases are equal. So the ratio of their

pressure is

2

V

PH v H

16 2

= O = = 32 : 1

PO vO VH

1 1

of the gravitational force of the earth, so the escape

velocity of air molecules on the moon is smaller than

that on the earth. As the moon is in the proximity of

the Earth as seen from the sun so solar irradiance

on the moon surface is same as that of the earth.

Escape velocity of the particle on the moon is

2.38 km s1. The rms speed of the constituents of

air (O2, N2, CO2 and water vapour) lies between

0.4 km s1 to 0.8 km s1, which is smaller than

2.38 km s1. Inspite of this a significant number

of molecules have speeds greater than 2.38 km s1

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

25

arrange the speed distribution for the equilibrium

temperature. Again a significant number of

molecules get their speeds greater than 2.38 km

s1 and escape. Due to this continuous process, the

moon has lost its atmosphere over a long period of

time.

(b) We know, E = U + K = constant

As the molecules move higher their potential

energy (U) increase but and kinetic energy (K)

decrease and hence fall in temperature. At greater

height more volume is available for gas to expand

and hence some cooling takes place i.e., a fall in

temperature.

13. The average kinetic energy of the gas at a

3

temperature T, E = kT

2

where k = 1.38 1023 J K1

T = Temperature in kelvin

(a) T = 27 C = 27 + 273 = 300 K

3

21

E = 1.38 1023 300 = 6.21 10 J

2

(b) T = 6000 K

3

19

E = 1.38 1023 6000 = 1.242 10 J

2

(c) T = 10 106 K = 107 K

3

16

E = 1.38 1023 107 = 2.07 10 J

2

14. For an isothermal change, PV = constant

Differentiating both sides, we get

P dV + V dP = 0 or V dP = PdV

\ Slope of an isothermal curve,

P

dP

=

V

dV isothermal

For an adiabatic change, PV g = constant

Differentiating both sides, we get

P . gVg1 . dV + V g . dP = 0

\ Slope of an adiabatic curve,

gP

dP

=

V

dV adiabatic

isothermal curve.

As g > 1, so an adiabatic P-V curve is steeper than

the corresponding isothermal P-V curve.

15. (a) The two bodies may have different masses and

different materials i.e., they may have different

26

equal thermal capacities, they would settle at

the mean temperature (T1 + T2)/2.

(b) The purpose of a coolant is to absorb maximum

heat with least rise in its own temperature. This

is possible only if specific heat is high because

Q = mc DT. For a given value of m and Q the

rise in temperature DT will be small if c is large.

This will prevent different parts of the nuclear

reactor from getting too hot.

(c) The relative humidity of a harbour town is more

than that of a desert town. Due to high specific

heat of water, the variations in the temperature

of humid air are less. Hence the climate of a

harbour town is without the extreme of hot or

cold.

16. (a) When the stopcock is suddenly opened, the

volume available to the gas at 1 atm becomes

twice the original volume and hence pressure

becomes half the original volume (Boyle's law).

Hence the pressure of the gas in each of the

cylinders A and B is 0.5 atm.

(b) As the system is thermally insulated, so DQ = 0.

Also, the gas expands against zero pressure, so

DW = 0. Hence by first law of thermodynamics,

DU = 0 i.e., there is no change in the internal

energy of the gas.

(c) As there is no change in the internal energy of

the gas, so the temperature of the gas remains

unchanged.

(d) No. The free expansion of the gas is very

rapid and hence cannot be controlled. The

intermediate states are non-equilibrium states

and do not satisfy the gas equation. In due

course, the gas returns to equilibrium state

which lies on P-V-T surface.

17. According to the kinetic theory, the average kinetic

3

energy of a gas molecule = kBT . Before mixing

2

the two gases, the average kinetic energy of all the

molecules of the gas

3

3

= kB n1T1 + kB n2T2

2

2

After mixing, the mean kinetic energy of both the

3

gases = kB(n1 + n2)T

2

where T is the temperature of the mixture. If there

is no energy loss, then

3

3

3

kB(n1 + n2)T = kB n1T1 + kB n2T2

2

2

2

n T +n T

T= 1 1 2 2

n1 + n2

not been added to the coffee (DQ = 0).

(b) Yes. Some work is done by the man in shaking

the coffee against the forces of viscosity i.e., DW

is negative.

(c) By first law of thermodynamics, DQ = DU + DW.

As DQ = 0 and DW is negative, so DU is positive

i.e., internal energy of the coffee increases.

(d) Because of the increase in internal energy of the

coffee, the temperature of the coffee will also

increase.

19. Mass of water, m = 1 g = 10 3 kg

Latent heat of steam

L = 2256 J g 1 = 2256 103 J kg1

Atmospheric pressure, P = 1.013 105 N m 2

Volume of steam, Vs = 1671 cm3 = 1671 106 m3

Mass

103

Volume of water, Vw =

= 106 m3

=

Density 103

According to first law of thermodynamics,

dQ = dU + PdV or mL = dU + P(Vs Vw)

\ Change in internal energy is

dU = mL P(Vs Vw)

= 103 2256 103 1.013 105

(1671 106 106)

5

= 2256 1.013 10 106 1670

= 2256 0.1013 1670

= 2256 169.171 = 2086.829 J

20. Here, v = 150 km h1, N = 10

V = 20 20 1.5 km3.

Diameter of plane, d = 2 R = 2 10 = 20 m

= 20 103 km

N

10

n= =

= 0.0167 km3

V 20 20 1.5

Mean free path of a plane

1

=

2 d 2n

Time elapse before collision of two planes randomly,

1

t= =

v

2 d 2nv

1

=

2

1.414 3.14 (20) 106 (0.0167) (150)

225 h

OR

Here, CP CV = 5000 J kg1 K1

C

and P = 1.6 or CP = 1.6 CV

CV

\

or

CV =

5000

= 8333.33 J kg1 K1

0. 6

Here, T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K,

T2 = 97 + 273 = 370 K

Work done in adiabatic compression of the gas is

given by

W=

R

8.3 (370 300)

(T2 T1 ) =

= 1162 J

1 g

1 1.5

wicket behind the bat. If the bat is moving

towards the ball with a speed v relative to the

wicket, then the relative speed of the ball to bat

is v + u towards the bat. When the ball rebounds

(after hitting the massive bat) its speed, relative

to bat, v + (v + u) = 2v + u, moving away

from the wicket. So the ball speeds up after

the collision with the bat. For a molecule,

this would imply an increase in temperature.

(b) When a gas in cylinder is compressed by

pushing in a piston, the speed of the molecules

or their kinetic energy increases. This increases

the temperature of the gas.

(c) When a compressed gas pushes a piston out, the

speed of the molecules or their kinetic energy

decreases. This decreases the temperature of

the gas.

22. As PV = nRT

\

n=

PV

RT

P1V1

RT1

P2V2

RT2

But n = n1 + n2

\ P (V1 + V2 ) = P1V1 + P2V2

RT

RT1 RT2

P (V1 + V2 )

RT

27

or

T=

T1T2 P (V1 + V2 )

P1V1T2 + P2V2T1

As V = constant so DW = 0

Also, DQ = 0 so DU = 0 or DT = 0

i.e., T = constant

Using Boyle's law, P(V1 + V2) = P1V1 + P2V2

T T (P V + P V )

Hence, T = 1 2 1 1 2 2

P1V1T2 + P2V2T1

observant, highly interested in learning physical

phenomena observed in daily life.

The values displayed by the teacher are providing

good education and undertaking the doubts of

student.

(b) Boyle's law is valid for a fixed mass of a gas.

When we pump air into a cycle tyre, air molecules

are pushed into the tyre and so the mass of the

air in the tyre increases. Hence Boyle's law is not

applicable under the given situation.

24. If some heat is supplied to a system which is capable

of doing work, then the quantity of heat absorbed by

the system will be equal to the sum of the increase

in its internal energy and the external work done by

the system on the surroundings.

Let

DQ = Heat supplied to the system by the surroundings

DW = Work done by the system on the surroundings

DU = Change in internal energy of the system

Then according to the first law of thermodynamics,

P

DQ = DU + DW

Area = A

Suppose the system is a

gas contained in a cylinder

dx

provided with a movable

piston. Then the gas does work

in moving the piston. The work

Gas

done by the system against a

constant pressure P is

DW = Force Distance

Q

= Pressure Area Distance

= PA dx

or DW = P DV

where DV = Adx = the change in the volume of

the gas.

So, the first law of thermodynamics takes the form,

DQ = DU + P DV

When the piston moves up through a small distance

dx, the work done by the gas will be

dW = PA dx = P dV

28

area of the piston and dV = A dx

is the increase in the volume of

the gas.

Suppose the gas expands

adiabatically and changes from

the initial state (P1, V1, T1) to the

final state (P2, V2, T2). The total

work done by the gas will be

Wadiabatic =

dx

Gas

Insulating wall

V2

P dV

V1

PV g = K or P = KV g

\

Area = A

Wadiabatic =

V2

KV

(K = constant)

dV

V1

V2

=K V

V1

V 1 g 2

dV = K

1 g V1

K

g

g

V21 V11

1 g

1

g

g

=

KV11 KV21

g 1

But K = P1V1g = P2V2g

1

g

g

\ Wadiabatic =

P1V1gV11 P2V2gV21

g 1

1

(P V P V )

Wadiabatic =

g 1 1 1 2 2

Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics are

as follows :

(i) It does not indicate the direction of transfer of

heat.

(ii) It does not tell anything about the conditions

under which heat can be converted into

mechanical work.

(iii) It does not indicate the extent to which heat

energy can be converted into mechanical work

continuously.

OR

An isothermal process is one in which the pressure

and volume of the system change but temperature

remains constant.

Essential conditions for an isothermal process to

take place are

(i) The walls of the container must be perfectly

conducting to allow free exchange of heat

between the system and the surroundings.

=

Wisothermal =

V2

P dV

V1

\

Wisothermal =

V2

V1

nRT

dV = nRT

V

V2

nRT

V

V dV

V1

1

= nRT ln

or

V2

V1

V2

V1

P1

P2

is compressed isothermally is zero because the

internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on

its temperature. As temperature remains constant,

there is no change in internal energy.

25. Carnot engine is an ideal reversible heat engine

that operates between two temperatures T1 (source)

and T2 (sink). The working substance is carried

through a reversible cycle of the following four

steps :

Step 1 : Isothermal expansion (AB). Place the

cylinder on the source so that the gas acquires the

temperature T1 of the source. As the gas absorbs the

required amount of heat from the source, it expands

isothermally. If Q1 heat is absorbed from the source

and W1 work is done by the gas in isothermal

to (P2, V2, T1), then

V

W1 = Q1 = nRT1 ln 2 = area ABMKA

V1

P

batic

Adiaression

p

com

should be very slow, so as to provide sufficient

time for the exchange of heat.

Work done by the gas when the piston moves up

through a small distance dx is given by

dW = PA dx = PdV

Area = A

where A is the cross-sectional

area of the piston and

dV = Adx, is the small

dx

increase in the volume of the

gas. Suppose the gas expands

isothermally from initial

Gas

state (P1, V1) to the final state

Conducting wall

(P2, V2). The total amount of

work done will be

Isothermal

expansion

+ Q1

Adiabatic

expansion

Q2

O

Isothermal

compression

K

placed on the insulating stand and allowed to

expand slowly till its temperature falls to T2.

If W2 work is done by the gas in the adiabatic

expansion which takes its state from (P2, V2, T1) to

(P3, V3, T2), then

nR(T1 T2 )

W2 =

= area BCNMB

g 1

Step 3 : Isothermal compression (CD). The gas

is now placed in thermal contact with the sink

at temperature T2. The gas is slowly compressed

so that as heat is produced, it easily flows to the sink.

The temperature of the gas remains constant at T2.

If Q2 heat is released by the gas to the sink and

W3 work is done on the gas by the surroundings

in the isothermal compression which takes its state

from (P3, V3, T2) to (P4, V4, T2), then

V

W3 = Q2 = nRT2 ln 3 = area CNLDC

V4

Step 4 : Adiabatic compression (DA). The cylinder

is again placed on the insulating stand. The gas is

further compressed slowly till it returns to its initial

state (P1, V1, T1).

If W4 is the work done in the adiabatic compression

from (P4, V4, T2) to (P1, V1, T1), then

nR(T1 T2 )

W4 =

= area DAKLD

g 1

(in steps 1 and 2)

Total work done on the gas = W3 + W4

(in steps 3 and 4)

\ Net work done by the gas in one complete cycle,

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

29

W = W1 + W2 (W3 + W4)

But W2 = W4

\ W = W1 W3 = Q1 Q2

Also, W = area ABMKA + area BCNMB

area CNLDC area DAKLD

or W = area ABCDA

Hence in a Carnot engine, the mechanical work

done by the gas per cycle is numerically equal to

the area of the Carnot cycle.

Efficiency of Carnot engine is defined as the ratio

of the net work done per cycle by the engine to the

amount of heat absorbed per cycle by the working

substance from the source.

Q

W Q1 Q2

=

=1 2

\ h=

Q1

Q1

Q1

or

h=1

nRT2 ln(V3 / V4 )

nRT1 ln(V2 / V1 )

T2

T1

OR

Given, PV1/2 = constant = C

DW =

V2

V2

V1

V1

PdV =

C

V

dV

2

1

/

2

V

=C

= 2C( V2 V1 )

1

2 V1

\ DW = 2P1 V1 ( V2 V1 )

30

T

\

...(ii)

T1

V1

V1

1

=

=

=

2V1

T2

V2

2

3

(c) Given, U = RT

2

3

3

DU = RDT = R(T2 T1 )

2

2

3

DU = RT1( 2 1)

2

From eqn. (i)

...(iii)

(as V2 = 2V1)

DW = 2P1 V1 ( V2 V1 ) = 2P1V1 ( 2 1)

T1V2g1 = T2V3g1

...(i)

Similarly, step 4 is an adiabatic compression,

therefore

T1V1g1 = T2V4g1

...(ii)

On dividing (i) by (ii), we get

g 1

g 1

V

V

V3

V2

or 2 = 3

=

V1 V4

V1

V4

Hence, h = 1

(b) Q PV = nRT

C

C

V = nRT T =

V

nR

V

...(i)

= 2RT1 ( 2 1)

From first law of thermodynamics,

7

DQ = DU + DW = RT1 ( 2 1)

2

enclosed in a cubical

y

vessel of edge L. Also

Area = A

(vx , vy , vz)

there are n molecules

(vx , vy , vz)

per unit volume. A

vx t

z

x

molecule moving with

velocity (vx , vy , vz)

hits the planar wall (perpendicular to x-axis) of

area A. As the collision is elastic, the molecule

rebounds with the same velocity. The y and z

components of velocity do not change while the

x-component reverses sign. So the velocity after the

collision is (vx , vy , vz).

The change in momentum of the molecule

= mvx mvx = 2mvx

By the conservation of momentum, the momentum

imparted to the wall in each collision = 2 mvx

\ Number of molecules hitting wall of area A in

time Dt

1

= Avx Dt number of molecules per unit volume

2

1

= Avx Dt n

2

Total momentum transferred to the wall in time

Dt is

1

Dp = 2 mvx Avx Dt n = nmvx2 A Dt

2

Contd. on Page No. 82

stone is at point A, its distance from a certain

point O is 6 5 m at t = 0 and the component of

velocity along OA is non-zero. When it is at point

B(OB = 10 m), the component of velocity along

OB is zero. When it is at point C(OC = 6 m), the

component of velocity of the particle along OC is

zero. If the velocity of projection of the stone is

v0 = 5n m s1, then find the value of n.

2. A cord of length 64 m is used to connect a 100 kg

astronaut to a spaceship whose mass is much larger

than that of the astronaut. The value of the tension

in the cord is x 102 N. Assume that the spaceship

is orbiting near the earths surface. Also assume that

the spaceship and the astronaut fall on a straight

line from the earths centre. The radius of the earth

is 6400 km. Find the value of x.

3. A vessel contains two immiscible

1

liquids of density r1 = 1000 kg m3

3

and r2 = 1500 kg m . A solid block

2

of volume V = 103 m3 and density

d = 800 kg m3 is tied to one end

of a string and the other is tied to

the bottom of the vessel as shown

in figure. The block is immersed with 2/5th of its

volume in the liquid of higher density and 3/5th

in the liquid of lower density. The entire system is

kept in an elevator which is moving upwards with

an acceleration of a = g/2. Find the tension (in N)

the string. (Take g = 10 m s2)

4. A projectile is projected from ground with least

velocity to cross a wall 3.6 m high and 4.8 m away

from the point of projection. The range of projectile

class-Xi

n

is 8.4 m. If angle of projection is a and tan a = .

4

Find the value of n.

5. A circular tube of mass M is placed vertically on a

horizontal surface as shown in figure.

Two small spheres each of

m m

mass m, just fit in the tube

M

the tube looses contact with

the ground at q = 60 then

find the value of m/M.

6. A man weighing 60 kg is standing on a trolly

weighing 240 kg. The trolly is resting on frictionless

horizontal rails. If the man starts walking on the

trolly along the rails at a speed 1 m s1, then after

5 s, his displacement in metre relative to the ground

will be

7. A homogeneous disc with a radius 0.2 m and

mass 5 kg rotates around an axis passing through

its centre. The angular velocity of rotation of the

disc as a function of time is given by the formula

w = 2 + 6t. The tangential force applied to the rim

of the disc (in N) is

8. One end of a steel wire is fixed to ceiling of an

elevator moving up with an acceleration 2 m s2 and

a load of 10 kg hangs from other end.

Area of cross section of

the wire is 2 cm2. The

longitudinal strain in the

wire is n 106. What is the

value of n? (Take g = 10 m s2

and Y = 2 1011 N m2)

9. There are two pendulums of lengths l1 (= 81 cm)

and l2 (= 64 cm) which start oscillating. At some

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

31

from mean position in the same phase. After how

many oscillations of shorter pendulum, both the

pendulums will be in the same phase in mean

position?

10. A bus is moving with a velocity of 5 m s1 towards

a huge wall. The driver sounds a horn of frequency

165 Hz. If the speed of sound in air in 335 m s1, the

number of beats per second heard by the passengers

in the bus would be

11. A vessel has 6 g of hydrogen at pressure P and

temperature 500 K. A small hole is made in it so that

hydrogen leaks out. How much hydrogen in gram

leaks out if the final pressure is P/2 and temperature

falls to 300 K?

12. A body hanging from a massless spring stretches

it by 2 cm at earths surface. How much will the

same body stretch the spring (in cm) at height

2624 km from the surface of earth? (Take radius of

earth = 6400 km)

13. The rate of change of

position with respect

to time gives the

velocity

of

the

particle. Figure shows

position-time graph

for two particles P

and Q. The ratio of

velocities of both

particles P and Q is n. Find the value of n.

14. A transverse wave of amplitude 5 mm is generated

at one end (x = 0) of a long string by a vibrating

source of frequency 500 Hz. At a certain instant of

time, the displacement of a particle A at x = 1 m is

5 mm and that of particle B at x = 2 is +5 mm. The

wavelength of the wave is k m. Find the value of k.

15. When the system shown

in the diagram is in

450 N m1

equilibrium, the right

m

m

spring is stretched by 1 cm.

150 N m1

is 0.3. There is no friction between the bottom block

and the supporting surface. The force constants

of the springs are 150 N m1 and 450 N m1

(refer figure). The blocks have equal mass of 2 kg

each. Find the maximum amplitude (in cm) of

32

that does not allow the top block to slide on the

bottom.

solutions

AC = (6 5 )2 62

= 6 5 1 = 12 m

And CB = 102 62 = 8 m

\ The maximum height attained by the ball is

H = AB = 12 m + 8 m = 20 m

\ 2

v = u2 2gH or 02 = v02 2gH

\ v0 = 2 gH = 2 10 20 = 20 m s 1 = 5n m s 1

\ n=4

2. (3) : As according to given problem the mass of

satellite M is much greater than that of astronaut m,

as the centre of mass of the system will be close

to satellite and as the satellite is orbiting close to

the surface of earth, the equation of motion of the

system (S + A) will be

GMe ( M + m)

= ( M + m)Rw2

2

h

R

R

GMe

r

Rw 2 =

=g

...(i)

Me

S

R2

M TA

and the equation of motion

m

of the astronaut will be

GMem

+ T = mr w2

2

r

GMe

T = m r w2

r2

r R 2

T = mg

R r

( R + h)

R2

= mg

R

(R + h)2

2

h

h

T = mg 1 + 1 +

R R

3 mgh

R

(as r = R + h)

2

h

2h

as 1 + 1

R

R

T=

3 100 10 64

6400 103

= 3 10

\ x=3

3. (6) : We will analyse this problem from the reference

frame of elevator.

Total buoyant force on the block,

2

3

3

2

Fb = V r2 + V r1 ( g + a) 5 1

5 1

5

5

From the condition of

equilibrium,

Fb = T + Vd(g + a)

T = Fb Vd(g + a)

v 2 sin 2a

v 2 sin 2a

R= 0

or 8.4 = 0

g

10

42

sin a cos a

v0

3.6 m

v02 =

4.8 m

8.4 m

mg

Mg

mg

mg

= mg N =

2

2

From eqns (i) and (ii),

mg

m

= Mg

=2

2

M

mv 2

R

N+

...(ii)

u2 = 0

If v is combined velocity of trolly and man, then

applying the principle of conservation of linear

momentum,

(m1 + m2) v = m1u1 + m2u2

m u + m2 u2 60 1 + 0

=

\ v= 1 1

= 0.2 m s1

m1 + m2

60 + 240

3

2

= ( g + a)V r2 + r1 d

5

5

As a = g/2 \ (g + a) = 10 + 5 = 15 m s2

Putting the values,

3

2

5

5

v02 sin 2a = 84

mv2

R

gx 2

y = x tan a

2v02 cos2 a

10(4.8)2

42

2

cos2 a

sin a cos a

5

3.6 = 4.8 tan a (4.8)2 tan a

42

7 n

\ tan a = 1.75 = =

or n = 7

4 4

3.6 = 4.8 tan a

1

0 = mg (R R cos 60) + mv 2

2

v 2 gR

=

v = gR

2

2

As shown in figure, for tube 2N cos 60 = Mg

(when it just lift off)

N = Mg

...(i)

= 0.8 m s1

Displacement of the man is 5 s = 0.8 5 = 4 m

7. (3) : Here, r = 0.2 m, M = 5 kg, F = ?

As w = 2 + 6t

dw

\

= 6 = a, angular acceleration

dt

Now, = I a = rF sin 90

Ia 1

a

= Mr 2

r

2

r

1

6

= 5 (0.2)2

=3N

2

0. 2

\ F=

= 10(10 + 2) = 120 N

F

120

Stress, S = =

= 60 104 N m2

A 2 104

Strain =

S 60 104

=

= 3 106

Y 2 1011

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

33

9. (9) : As T = 2

\

T1

=

T2

l

or T l

g

l1

=

l2

81 9

=

64 8

...(i)

longer pendulum will make one less oscillation

than n to come in phase again, while passing

through mean position, i.e.,

...(ii)

nT2 = (n 1)T1 or T1 = n

T2 n 1

From (i) and (ii),

n

9

= or 8n = 9n 9 or n = 9

n 1 8

acts as listener uL = 5 m s1

(u + uL ) u (335 + 5) 335

u =

=

= 170 Hz

u

335 2

\ Number of beats per second = u u

= 170 165 = 5

11. (1) : Here, m = 6 g, T = 500 K

m

6

From PV =

...(i)

RT , PV =

R 500

M

M

If x g of hydrogen leaks out, then,

P

Pressure = , T = 300 K

2

P

(6 x )

...(ii)

\ 2 V = M R 300

From (i) and (ii),

2 (6 x )

6R

500 =

R 300

M

M

or 30 = (12 2x) 3 x = 1 g

12. (1) : Let g be the acceleration due to gravity at

height h.

or

34

gR 2

6400

= g

+

6400

2624

( R + h)

g g

1 g

=

2 2

g

x

g

1

=

or x = x0 = 2 = 1 cm

g

x0

g

2

(\ x0 = 2 m)

13. (1) : The slope of x-t graph gives velocity.

20 15

\ vP =

= 0.5 m s1

10 0

15 10

and vQ =

= 0.5 m s 1

10 0

v

0.5

\ n= P =

=1

vQ 0.5

us = 5 m s1, u = 335 m s1, u = 165 Hz

u u 335 165 335

u =

=

=

Hz

u us

335 5

2

Then, g =

constant of the spring, then

At the surface of earth, mg = kx0

...(ii)

At height h, mg = kx

...(iii)

From (ii) and (iii)

...(i)

At t = 0, y = a cos kx

It is given that at x = 1 m, y = 5 mm = a

cos(k) = 1

and at x = 2 m, y = +5 mm = +a

cos(2k) = 1

2

\ k = or

==2m

and the direction of increasing x is towards the

right. If the blocks are at the origin, the net force

on them is zero. If the blocks are displaced by a

small distance x to the right of the origin, value of

the net force on them is 4kx. Applying Newtons

second law to the two-block system gives

\

4kx = 2ma

( k = 150 N m1)

Applying Newtons second law to the lower block

gives

k(x1 x) f = ma

where x1 = initial stretch and f is the magnitude of

the frictional force.

f = k(x1 + x)

The maximum value of x is the amplitude A

and the maximum value for f is msmg. Thus,

msmg = k(x1 + A)

m mg

or A = s

x1

k

On putting the values, we get

A=

0.3 2 10

1

= 0.3 m = 3 cm

150

100

MPP-6

Class XI

extent of understanding of specified chapter. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Total Marks : 120

Only One Option Correct Type

and boils at 50 Y. On this Y scale, a temperature

of 340 K is

(a) 106.3 Y

(b) 96.3 Y

(c) 86.3 Y

(d) 76.3 Y

2. Six identical conducting rods are joined as shown.

The ends A and D are maintained at 200 C and

20 C respectively. No heat is lost to surroundings.

The temperature of the junction C will be

A

200 C

(a) 60 C

(b) 80 C

D

20 C

temperature are joined to each other end to end.

The composite rod is then heated through a

temperature T. The coefficients of linear expansion

of the two rods are a1 and a2 respectively.

Then, the effective coefficient of linear expansion of

the composite rod is

+ 2

(a) 1

(b) 1 + 2

2

L + L2 1

L +L

(c) 1 2

(d) 1 1 2 2

L1 + L2

L1 + L2

4. Temperature of 100 g of water in a thermoflask

remains fixed for a pretty long time at 50 C. An

shaken for some time so that the temperature of the

mixture is 40 C. Now the experiment is repeated

with 100 g of a liquid at 50 C and an equal mass of

sand at 20 C when the temperature of the mixture

is found to be 30 C. The specific heat of the liquid

(in kJ kg1 K1) is

(Specific heat of water = 4200 J kg1 K1)

(a) 1.05

(b) 2.01

(c) 1.55

(d) 1.95

5. Two slabs A and B of different materials but of the

same thickness are joined end to end to form a

composite slab. The thermal conductivities of A and

B are K1 and K2 respectively. A steady temperature

difference of 12 C is maintained across the

K

composite slab. If K1 = 2 , the temperature

2

difference across slab A is

(a) 4 C

(b) 6 C

(c) 8 C

(d) 10 C

6. An ideal gas is expanding such that PT2 = constant.

The coefficient of volume expansion of the gas is

3

1

2

4

(b)

(c)

(d)

T

T

T

T

7. 22320 cal of heat is supplied to 100 g of ice at 0 C. If

the latent heat of fusion of ice is 80 cal g1 and latent

heat of vaporization of water is 540 cal g1, the final

amount of water thus obtained and its temperature

respectively are

(a) 8 g, 100 C

(b) 100 g, 90 C

(c) 92 g, 100 C

(d) 82 g, 100 C

(a)

35

its coefficient of apparent expansion is

1.03 103 C1. When the same liquid is heated

in a copper vessel, its coefficient of apparent

expansion is 1.006 103 C1. If the coefficient of

linear expansion of copper is 17 106 C1, then

the coefficient of linear expansion of glass is

(a) 8.5 104 C1

(b) 9 106 C1

(c) 27 106 C1

(d) 10 104 C1

emission wavelength of a black body shifts to lower

wavelengths.

Reason : Peak emission wavelength of a black body

is proportional to the fourth-power of temperature.

of 180 m s1 into a tree in which it stops. Assuming

that in this process two third of heat produced

goes into the bullet and one third into wood. The

temperature of the bullet raises by

(Specific heat of lead = 0.12 J g1 C1)

(a) 140 C (b) 106 C (c) 90 C (d) 100 C

thick glass, the beaker cracks.

Reason : Outer surface of the beaker expands

suddenly.

filled with mercury so that the volume of the empty

space may be the same at all temperatures?

(aglass = 9 106 C1, gHg = 18.9 105 C1)

1

1

1

1

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

7

5

4

11. The temperature of a room heated by a heater is

20 C, when outside temperature is 20 C, and it is

10 C, when the outside temperature is 40 C. The

temperature of the heater is

(a) 60 C (b) 40 C (c) 80 C (d) 100 C

(a)

dull red, then becomes reddish yellow and finally

turns to white hot. The correct explanation for the

above observation is possible by using

(a) Newtons law of cooling

(b) Stefans law

(c) Wiens displacement law

(d) Kirchhoff s law

Assertion & Reason Type

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of

assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the

correct choice as :

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the

correct explanation of the assertion.

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not

the correct explanation of the assertion.

(c) If assertion is true, but reason is false.

(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

36

conductivity of a liquid experimentally, the upper

layer is kept hot and the lower layer is kept cold.

Reason : This avoids heating of liquid by convection.

Only One Option Correct Type

and the other of iron are riveted together to form a

bimetallic strip. The temperature is raised by 50 C.

If the central planes of the two strips are separated by

2 mm and the coefficients of thermal expansion for

aluminium and iron are respectively 30 106 C1

and 10 106 C1, the average radius of curvature

of the bimetallic strip is about

(a) 50 cm

(b) 100 cm

(c) 150 cm

(d) 200 cm

17. Parallel rays of light of intensity I = 912 W m2

are incident on a spherical black body kept in

surroundings of temperature 300 K. Take StefanBoltzmann constant s = 5.7 108 W m2 K4

and assume that the energy exchange with the

surroundings is only through radiation. The final

steady state temperature of the black body is close to

(a) 330 K (b) 660 K (c) 990 K (d) 1550 K

18. A 10 W electrical heater is used to heat a container

filled with 0.5 kg of water. It is found that the

temperature of the water and the container

rises by 3 K in 15 minutes. The container is then

emptied, dried, and filled with 2 kg of an oil. It

is now observed that the same heater raises the

temperature of the container-oil system by 2 K in

20 minutes. Assuming no other heat losses in any of

the processes, the specific heat capacity of the oil is

(Specific heat of water = 4200 J kg1 K1)

(a) 2550 J kg1 K1

(b) 5100 J kg1 K1

(c) 3000 J kg1 K1

(d) 1500 J kg1 K1

heat

1L

0 1L

A

5L 6L

E

3K

2K

4K

5K

3L

4L

6K

heat flow through slab E is maximum.

temperature difference across slab E is smallest.

heat flow through C = heat flow through B

+ heat flow through D.

21. The temperature drop through a two layer furnace

wall is 900 C. Each layer is of equal area of cross

section. Which of the following actions will result

in lowering the temperature T of the interface?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

the radiation from B is shifted from the wavelength

lA corresponding to maximum spectral radiancy in

the radiation from A, by 1 m. If the temperature of

A is 5802 K, then

(a) the temperature of B is 1934 K

(b) lB = 1.5 m

(c) the temperature of B is 1160 K

(d) the temperature of B is 2901 K

23. A solid material is supplied

with heat at a constant rate.

E

The temperature of the

C

material varies with heat

D

A

CD = 2AB

input as shown in figure.

B

Which of the following O

Heat input

interpretations from the

graph is/are correct?

(a) AB represents the change of state from solid to

liquid.

(b) CD represents change of state from liquid to

vapour.

(c) Latent heat of fusion is twice the latent heat of

vaporization.

(d) Latent heat of vaporization is twice the latent

heat of fusion.

Temperature

the atmospheric temperature is 10 C. If time

taken for 1 cm of ice to be formed is 7 hours, the

time taken for the thickness of ice to increase from

1 cm to 2 cm is

(a) 7 hours

(b) less than 7 hours

(c) more than 7 hours but less than 14 hours

(d) more than 14 hours

More than One Options Correct Type

20. A composite block is made of slabs A, B, C, D and

E of different thermal conductivities (given in

terms of a constant K) and sizes (given in terms of

length, L) as shown in the figure. All slabs are of

same width. Heat Q flows only from left to right

through the blocks. Then in steady state

Inner Outer

layer layer

1000 C

100 C

T

layer.

(b) By increasing the thermal conductivity of inner

layer.

(c) By increasing the thickness of outer layer.

(d) By increasing the thickness of inner layer.

22. Two bodies A and B have thermal emissivities of

0.01 and 0.81 respectively. The outer surface areas

of the two bodies are equal. The two bodies emit

total radiant power at the same rate. The wavelength

Physics For you | december 16

37

(a) 1000 : 39

(c) 243 : 130

1

and latent heat = 3.36 105 J kg1) of mass m grams

is at 5 C at atmospheric pressure. It is given 420 J of

heat so that the ice starts melting. Finally, when the

ice-water mixture is in equilibrium, it is found that

1 g of ice has melted. Assuming there is no other heat

exchange in the process, the value of m is

25. A metal rod AB of length 10x has its one end A in

ice at 0 C and the other end B in water at 100 C. If a

point P on the rod is maintained at 400 C, then it is

found that equal amounts of water and ice evoparate

and melt per unit time. The latent heat of evaporation

of water is 540 cal g1 and latent heat of melting of ice

is 80 cal g1. If the point is at a distance of lx from the

ice end A, the value of l is

26. The density of a substance at 0 C is 10 g cm3 and

at 100 C its density is 9.7 g cm3. The coefficient of

linear expansion of the substance is 10x C1. The

value of x is

Comprehension Type

radius are heated to the same temperature and allowed

to cool under identical surrounding temperatures. The

specific heat capacity of aluminium is 900 J kg1 C1

and that of lead is 130 J kg1 C1. The density of lead is

104 kg m3 and that of aluminium is 2.7 103 kg m3.

Assume that the emissitivity of both the spheres is the

same.

27. The ratio of rate of heat loss from the aluminium

sphere to the rate of heat loss from the lead sphere is

(a) 1 : 1

(b) 90 : 13

(c) 100 : 27

(d) 1 : 4

28. The ratio of rate of fall of temperature of the

aluminium sphere to the rate of fall of temperature

of the lead sphere is

(b) 39 : 1000

(d) 130 : 243

Matrix Match Type

column II.

Column I

Column II

(A) Bimetallic strip

(P) Conduction

(B) Chimney

(Q) Radiation

(C) Heat transfer

(R) Convection

through a metallic

wire

(D) Suns rays reach the (S) Thermal expansion of

earth

solids

A

B

C

D

(a) P

S

Q

R

(b) Q

P

R

S

(c) R

Q

S

P

(d) S

R

P

Q

30. Match the entries in column I with the entries of

column II.

Column I

Column II

(A) Temperature of the (P) Newtons law of cooling

stars

(B) Special case of

(Q) Kirchhoff s law

Stefans law

(C) Good absorbers are (R) Plancks radiation law

good emitters

(D) The energy

(S) Wiens displacement law

distribution in black

body spectrum

A

B

C

D

(a) P

Q

R

S

(b) Q

R

S

P

(c) S

P

Q

R

(d) R

S

P

Q

> 90%

ExcEllENT work !

90-75%

Good work !

74-60%

sATisFAcTory !

< 60%

38

NEET JEE

Class

XII

ESSENTIALS

Maximize your chance of success, and high rank in NEET, JEE (Main and Advanced) by reading this column.

This specially designed column is updated year after year by a panel of highly qualified teaching experts well-tuned

to the requirements of these EntranceTests.

Unit

ATOMS AND NUCLEI

hc

1240

=

eV

l l(in nm)

E hu h

=

=

c

c l

If source is 100% efficient, then the number of

photons emitted per second by the source can be

given by

area per unit time perpendicular to the direction

of propagation.

I=

f

E P

=

At A

For a point source, intensity at a distance r from

P

the source, I =

4 pr 2

Reflected photon

p2 =h

Force on surface F =

F=

2Nh

l

2Nh

Pl

2h

= n but n =

l

tl

hc

2h P l 2P

=

l hc

c

F 2P 2 I

=

=

A cA c

Force exerted on perfectly absorbing surface

Pressure =

Power of source

Incident photon

p1 = h

Momentum of photon, p =

P P Pl

n=

= =

=

Energy of photon E hu hc

reflecting surface

f

Let N photons are there

in time t, change in

momentum of photons

2Nh

= Dp =

l

small packets which are known as photon. Photon

is not a material particle.

According to Planck the energy of a photon is

directly proportional to the frequency of the

radiation, i.e.,

E u; E = hu =

Nh

0

Incident photon

Dp

Nh

F=

= l

=

p1 = h

t

t

tl

(There are N photons in time t.)

h P

F=N =

l c

F P I

Pressure = =

=

A Ac c

No reflected

photon

p2 = 0

39

incident at an angle q

on perfectly reflector

surface then force

exerted on the surface

2P

2h

cos q = n cos q

l

c

2IA cos q

=

c

F 2 I cos q

Pressure = =

A

c

n

to

ho

tp

en

cid

In

F=

Re

te

lec

to

ho

p

d

f

f

h

h

=

p mv

where p = momentum of the particle, m = mass of

the particle, and v = velocity of the particle.

p2

h

f

Also, kinetic energy, K =

l=

2m

2mK

l=

40

0.286

V

For deuterons (md = 2 1.67 1027 kg) :

0.202

l=

V

Physics For you | december 16

30.835

T

h

mvrms

For gas molecules at T K

For gas molecules : l =

p

has physical significance; its phase velocity has no

physical significance. However, the group velocity

of the matter wave is physically meaningful and

equals the velocity of the particle.

Electron diffraction experiments by Davisson and

Germer, and by G.P. Thomson, as well as many

later experiments, have verified and confirmed the

wave-nature of electrons. The de Broglie hypothesis

of matter waves supports the Bohrs concept of

stationary orbits.

n=2

n=3

12.27

2mqV

V

For protons (mp = 1.67 1027 kg) :

2mkT

l=

particles

h

2mK

6.62 1034

3

h

E = kT l =

2

3mkT

l=

2 1.67 1027 K

For thermal neutrons at ordinary temperatures :

K = kT

l=

l=

is absorbed and the remaining part is reflected

IA

then net force on the plate F = (1 + r ) and

c

F I

pressure P = = (1 + r ), where r is the reflection

A c

coefficient of the plane and 0 < r < 1.

kept in the path of a parallel beam of light of large

aperture. If the beam carries an intensity I, the force

pr 2 I

exerted by the beam on the sphere is

.

c

F Matter Waves (de Broglie Waves)

The waves associated with moving particle are called

matter waves or de Broglie waves. The wavelength

associated with a moving particle is known as

de Broglie wavelength and it is given by

0.101

l=

V

de Broglie wavelength associated with uncharged

particles

2 pr = nl =

nh

nh

or mvr =

mv

2p

F Photoelectric Effect

n=4

incident on a metal surface, electrons are ejected

from the metal. This phenomenon is called the

photoelectric effect. The electrons ejected from the

metal are called photoelectrons.

as soon as light is incident on the metal,

photoelectrons are emitted.

Experimental set-up to study photoelectric effect

Light

Cathode

Anode

energy of photoelectrons, K max = hu f = hc f.

l

Here, f is the work function of the metal.

The work function represents the energy needed to

remove the least tightly bound electrons from the

surface. It depends only on nature of the metal and

independent of any other factors.

If the photon energy (say for l = l0) is just sufficient

to librate the electron only, then kinetic energy

hc

of the photoelectron will be zero. Then

=f

l

hc

or l0 = = threshold wavelength

f

Corresponding threshold frequency

u0 =

c f

=

l0 h

Postulates:

f

An electron revolves in a certain stable orbit

without the emission of radiant energy.

f

Angular momentum of an electron in the orbit

is integral multiple of h/2p.

h

mvr = n

where, n = 1, 2, 3, ..., and is called

2p

principal quantum number.

f

When an electron makes a transition from a

higher orbit to a lower stable orbit, the difference

in the energy of the electron is radiated as a

photon of energy hu.

Photocurrent

difference (I and u are constant) are

Photocurrent

distance between cathode and anode.

Quantum efficiency

number of electron emitted per second

=

nt per second

total number of photon inciden

ne

=

nph

1 1

K max = h(u u0 ) = hc

l l0

frequency. Slope of the graph (h/e) is same for

all metals.

Intensity of light

Potential difference

to reach the anode, then anode potential is known

as stopping potential (V0).

hc

eV0 = K max = f = hu f

l

hu = Ei Ef

In the nth orbit of hydrogen like atom,

mv 2

1 (e)(Ze)

=

rn

4 p0

rn2

Ln = mvrn =

nh

2p

Physics For you | december 16

41

Radius of orbit,

2

n

n2 h 2 0

rn = (0.53)

rn =

2

Z

pme Z

f

f

f

Velocity of electron,

e2 Z

Z

vn =

vn

n

2h 0 n

1 cZ

Also, vn =

137 n

Ze 2

Kinetic energy of electron, K =

8p0 rn

2

Potential energy of electron, U = Ze

4p0 rn

Total energy of electron,

E = K + U = K

me 4 Z 2

Z2

En = 2 2 2 = (13.6) 2 eV

n

8h 0 n

F hydrogen spectrum

42

energetic electrons are made to strike a metal

surface, X-rays come out.

Intensity variation of X-rays with wavelength is

shown in the figure. Characteristic X-rays are Ka

and Kb which have very large intensity. At other

wavelength, intensity varies gradually and these

X-rays are called continuous X-rays.

Physics For you | december 16

n(n 1)

.

state are

2

Ionisation energy: The minimum energy needed

to ionise an atom. Ionisation energy of a hydrogen

atom in ground state is 13.6 eV and ionisation

potential is 13.6 V.

Excitation energy is the energy needed to take the

atom from its ground state to an excited state.

Intensity

F

2 prn 420n3h3 T1n3

Tn =

= 2 4 = 2

vn

Z me

Z

min

30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Wavelength (pm)

hc

l min =

, where V is accelerating potential.

eV

1242

V (in volt)

not on the material of the target.

Characteristic X-rays:

characteristic X-ray photon.

Energy levels of the atom when one electron is

knocked out is shown in the figure.

Incident electron

K-electron

h

K X-ray

(a)

f

f

(b)

(c)

Incident electron knocks out one of its deep

seated electrons (n = 1) and there remains a

vacancy.

One electron from higher shell (n = 2) moves

Transition

KL

K

uKa

EK EL = huKa

a

lKa

KM

lKb

uKb

EK EM = huKb

LM

lLa

uLa

EL EM = huLa

Soft X-rays: longer lmin (less energy)

F Moseleys Law

According to Moseleys observations, frequency of

X-rays spectrum is given by

1

0

10

20 30

40 50 60

Position number

hc

( EK EL )

lKb =

hc

( EK E M )

l La =

hc

( EL E M )

3Rc

3Rc

(Z b) so a =

4

4

Thus proportionality constant a does not depend

on the nature of target but depends on transition.

Bohrs model

Moseleys correction

1

1

2 1

2 1

DE 13.6Z 2 2 eV 13.6(Z 1) 2 2 eV

n1 n2

n1 n2

3

2

lK a =

u=

replaced by (Z b) with b 1.

Energy released during the transition from n = 2 to

n = 1 is given by

Wavelength

1 1

DE = hu = Rhc(Z b)2 2 2

1 2

ground state.

EK = energy of the atom when an electron from

the K-shell is knocked out EL, EM, EN etc. have

same interpretation.

X-rays emitted due to electronic transition

from a higher energy state to a vacancy created

in the K shell are called K X-rays.

1

1

RcZ 2

2

2

n1 n2

1

1

Rc(Z 1)2

2

2

n1 n2

1

l

1

1

RZ 2

2

2

n1 n2

1

1

R(Z 1)2

2

2

n1 n2

43

Braggs Law

F

X-ray beams from a crystal are possible.

2d sin q = nl; n = 1, 2, 3,

n = order of spectrum, l = wavelength of X-ray

By using a monochromatic X-ray beam and noting

the angles of strong reflection, the interplanar

spacing d and several information about the

structure of the solid can be obtained.

Effect of Mass of Nucleus on Bohr Model

F

As no external force is acting on a nucleuselectron system, hence the center of mass of the

nucleus-electron system, must remain at rest.

r1

+Ze

Nucleus

+Ze

r2

CM

r1

r2 +F

e

CM

+Ze

f

Radius,

2 2

Speed, vn =

mN me

mN me

Ze 2

2nh0

Z 2e 4 mN me

f

Mass number (A) = Number of protons (Z) +

number of neutrons (N).

f

Nuclear mass is the total mass of the protons

and neutrons.

A nuclide is a specific nucleus of an atom

characterised by its atomic number Z and mass

number A.

A

Symbolically, nuclide Z X ; X = chemical symbol

of the element

Properties of nucleons

Name Symbol Charge

2 2

n h 0

n h 0 (mN + me )

rn =

2

pZe e

pZe2 me mN

m

rn = rn e

e

rn =

44

Fcf

mN me

Reduced mass of the system, e =

mN + me

Relative picture of the atom

Rest

Energy, En =

820n2h2 (mN + me )

Z 2 e

En = En e En = (13.6 eV)

me

n2 me

Nuclear Force

F

It is the strongest force in the universe and acts only

between the nucleons.

Very short range : Only upto size of nucleus (3 or

4 fermi). More than this distance, nuclear force is

almost zero.

Very much depends upon distance : Small variation

in distance may cause of large change in nuclear

force while electrostatic force remains almost

unaffected.

Independent of charge : Interacts between n-n as

well as between p-p and also between n-p.

Spin dependent : It is stronger between nucleons

having same sense of spin than between nucleons

having opposite sense of spin.

Nature

f

Attractive : If distance is about 1 fm or above.

f

Repulsive. If distance is less than 0.5 fm.

composition of Nucleus

F

Nucleons are protons and neutrons which are

present in the nuclei of atoms.

me r

mN r

and r2 =

mN + me

mN + me

r1 =

Mass

Rest energy

Proton

+e

Neutron

f

Isotopes : The atoms of an element which

have same atomic number but different mass

number.

but different atomic number.

37

37

Example : 31H and 23He, 17

Cl and 16

S

f

Isotones : The nuclides having the same number

of neutrons.

37

39

Example : 17

Cl and 19

K

f

Isomers : Nuclei with same atomic number and

mass number but existing in different energy

state.

Nuclear size : The number of protons and neutrons

per unit volume is approximately constant over the

entire range of nuclei.

A

i.e.,

constant

4 3

pR

3

A R3 R A1/3

R = R0A1/3; R0 = 1.2 fermi = 1.2 1015 m

f

Nuclear density, r =

mA

Mass of nucleus

Volume of nucleus

3m

r A0

4 pR03

4

pR03 A

3

And r = 2.23 1017 kg m3

Binding Energy

F

The loss in energy which is responsible for binding

the nucleons together in a nucleus is called the

binding energy.

2

DM = [ZmP + (A Z)mN] M

M mass of nucleus

\ Eb = [(ZmP + (A Z) mN)M] c2

Eb

A

= Average energy needed to separate a nucleus into

its individual nucleons.

Shape of BE/A is determined primarily by three

factors

f

a constant term, which originates because

nucleons interact only with their nearest

neighbours.

f

a sharp decrease for light nuclei.

f

a gradual decrease for heavy nuclei due to

coulomb repulsion of the nuclear protons.

Binding energy per nucleon, DEb /n =

liberated in two different ways

Nuclear fission : A heavy nucleus breaks in

f

two light nuclei of comparable masses. BE per

nucleon is greater for two lighter fragments

than it is for the original nucleus.

f

Nuclear fusion : Two light nuclei combine

to form a heavier nucleus. BE per nucleon is

greater in the final nucleus than it is in the two

original nuclei.

Law

F of radioactive Decay

Rate of decay of nuclei is given by

dN

dN

N (t )

= lN (t )

dt

dt

l disintegration (decay) constant

Number of undecayed radioactive nuclei at any

time t

N(t) = N0 elt

Number of decayed nuclei,

Nd = N0 (1 elt)

Nd

N0

N0

t

45

1

l

A

ZX

ln 2 0.693

=

= 0.693 av

Half life = T1/2 =

l

l

1

f

Also, av = = 1.44 T1/2

l

Number of nuclei present after n half life (t = nT1/2)

N

= 0n

(2)

N

N

N

N

t /2

t /2

t /2

t /2

N 0 1

0 1

20 1

30 .... 1

n0

2

2

2

2

If a nuclide can decay simultaneously by two

different processes with different decay constants

l1 and l2, then effective decay constant of the

nuclide is, l = l1 + l2 ; and N = N0 e(l1 + l2)t

Activity of sample:

dN

= lN = lN 0 e lt

dt

= R0 e lt

R=

adecay

ZA42Y + 42 He+ Q

This energy is shared by the daughter nucleus

and the alpha particle.

The energy released during the alpha decay of

238

92 U is 4.25 MeV.

92 U

is 7.68 MeV. Hence a proton cannot be released

by 238

92 U without supply of external energy.

Beta decay : It is spontaneous decay of nucleus by

emitting an electron or a positron.

b decay : n p + e + u ; ZA X b

Z +A1Y + 01 e + u

b + decay : p n + e + + u ; ZA X b

Z A1Y + +01 e + u

beta decay does not change.

Gamma decay : It is the phenomenon of emission

of one or more g-ray photon by a nucleus in its

excited state so as to acquire its ground state.

Units of activity

f

Co

1 Becquerel = 1 Bq = 1 dps

nucleus by emitting an alpha particle.

` 325

` 325

` 300

April, May, June issues not available

48

` 240

` 240

` 240

SYSTEM OF PARTICLES

AND ROTATIONAL MOTION

CLASS XI

l

Rotational Motion

its centre of mass only if the gravitational field

does not vary from one point of the body to

other.

Mathematically,

remains constant from a fixed line or

point and particle do not move parallel

to the line.

Angular displacement, q =

w

q = w0t + at 2

w 2 = w02 + 2aq

about the axis of rotation.

Semi-circular disc,

w

w

Position,

Velocity,

Acceleration,

If

= 0, then

is zero, the angular momentum of the

system remains constant, no matter what

changes take place within the system.

Iz = Ix + Iy

(Object is in x-y plane )

R2

(for isolated system)

Axis

2R

2R

Spherical shell

Solid sphere

CM

equilibrium, if both of its linear momentum

and angular momentum are not changing with

time, i.e., total force and total torque are zero.

Linear momentum does not change implies

the condition for the translational equilibrium

of the body and angular momentum does

not change implies the condition for the

rotational equilibrium of the body.

So,

current is such that it opposes

the change that has produced it.

If a current is induced by an

increasing(decreasing) flux, it

will weaken (strengthen) the

original flux.

It is a consequence of the law of

conservation of energy.

Axis

Mutual inductance,

Induced Electric

Field

l

It is produced by change in

magnetic field in a region. This

is non-conservative in nature.

form of Faradays law.

Coefficient of coupling,

For perfect coupling, k = 1 so,

l

l

R

a

I = MR2/2

Rolling Motion

l

Current growth in LR

circuit

l

Axis

Lenz's Law

= constant.

LR Circuit

Inductance

IAB = ICM + Md 2

Inductors in parallel,

Angular momentum,

Work done by torque, W = tdq

Power, P = tw

R1

Moment of Inertia

Axis

Axis

Inductors in series,

Here,

Axis

Semi-circular ring,

l

w

w = w0 + at

w

Magnetic Energy

Axis

L

l

I = MR2

Axis

CLASS XII

Combination of Inductors

Angular acceleration, a =

l

Axis

Angular velocity, w =

w

Axis

ELECTROMAGNETIC

INDUCTION

Energy Consideration

in Motional emf

l

Induced current,

K = Ktranslational + Krotational

=

Induced emf,

Induced current,

Electric Generator

l

velocity of centre of mass

vCM = Rw

Kinetic energy,

Magnetic flux

Faradays law : Whenever magnetic flux linked with a coil

changes, an emf is induced in the coil.

R

l

Motional emf

l

wire,

It is dissipated as Joules heat.

On a rotating conducting wire about one end,

Here,

Mechanical energ y is

converted into electrical

energy by virtue of electromagnetic induction.

Induced emf,

e = NABw sinwt = e0sinwt

Induced current,

1.0 W m2 falls on the surface of a photosensitive

material. If two percent of the incident photons

produce photoelectrons, then the number of

photoelectrons emitted from an area of 1.0 cm2 of

the surface is nearly

(a) 2 1013 s1

(b) 3 1012 s1

13 1

(c) 4 10 s

(d) 4 1012 s1.

2. X-rays are produced in an X-ray tube by electrons

accelerated through an electric potential difference

of 50.0 kV. An electron makes three collisions in

the target before coming to rest and loses half of

its remaining kinetic energy in each of the first two

collisions. Neglect the recoil of the heavy target

atoms, the wavelength of the resulting photons in

first two collisions is (Take hc = 1243 eV nm)

(a) 49.72 pm ; 99.44 pm

(b) 47.38 pm ; 24.86 pm

(c) 52.24 pm ; 49.72 pm

(d) 49.72 pm ; 24.86 pm.

3. A normal human eye can see an object if it receives

a minimum light intensity of 2 1010 W m2,

reflected from an object. What is the minimum

number of photons of wavelength 500 nm that must

enter the pupil of the eye per second in order to see

the object if the appearance of the pupil is about

1 cm2 ? (Given h = 6.63 1034 J s ; c = 3 108 m s1)

(a) 2.5 104

(b) 2.5 105

4

(c) 5.0 10

(d) 5.0 105.

4. The stopping potential for the photoelectrons

emitted from a metal surface of work function

1.7 eV is 10.4 V. Identify the energy levels in

hydrogen atom which will emit the wavelength of

radiation used

(a) n1 = 1, n2 = 2

(b) n1 = 1, n2 = 3

(c) n1 = 2, n2 = 4

(d) n1 = 2, n2 = 5.

5. A radioactive sample decays by two different

processes. Half life for the first process is t1 and for

the second process is t2. The effective half life is

(a) t1 + t2

(b) t1 t2

t1 t2

(t1 + t2 )

(c)

(d)

.

2

t1 + t 2

series, u2 be the frequency of the first line of Lyman

series, and u3 be the frequency of the series limit of

Balmer series. Then

(a) u1 + u2 = u3

(b) u2 u1 = u3

1

(c) u1 u2 = u3

(d) 3 = (1 + 2 ) .

2

7. There is a stream of neutrons with a kinetic energy

of 0.0327 eV. If the half life period of neutrons is

700 s, what fraction of neutrons will decay before

they travel a distance of 10 m?

(a) 3.96 104

(b) 3.96 105

6

(c) 3.96 10

(d) 3.96 107.

8. It is proposed to use nuclear fission reaction:

2

2

1H + 1 H

24 He

in a nuclear reactor of 200 MW rating. If the energy

from the above reaction is used with 25% efficiency

in the reactor, how many grams of deuterium will

be needed per day? The masses of 12H and 24He are

2.0141 u and 4.0026 u respectively.

(a) 115.3 g

(b) 120.3 g

(c) 125.3 g

(d) 130.3 g.

9. In a hydrogen atom, an electron jumps from the

state n to n 1 where n > > 1. The frequency of the

emitted radiation is proportional to

(a) n0

(b) n1 (c) n2

(d) n3.

10. When stopping potential is applied to the anode of

photocell, no current is observed. This means

(a) the emission of photoelectrons stops

(b) the photoelectrons are collected near the

collector plate

(c) the photoelectrons are emitted but are

reabsorbed by the photocathode itself

(d) the photoelectrons are dispersed from the side

of the apparatus.

11. The count rate of a Geiger-Muller counter for the

radiation of a radioactive material of half life of

30 min decreases to 5 s1 after 2 h. The initial count

rate was

(a) 80 s1 (b) 625 s1 (c) 20 s1 (d) 25 s1.

Physics For you | December 16

49

have their velocity ratio equal to 2 : 1. What will be

the ratio of their nuclear size (nuclear radius)?

(a) 31/2 : 1

(b) 1 : 31/2

1/3

(c) 2 : 1

(d) 1 : 21/3.

13. Electrons of mass m with de-Broglie wavelength

l fall on the target in an X-ray tube. The cutoff

wavelength (l0) of the emitted X-ray is

(a)

0 =

(c)

0 =

2mc2

h

2m2c 2 3

h2

2h

(b) 0 =

mc

(d) l0 = l.

[NEET Phase II 2016]

30 min. The time (in min) taken between 40% decay

and 85% decay of the same radioactive substance is

(a) 15

(b) 30

(c) 45

(d) 60.

[NEET Phase II 2016]

15. If an electron in a hydrogen atom jumps from

the 3rd orbit to the 2nd orbit, it emits a photon of

wavelength l. When it jumps from the 4th orbit to

the 3rd orbit, the corresponding wavelength of the

photon will be

16

9

(a)

(b)

25

16

20

20

(c)

(d)

.

7

13

[NEET Phase II 2016]

16. Given the value of Rydberg constant is 107 m1, the

wave number of the last line of the Balmer series in

hydrogen spectrum will be

(a) 0.25 107 m 1 (b) 2.5 107 m 1

(c) 0.025 104 m 1 (d) 0.5 107 m 1.

[NEET Phase I 2016]

17. Radiation of wavelength l, is incident on a

photocell. The fastest emitted electron has speed v.

3

If the wavelength is changed to

, the speed of

4

the fastest emitted electron will be

(a)

(c)

50

1/ 2

1/ 2

4

> v

3

4

(b) < v

3

4

= v

3

3

(d) = v .

4

[JEE Main Offline 2016]

1/ 2

1/ 2

20 min and 40 min, respectively. Initially, the

samples have equal number of nuclei. After 80 min,

the ratio of decayed numbers of A and B nuclei will be

(a) 1 : 16 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 1 : 4

(d) 5 : 4.

[JEE Main Offline 2016]

19. A hydrogen atom makes a transition from n = 2

to n = 1 and emits a photon. This photon strikes a

doubly ionized lithium atom (Z = 3) in excited state

and completely removes the orbiting electron. The

least quantum number for the excited state of the

ion for the process is

(a) 2

(b) 4

(c) 5

(d) 3.

[JEE Main Online 2016]

20. A neutron moving with a speed v makes a head on

collision with a stationary hydrogen atom in ground

state. The minimum kinetic energy of the neutron

for which inelastic collision will take place is

(a) 20.4 eV

(b) 10.2 eV

(c) 12.1 eV

(d) 16.8 eV.

[JEE Main Online 2016]

SolutionS

1. (b) : Energy incident over 1.0 cm2 = 1.0 104 J

Energy required to produce photoelectrons,

E = (1.0 104) (2/100) = 2.0 106 J

Energy of each photon,

= 6.6 1019 J

=

300 109

Number of photoelectrons ejected

E0 =

E

2.0 106

=

= 3 1012 s1

E0 6.6 1019

2. (a) : Energy of the incident electron = 50 keV

The energy of X-ray photon produced in first

collision

50

E1 = 50 = 25 keV

2

=

hc 1243 eV nm

=

1 =

E1 25 103 eV

= 49.72 103 nm = 49.72 pm

In the second collision the electron loses energy,

25

=

= 12.5 keV

2

\

\

E2 = 12.5 keV

Wavelength of photon produced,

1243 eV nm

= 99.44 103 nm

2 =

3

12.5 10 eV

= 99.44 pm

P = IA = 2 1010 104 = 2 1014 W

If n number of photons of given wavelength enter

per second the pupil of the eye to see the object,

(2 1014 )(500 109 )

P

P

=

=

hc / hc (6.63 1034 ) (3 108 )

= 5.0 104

then n =

maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons is

Kmax = 10.4 eV. The energy of the incident photon is

given by E = Kmax + f0 = 10.4 + 1.7 = 12.1 eV

We know the energy of electron in energy level of

13.6

hydrogen atom is, En =

eV

n2

13.6

When n = 1, E1 =

eV = 13.6 eV

12

13.6

When n = 2, E2 = 2 = 3.4 eV

2

13.6

When n = 3, E3 =

= 1.51 eV

32

Here, E3 E1 = 1.51 (13.6) = 12.1 eV.

Hence the transition corresponds to n1 = 1 and n2 = 3.

5. (d) : As l = l1 + l2

t t

0.693 0.693 0.693

=

+

or t = 1 2

t

t1

t2

t1 + t2

6. (c) : We know that series limit means the shortest

possible wavelength (maximum photon energy)

and first line means longest possible wavelength

(i.e., minimum photon energy).

1

1

As = Rc , where R is Rydberg constant.

2

2

n1 n2

For series limit of Lyman series, n1 = 1, n2 =

\ u1 = Rc

For first line of Lyman series, n1 = 1, n2 = 2

1 3

1

2 = Rc = Rc

2

1

22 4

Rc

1

3 = Rc 0 =

2

4

2

Now, 1 2 = Rc

\

3Rc Rc

=

= 3

4

4

u 1 u 2 = u3

1 2

2E

mv , =

2500 m s 1

m

2

Time taken to cover a distance of 10 m i.e.,

10 m

dt =

= 4 103 s

1

2500 m s

7. (c) : As E =

As

dN

= N ,

dt

dN

0.693

= dt =

(4 103 s)

N

T1/ 2

=

0.693 (4 103 s)

700 s

= 3.96 106

= 200 106 (J s1) (24 60 60 s) = 1728 1010 J

Energy input =

1728 1010

= 6912 1010 J

(25 / 100)

= [(2 2.0141) 4.0026] 931.5 MeV

= 23.85 MeV = 38.15 1013 J

Number of 21H nuclei required

=

6912 1010 J

(38.15 10

13

J) / 2

= (362.3 1023 )

= 362.3 1023

2g

6.023 1023

= 120.3 g

1

1

1

= RZ 2

n2 n2

c

1

1

= = RcZ 2

2

2

n1 n2

1

n12

n2 n12

= 2

n22

n12 n22

1

n2 (n 1)2

2

n (n 1)

2n 1

2

n (n 1)2

51

2n

1

, i.e.,

or n3

4

3

n

n

10. (c) : When stopping potential is applied to the

anode of photocell, the emitted photoelectrons

experience force of repulsion due to electric field

set up and they are reabsorbed by the photocathode

itself.

11. (a) : Half life time = 30 min;

Rate of decrease (N) = 5 s1 ;

Total time = 2 h = 120 min.

Relation for initial and

N

1

=

N0 2

final

120 30

1

=

2

count

4

rate

1

1

= =

2

16

Therefore N0 = 16 N = 16 5 s1 = 80 s1.

12. (d) : Velocity ratio, v1 : v2 = 2 : 1

According to law of conservation of momentum,

m1v1 = m2v2

\

v1 m2 r23

=

=

v2 m1 r13

or

r1 v2

=

r2 v1

13

or

13

1

=

2

1/3

13

r1 : r2 = 1 : 2

p2 (h / )2

h2

=

=

2m

2m

2m2

So, maximum energy of emitted X-ray photon = K

K=

hc

h2

=

0 2m2

0 =

2mc2

h

N1 = Remaining nuclei after 40% decay

= (1 0.4) N0 = 0.6 N0

N2 = Remaining nuclei after 85% decay

= (1 0.85) N0 = 0.15 N0

\

N 2 0.15N 0 1 1

=

= =

N1 0.6N 0 4 2

and 85% decay of a radioactive substance.

\ Time taken = 2T1/2 = 2 30 min = 60 min

52

lower orbit then, wavelength of emitted photon is

given by,

1

1

1

=R

2

2

n f ni

Transition : 3 2, wavelength = l

Transition : 4 3, wavelength = l = ?

so,

1

1 5R

1

= R =

2

2

32 36

and

1

1 7R

1

= R =

2

3

42 144

144 5 20

=

7

36

7

16. (a) : Here, R = 107 m1

The wave number of the last line of the Balmer

series in hydrogen spectrum is given by

7

1

1

1

= R 2 2 = R = 10 = 0.25 107 m 1

2

4

4

\

maximum kinetic energy of a photoelectron,

1

hc

K = mv 2 =

2

According to the question, for incident radiation of

wavelength l, maximum speed of photoelectron is v.

1 2 hc

\

mv =

...(i)

2

Assume speed of fastest photoelectron is v when

3

incident photon has wavelength

.

4

hc

1

4

\

mv 2 =

2

3

or

or

\

1

4 1

mv 2 = mv 2 +

2

3 2

4 2 2

1

2

v +

mv 2 = mv 2 + or v =

3

3m

2

3

3

4

v >

v

3

Half life of B, T1/2(B) = 40 min

Initially, number of nuclei in each sample = N

Now, 80 min = 4T1/2(A) = 2T1/2(B)

Number of active nuclei after four half lives of A,

N

16

2

15

\ Number of decayed nuclei = N NA =

N

16

Number of active nuclei after two half lives of B,

N N

NB =

=

22 4

3

\ Number of decayed nuclei = N NB = N

4

15

N

5

\ Required ratio = 16 =

3

4

N

4

19. (b) : Energy of emitted photon,

1

3

1

E = 13.6 eV = 13.6 eV

2

2

4

1

2

NA =

from nth excited state of doubly ionized lithium,

E =

13.6 Z 2

n

As E E

3

13.6 9

13.6

4

n2

eV =

13.6 9

n2

eV

n2 3 4 or n 12 = 3.5

\ Least quantum number for the excited state = 4.

20. (a) : Using conservation of linear momentum,

Total momentum before collision

= Total momentum after collision

v

mv = (m + m) v v =

2

Loss in kinetic energy during the process,

2

1

1

1

v

K = mv 2 (2m) = mv 2

2

2

2

4

For minimum kinetic energy of neutron, lost kinetic

energy should be used by the electron to jump from

first orbit to second orbit.

1 2

4

1 2

mv = 20.4 eV = Kinetic energy of the

2

neutron for inelastic collision.

53

CBSE

Devices and Simple Circuits

Communication Systems

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

(ii)

Q. no. 1 to 5 are very short answer questions and carry 1 mark each.

(iii) Q. no. 6 to 10 are short answer questions and carry 2 marks each.

(iv) Q. no. 11 to 22 are also short answer questions and carry 3 marks

each.

(v)

(vi) Q. no. 24 to 26 are long answer questions and carry 5 marks each.

(vii) Use log tables if necessary, use of calculator is not allowed.

section-A

in a graph.

2016

2015

2014

Delhi

AI Delhi

AI Delhi

AI

VSA

SA-I

SA-II

1

1

1

1

VBQ

LA

3

_

3

_

1

1

2

1

_

following figure. Identify X and Y. Write their

functions.

bias?

3. Why do we need carrier waves of very high

frequency in the modulation of signals?

4. Define repeater. What is its function?

5. Which of the following would produce analog

signals and which would produce digital signals?

(i) A vibrating tuning fork.

(ii) Musical sound due to a vibrating sitar string.

(iii) Light pulse.

(iv) Output of NAND gate.

section-B

slightly. How will it affect (i) collector current and

(ii) base current?

54

(i) Why is the current under reverse bias almost

independent of the applied potential upto a

critical voltage?

(ii) Why does the reverse current show a sudden

increase at the critical voltage?

9. Inputs A and B are applied to the logic gate set up as

shown in the figure. Complete the given truth table

and name the equivalent gate formed by this set-up.

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

OR

For the circuit shown in figure find the current

flowing through the 1 W resistor. Assume that the

two diodes, D1 and D2, are ideal diodes.

in communication system. Explain with the help

of a diagram how long distance communication

can be achieved by ionospheric reflection of radio

waves.

17. Distinguish between frequency modulation and

amplitude modulation. Why is an FM signal less

susceptible to noise than an AM signal?

18. Write the frequency at which T.V. signals are

transmitted. Derive an expression for the range

upto which signals transmitted by a T.V. tower can

be received.

19. Explain, with the help of a circuit diagram, the

working of a photodiode. Write briefly how it is

used to detect the optical signals.

be 15 V while its minimum amplitude is found to

be 3 V. What is the modulation index?

section-c

its working principle. Draw the input and output

waveforms indicating clearly the functions of the

two diodes used.

12. What do we understand by the cut off, active and

saturation states of the transistor?

13. In the given circuit diagram,

a voltmeter V is connected

across a lamp L. How would

(i) the brightness of the lamp,

and (ii) voltmeter reading V

be affected, if the value of

resistance R is decreased?

Justify your answer ?

14. Express by a truth table the output Y for all possible

inputs A and B in the circuit shown in figure

concentrations of 2.0 108 cm3. On doping with

a certain impurity, the hole concentration increases

to 4.0 1010 cm3.

(i) What type of semiconductor is obtained on

doping ?

(ii) Calculate the new electron concentration of the

semiconductor.

(iii) How does the energy gap vary with doping?

21. You are given the two circuits as shown in figure.

Show that circuit (i) acts as OR gate while the circuit

(ii) acts as AND gate.

(i)

(ii)

OR

If each diode in figure has a forward bias resistance

of 25 W and infinite resistance in reverse bias, what

will be the values of the current I1, I2, I3 and I4?

communication system :

(i) Transducer

(ii) Receiver

(iii) Transmitter

(iv) Bandpass filter

(v) Amplification

(vi) Demodulator

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

55

section-D

a long time. After his conversation was over, his

sister Anita advised him that if his conversation was

of such a long duration, it would be better to talk

through a landline.

(i) Why is it considered harmful to use a mobile

phone for a long duration?

(ii) Which values are reflected in the advice of his

sister Anita?

(iii) A message signal of frequency 10 kHz is

superposed to modulated a carrier wave of

frequency 1 MHz. Determine the sidebands

produced.

section-e

role of the two important processes involved in

the formation of a p-n junction.

(ii) Name the device which is used as a voltage

regulator. Draw the necessary circuit diagram

and explain its working.

OR

Draw the circuit diagrams of a p-n junction diode

in (i) forward bias, (ii) reverse bias. How are these

circuits used to study the V-I characteristics of a

silicon diode ? Draw the typical V-I characteristics.

25. With the help of a labelled circuit diagram,

explain how an n-p-n transistor can be used as an

amplifier in common-emitter configuration. Write

an expression for its voltage gain. Explain how the

input and output voltages are out of phase by 180

for a common-emitter transistor amplifier.

OR

(i) Explain the formation of energy bands in

solids. On the basis of energy band diagrams,

distinguish between metal, insulator and

semiconductor.

(ii) What is a light emitting diode (LED)? Mention

two important advantages of LEDs over

conventional lamps.

56

need of modulating a message signal.

(ii) What is meant by detection of a modulated

signal? Draw block diagram of a detector

for AM waves and state briefly, showing the

waveforms, how the original message signal is

obtained.

OR

(i) What is space wave propagation?

(ii) What is internet? Write the four applications of

the internet.

soLutions

temperature is shown as

Resistivity ()

is the output power when input signal is of

1.01 mW ? (gain in dB = 10 log10 (Po/Pi ).

Temperature (T)

minority carriers is much larger than the fractional

change in majority carriers in forward bias. So,

effect of intensity of light on the minority carriers

dominated reverse bias current is more easily

measurable than that in forward bias current.

3. High frequency carrier waves are used to increase

operating range, to reduce antenna length and

convert the wide band signal into narrow band

signal. Then the signal can be easily recovered and

distinguished from other signals at the receiving

station.

4. A repeater is a combination of a transmitter, an

amplifier and a receiver which picks up a signal

from the transmitter, amplifies and retransmits it

to the receiver sometimes with a change of carrier

frequency. Multiple repeaters help in extending the

range of the communication system.

5. Analog signal would be produced by vibrating

tuning fork and musical sound due to a vibrating

sitar string.

Digital signal would be produced by light pulse and

NAND gate.

increased slightly, then greater fraction of charge

carriers (electrons or holes) entering into base from

the emitter will be neutralised due to recombination

of opposite charge carriers in base region. As a

result, (i) the collector current IC will decrease, but

(ii) base current IB will increase.

7. The component X in the figure is intermediate

frequency (IF) stage, which facilitates further

processing of the received signal by lowering the

carrier frequency.

The component Y is an amplifier, which amplifies

the detected signal so as to have a strong output.

current of few microamperes flows due to the drift

of minority charge carriers whose number density

remains constant, so the current under reverse bias

is almost independent of the applied potential upto

a critical voltage.

(ii) When the reverse voltage across the p-n

junction reaches a critical voltage, the reverse

current suddenly increases to a large value. It is

due to the increase in the number of minority

charge carriers because of the breakdown of the

diode. The avalanche breakdown occurs in lightly

doped diodes due to ionisation by collision. Zener

breakdown occurs at low voltages in heavily doped

diodes by field emission.

9. Truth table for the given circuit is as follows:

A

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

A = A B = B Y = A + B Y = Y

1

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

to an AND gate.

OR

Diode D1 is forward biased and offers zero

resistance. Diode D2 is reversed biased and offers

infinite resistance. The given circuit reduces to the

equivalent circuit as shown in figure.

I=

6

=2A

2 +1

A

10. We know that, = m

Ac

It is given that Am + Ac = 15 V and Ac Am = 3 V

\ 2Ac = 15 + 3 = 18 V ; Ac = 9 V

and 2Am = 15 3 = 12 V ; Am = 6 V

\ =6 =2

9 3

11. A full wave rectifier consists of a transformer, two

junction diodes D1 and D2 and a load resistance RL.

The input a.c. signal is fed to the primary coil P of the

transformer. The two ends A and B of the secondary

S are connected to the p-ends of diodes D1 and D2.

The secondary is tapped at its central point T which

is connected to the n-ends of the two diodes through

the load resistance RL, as shown in figure.

A (input of D1) and end B( input of D2) of the

secondary with respect to the centre tap T will

be out of phase with each other. Supposed during

the positive half cycle of a.c. input, the end A is

positive and the end B is negative with respect to

the centre tap T. Then the diode D1 gets forward

biased and conducts current along the path

AD1XYTA, as indicated by the solid arrows. The

diode D2 is reverse biased and does not conduct.

During the negative half cycle, the end A becomes

negative and the end B becomes positive with

respect to the centre tap T. The diode D1 gets

reverse biased and does not conduct. The diode

D2 conducts current along the path BD2XYTB,

as indicated by broken arrows. As during both

half cycles of input a.c. the current through load

RL flows in the same direction (X Y), so we

get a pulsating d.c. voltage across RL, as shown in

figure.

Waveforms of input a.c. and output voltage obtained

from a full wave rectifier.

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

57

n-p-n transistor in CE configuration. Here RB is a

resistor in the input circuit and RC in the output

circuit.

V0 = VCC ICRC

...(i)

V0 = VCC

Active region : When Vi increases slightly above

0.7 V, a current IC flows in the output circuit

and the transistor is said to be in the active state.

From equation (i), as the term IC RC increases,

the output voltage V0 decreases. Now as Vi

increases, IC increases almost linearly and so V 0

decreases linearly till its value becomes less then

1.0 V.

Saturation region : When Vi is high i.e., the emitterbase junction is heavily forward biased, a large

collector current IC flows which produces such a

large potential drop across load resistance RC that

the emitter-collector junction also gets forward

biased. The output voltage V0 decreases to almost

zero. The transistor is said to be in the saturation

sate because it cannot pass any more collector

current IC.

13. In the following figure, the

transistor is a n-p-n

transistor with baseemitter junction forward

biased and the collector

reverse biased. Hence,

a base current IB and

consequently,

collector

current IC flow in the circuit. If value of resistor

R is reduced, then IB and correspondingly IC will

increase. Due to increase in IC, the lamp will go more

brilliantly. Due to increase in current IC flowing

through lamp resistance the potential difference

across the lamp increases and consequently,

voltmeter reading will increase.

14. The given circuit includes an AND and an OR gate,

as shown in figure

low value (less then 0.7 V in case of a Si transistor),

the forward bias of the emitter-base junction is

insufficient to start a forward current. That is, IB = 0

and hence IC = 0. The transistor is said to be in the

58

output is

Y= A B

Then inputs A and Y(= A B) are fed to OR gate so

that the output from it is

Y=A+AB

AND gate

Inputs

Output

A

B

Y= A B

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

Hence the truth table is

Inputs

OR gate

Inputs

Output

A

Y Y = A + Y

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

Output

A

B

Y

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

15. (i) Transducer : It is a device which converts energy

from one form to another from.

(ii) Receiver : It is a device which recovers the

original message signal from the signal received at

the output of the communication channel.

(iii) Transmitter : It is a device which processes

the incoming message signal into a form suitable

for transmission through a channel and for its

subsequent transmission.

(iv) Bandpass filter : A bandpass filter blocks lower

and higher frequencies and allows only band of

frequency (centred around carrier frequency) to

pass through it.

(v) Amplification : It is the process of increasing

the amplitude and hence the strength of an electrical

signal by using and electric circuit (consisting of

atleast one transistor) called the amplifier.

(vi) Demodulator : Demodulator is a device which

recovers the original information signal from the

modulated wave at the receiver end.

16. (i) Ground wave or surface wave propagation

(ii) Sky wave propagation

or ionospheric propagation

(iii) Space

wave

propagation/Line of sight

propagation.

In sky wave propagation,

radio waves transmitted

by transmitting antenna are directed towards the

ionosphere. The radiowaves having frequency

range 2 MHz to 30 MHz are reflected back by the

ionosphere.

transmitted to the stations which otherwise become

inaccessible to the ground due to curvature of

earth. Thus due to reflection by ionosphere, radio

wave signals can be transmitted virtually from any

one place to the other on surface of earth. So it is

useful for very long distance radio communication.

Thus for long distance radio broadcasts through sky

wave propagation, we use short wave bands.

17. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the

carrier is varied by the modulating signal and the

change in amplitude from the unmodulated value

is directly proportional to the instantaneous value

of the modulating signal but is independent of its

frequency. This is represented in figure.

Carrier wave

(a)

Amplitude-modulated wave

In frequency modulation, the instantaneous

frequency of the carrier is varied by the modulating

signal. The instantaneous deviation of frequency

from the unmodulated values is directly proportional

to the instantaneous value of the modulating

signal but is independent of its frequency. This is

represented in figure.

Frequency-modulation wave

Physics For you | DECEmbEr 16

59

the side bands, (ii) noisy reception, (iii) poor quality

of reception and (iv) small operating range.

FM has : (i) very high efficiency, (ii) noiseless

reception, (iii) high fidelity and (iv) large operating

range.

Practically all natural and man-made noises result

in electrical amplitude disturbances (variation).

Since in FM modulation, the carrier amplitude is

kept constant, all the amplitude-sensitive noises are

eliminated because variations in amplitude due to

noise are not reproduce. To limit the FM signal to

constant amplitude, a limiter circuit is used in an

FM receiver.

18. Television frequencies lie in

the range 100 200 MHz.

Let T.V. signals be

transmitted

from

an

antenna of height PQ = hT.

Due to the curvature of the

earth, no direct signals are

possible beyond the points

S or T, as shown in figure.

Let PS = PT = d.

From right-angled DOTQ, we get

OQ2 = OT2 + QT2

Here, OQ = R + hT , QT = PT = d

OT = R = Radius of the earth

\ (R + hT)2 = R2 + d2

or R2 + hT2 + 2hTR = R2 + d2

hT

or d2 = hT2 + 2hTR = 2hTR 1 +

2R

But hT << R, therefore, d2 = 2hTR or d = 2hT R

19. A photodiode is a p-n junction fabricated from a

photosensitive semiconductor and provided with a

transparent window so as allow light to fall on on

its junction. Its symbolic representation is shown in

figure.

h

illuminated with light

photons of energy

A

hu greater than the

energy gap Eg of

the

semiconductor,

additional electron-hole pairs are generated due

60

photogenerated charge carriers occurs in or near

the depletion region. Due to the junction field,

electrons get collected on n-side and holes on

the p-side setting up an emf. This send a current

through the load. In a reverse biased photodiode,

we can easily observe the change in photocurrent

with the change in radiation intensity. Hence a

photodiode can be used to detect optical signals.

nh = 4.0 1010 cm3

As on doping, the hole concentration has increased,

so a p-type semiconductor is obtained on doping.

(ii) New electron concentration of the

semiconductor,

n2 (2.0 108 )2

ne = i =

= 1.0 106 cm 3

nh (4.0 1010 )

energy level and valence band decreases to a very

small value ranging from 0.01 eV to 0.05 eV.

21. Let us first find the Boolean expression for logic

circuit (i)

Here X = A + B and Y = X = A + B = A + B

Now let us find the Boolean expression for logic

circuit (ii)

( A + B ) = AB

gate.

OR

Let R be the effective resistance of the circuit, then

R = RAB || REF + 25

RAB = 125 + 25 = 150 W

REF = 125 + 25 = 150 W

\ R = 25 + 150 = 100 W

2

5

= 0.05 A

Current, I1 =

100

According to Kirchhoff s, current rule,

I1 = I2 + I3 + I4 or I2 + I4 = I1 = 0.05

... R = R , so, I = I

AB

EF

4

2

2I4 = 2I2 = 0.05

0.05

I 4 = I2 =

= 0.025 A

2

22.

Loss suffered in path = 5 2 = 10 dB

Total gain of both amplifier = 10 + 20 = 30 dB

Overall gain = 30 10 = 20 dB

P

Gain in dB = 10 log10 o

Pi

or

P

20 = 10 log10 o

Pi

23. (i) The ultra high frequency em radiations,

continuously emitted by a mobile phone, may harm

the system of the human body.

(ii) Values shown by her sister Anita Shows :

(a) Concern about her brother

(b) Awareness about the likely effects of em

radiations on human body

(c) Sense of responsibility.

(iii) The side bands are : (uc + um) and (uc um)

or (1000 + 10) kHz and (1000 10) kHz

or 1010 kHz and 990 kHz

24. (i) Refer to point 9.3 (1, 2, 3) page no. 587 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

(ii) Refer to point 9.3 (7 (i)) page no. 589

(MTG Excel in Physics)

OR

Refer to point 9.3 (4, 5) page no. 588 (MTG Excel

in Physics)

62

25. Refer to point 9.4 (8) page no. 595 (MTG Excel in

Physics)

OR

(i) Refer to point 9.1 (5, 6) page no. 583 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

(ii) Refer to point 9.3 (7 (iv (a), (f)) page no. 591

(MTG Excel in Physics)

26. (i) Refer to point 10.2 (2) page no. 637 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

(ii) Refer to point 10.2 (7) page no. 639 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

OR

(i) Refer to point 10.3 (3) page no. 642 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

(ii) Refer to point 10.2 (9) page no. 640 (MTG

Excel in Physics)

Paragraph i

a potential difference V volt and made to enter a

magnetic field region at an angle q with the field. At the

same moment, another particle of same mass and same

charge is projected in the direction of the field from the

same point. Magnetic field of induction is B.

1. What would be the speed of second particle so that

both particles meet again and again after a regular

interval of time, which should be minimum?

(a)

qV

cosq

m

(b)

2qV

cosq

m

(c)

qV

sinq

m

(d)

qV

cosq

2m

2pm

pm

(a)

(b)

qB

2qB

3pm

(c) pm

(d)

2qB

qB

3. Find the distance travelled by the second particle

during that interval mentioned in the above problem.

(a)

Vm 2p

cos q

q B

(b)

2Vm 2p

cos q

3q B

(c)

2Vm 2p

cos q

q B

(d)

2 Vm p

cos q

3 q m

Paragraph ii

in a nuclear reactor at a rate q0t per second, where q0 is

a positive constant and t is the time. During each decay,

E0 energy is released. The production of radionuclide

starts at time t = 0.

class-Xii

above process?

dN

dN

lN = q0t

(b)

+ lN = q0t

dt

dt

dN

dN

+ q0t = lN

(c)

(d)

+ q0t = lN

dt

dt

5. Instantaneous power developed at time t due to the

decay of the radionuclide is

q

q

(a) q0t 0 + 0 e lt E0

l

l

q0 q0 lt

(b) q0t +

e E0

l

l

q

q

(c) q0t + 0 + 0 e lt E0

l l

q

q

(d) q0t 0 0 e lt E0 .

l l

6. Average power developed in time t due to the decay

of the radionuclide is

q

q

q t q

(a) 0 0 + 0 0 e lt E0

2

2

2

l l t l t

(a)

q

q

q t q

(b) 0 + 0 + 0 0 e lt E0

2

2

2

l l t l t

q

q

q t q

(c) 0 0 + 0 + 0 e lt E0

2

2

2

l l t l t

q0 lt

q0t q0 q0

+ +

+

e E0 .

(d)

2

l l 2t l 2t

Paragraph iii

There is a uniformly charge ring having radius R. An

infinite line charge (charge per unit length l) is placed

along a diameter of the ring (in gravity free space).

Total charge on the ring is Q = 4 2 lR. An electron of

mass m is released from rest on the axis of the ring at a

distance x = 3R from the centre.

Physics For you | december 16

63

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

integral of magnetic field over a closed Amperes loop.

+

+

R

+

+

+

+

+

++

x 3R

el 3 2 2

el 3 + 2 2

(a)

(b)

p0mR 4 6

p mR 4 6

0

(c)

el 3 + 2 2 (d) el 3 2 2

p0mR 2

p0mR 4 3

the net force on the electron is zero is

(a) 2R

(b) 2R

(c) R

(d) none of these.

9. Potential difference between points A (x = 3R)

and B (x = R) i.e., (VA VB) is

(a)

l

0

(c)

l

p0

1 ln 3

l

1 ln3

+

1 +

(b)

1

4

2

2

0

1 ln 3

l

1 ln 3

1 +

(d)

1

.

4

p

4

2

2

Paragraph iV

In a mixture of H He+ gas (He+ is singly ionized He

atom), H atoms and He+ ions are excited to their respective first excited states. Subsequently, H atoms transfer

their total excitation energy to He+ ions (by collisions).

Assume that the Bohrs model of atom is exactly valid.

10. The quantum number n of the state finally populated in He+ ions is

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 4

(d) 5.

11. The wavelength of light emitted in the visible region

by He+ ions after collisions with H atoms is

(a) 6.5 107 m

(b) 5.6 107 m

7

(c) 4.7 10 m

(d) 4.0 107 m.

12. The ratio of the kinetic energy of the n = 2 electron

for the H atom to that of He+ ion is

(a) 1/4

(b) 1/2

(c) 1

(d) 2.

Paragraph V

magnetic field due to a symmetrical distribution of

64

contributes in

(a) finding magnetic field at any point on the

Amperes loop

(b) line integral of magnetic field

(c) both of them

(d) neither of them.

14. If the current density in a linear conductor of

radius a varies with r according to relation J = kr2,

where k is a constant and r is the distance of a

point from the axis of conductor, find the magnetic

field induction at a distance r from the axis when

r < a. Assume relative permeability of the conductor

to be unity.

4

m kr 3

(a) m0kpa

(b) 0

2

4r

m0kr 3

m0kpa 4

(c)

(d)

4

2r

15. In the above question, find the magnetic field

induction at a point distance r from the axis when

r > a. Assume relative permeability of the medium

surrounding the conductor to be unity.

(a)

3

m0ka 4

m kpa 4

(b) m0kr (c) 0

4r

2r

2

(d)

m0kr 3

4

solutions

1. (b) : The first particle will have a helical path and

the second particle will move rectilinearly along the

field. For the two particles to meet again and again,

v || T = vT where v is the speed of the second

particle.

y-axis

v1=v sin

(q, m) v =v cos

B

(uniform)

x-axis

axis of

helix

\ v = v|| = v cosq

1 2

2qV

2qV

mv = qV v =

cosq

\ v =

m

2

m

2. (a) : Both the particles will meet after the time

2pm

period of helical motion. T =

qB

2qV

2pm

cosq

=

m

qB

= vT =

2Vm 2p

cos q

q B

dN

dN

= q0t lN ;

+ lN = q0t

dt

dt

dN

5. (a) :

+ lN = q0t

dt

4. (a) :

qt q

q

N = 0 02 + 02 e lt

l l

l

q q

l l

t

q

q lt

q0t l0 + l0 e E0dt

6. (a) : Pav = 0

t

dt

0

q

q

q t q

= 0 0 + 0 0 e lt E0

2

2

2

l l t l t

7. (a) : Electric field on the axis of ring at a distance x is,

l

Q

x

E=

+

2p0x 4p0 (R2 + x 2)3/2

(Considering right direction as positive)

=

x 4 2R

l 1

+

l

2p0

(As, Q = 4 2lR)

1

2 2 xR

x + 2

(R + x 2 )3/2

Initially x = 3R

l 1 2 2 3

\ E=

+

2p0R

8

3

l 2 2 + 3

l 32 2

=

=

2p0R 3 (2 2 ) 2p0R 2 6

(e)(E)

el 3 2 2

Acceleration a =

=

m

p0mR 4 6

8. (c) : Force on electron is zero at point where

1

2 2 xR

E = 0 or =

; (R2 + x 2 )3/2 = 2 2 x 2R

2

x (R + x 2 )3/2

On solving, x = R

9. (d) : Potential difference between two points

DV = E dx

Potential difference due to line charge between

x = R and x = 3R

VAB =

3R

ldx

l

l ln 3

=

ln 3 =

2p0x 2p0

p0 4

and x = 3 R

1 4 2lR 4 2lR l 1

VAB =

4p0 2R

2R p0 2

Net potential difference VA VB =

l

p0

1

ln3

4

2

n = 2 to n = 1 is

3

DEH = 13.6 eV

4

Let He+ ions go to nth state. So energy required

3

1 1

DEHe = 13.6 4 2 eV = 13.6 eV

4 n

4

So, n = 4

11. (c) : Visible light lies in the range, l1 = 4000 to

l2 = 7000 . Energy of photons corresponding to

these wavelengths (in eV) would be

12375

12375

= 1.77 eV

= 3.09 eV and E2 =

E1 =

7000

4000

1.9 eV

n=4

3.4 eV n = 3

n=3

6.04 eV n = 2

3.4 eV

DE = 10.2 eV

DE = 10.2 eV

n=2

13.6 eV

n = 1 H atom 13.6 eV

n=1

54.4

eV

He+

Z=2

From energy level diagram of He atom we can see

that transition from n = 4 to n = 3, energy of photon

released will lie between E1 and E2.

DE43 = 3.4 ( 6.04) = 2.64 eV

Wavelength of photon corresponding to this energy,

12420

= 4.7 107 m

l=

2.64

12. (a)

13. (a) : Magnetic field at any point on Amperes loop

can be due to all currents passing through inside

or outside the loop. But net contribution in the left

hand side will come from inside current only.

14. (d) : For r < a, current passing through within the

cylinder of radius r is given by

r

r

r

kpr 4

2

I = JdA = kr 2prdr = 2pk r 3dr =

2

0

0

0

Now using Amperes law,

m k pr 4

m kr 3

B 2pr = m0I = 0

B= 0

4

2

15. (a)

65

Class XII

extent of understanding of specified chapters. Give yourself four

marks for correct answer and deduct one mark for wrong answer.

Self check table given at the end will help you to check your

readiness.

Optics

NEET / AIIMS / PMTs

equation x = 3. A particle is moving along a line

with direction ratios 3, 4, 5. If speed of the particle

is 2 , the velocity of its image is

3 4

3 4

1

(a) i + j + k

(b) i j k

5 5

5 5

5

(c)

3 4

(d) i + j + k

5 5

3 4 1

i+ j k

5 5

5

path POQ across two media of refractive indices

3

4

m1 = and m2 = (PR = a, RS = b, RO = x , SQ = y )?

2

3

P

1

2

Q

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

66

8 a 2 + x 2 + 9 b2 + y 2

6

3 a2 + x 2 + 8(b2 + ( y x )2 )

6

3 a 2 + b2 + x 2 + y 2 4 b2 + y 2

3

9 a2 + x 2 + 8 b2 + ( y x )2

6

Physics For you | december 16

Liquid

3. The effective focal length of the lens

combination shown in the figure

is 60 cm. The radii of curvature

of the curved surfaces of the planoconvex lenses are 12 cm each and

refractive index of the material of

3

the lens is . The refractive index

3

2

of the liquid is

2

3

5

8

4

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

3

5

3

4. A light ray is travelling between two media as given

below. The angle of incidence on the boundary in

all the cases is 30. Identify the correct sequence of

increasing order of angles of refraction.

(1) Air to water

(2) Water to glass

(3) Glass to water

(Refractive indices of glass and water are respectively

3

4

and )

2

3

(a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 2, 3, 1 (c) 3, 1, 2 (d) 1, 3, 2

5. Two coherent monochromatic light sources are

located at two vertices of an equilateral triangle. If the

intensity due to each of the sources independently

is 1 W m2, then the resultant intensity (in W m2)

due to both the sources at third vertex will be

(a) zero

(b) 2

(c) 2

(d) 4

6. Image of an object at infinity is formed by a convex

lens of focal length 30 cm such that the size of the

image is 2 cm. If a concave lens of focal length

20 cm is placed in between the convex lens and the

image, at a distance 26 cm from the convex lens, the

size of the new image is

7. A rainbow is formed when a ray of sunlight passes

through a spherical raindrop. Then the total angle

through which the ray deviates is (i and r denote the

angles of incidence and of refraction respectively)

(a) 2i 4r

(b) p + 2i 4r

(c) 2(i r)

(d) 2(p + i 2r)

8. The velocities of light in two different media are

2 108 m s1 and 2.5 108 m s1 respectively.

The critical angle for these media is

1 1

1 4

(a) sin

(b) sin

5

5

1

(c) sin 1

2

1

(d) sin 1

4

is n times the focal length of the lens. The linear

magnification produced by the lens will be

1

1

(a) n

(b)

(c) n + 1 (d)

n

(n + 1)

10. An unpolarized light is travelling along z-axis

through three polarizing sheets. The polarizing

directions of the first and the third sheet are

respectively parallel to x-axis and y-axis whereas

that of the second one is at 60 to the y-axis. Then,

the fraction of the initial light intensity that emerges

from the system is about

(a) zero

(b) 0.093 (c) 0.031 (d) 0.28

11. An image is formed at a distance of 100 cm from

the glass surface when light from point source in

air falls on a spherical glass surface with refractive

index 1.5. The distance of the light source from the

glass surface is 100 cm. The radius of curvature is

(a) 20 cm (b) 40 cm (c) 30 cm (d) 50 cm

12. A microscope consists of an objective of focal

length 2 cm and eyepiece of focal length 5 cm.

The two lenses are kept at a distance of 10.5 cm.

If the image is to be formed at the least distance of

distinct vision, the distance at which the object is to

be placed before the objective is

(Least distance of distinct vision is 25 cm)

(a) 1.9 cm (b) 2.9 cm (b) 3.9 cm (d) 4.9 cm

Assertion & Reason Type

assertion is followed by a statement of reason. Mark the

correct choice as :

(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the

correct explanation of assertion.

(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not

the correct explanation of assertion.

(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.

(d) If both assertion and reason are false.

13. Assertion : If objective and eye lenses of a

microscope are interchanged, then it can work as

telescope.

Reason : The objective lens of telescope has small

focal length.

14. Assertion : Blue colour of the sky is due to scattering

of blue light.

Reason : Blue colour has the shortest wavelength in

the visible spectrum.

15. Assertion : Coloured spectrum is seen when we

look through a muslin cloth.

Reason : It is due to diffraction of white light on

passing through fine slits.

JEE MAIN / JEE AdvANcEd / PETs

screen. A second lens with focal length f cm is placed

between the screen and the first lens at a distance

of 10 cm from the screen. To view the image,

the screen has to be shifted away from the lens by

5 cm. A third lens having focal length of the same

magnitude f cm is used to replace the second lens at

the same position. But this time to view the image,

the screen has to be shifted towards the lens by

d cm. The value of f and d respectively, are

(a) 30 cm, 2.5 cm

(b) 30 cm, 5 cm

(c) 7.5 cm, 2.5 cm

(d) 7.5 cm, 5 cm

17. The angle of refraction of a very thin prism is

1. A light ray is incident normally on one of the

refracting surfaces. The ray that ultimately emerges

from the first surface, after suffering reflection from

the second surface makes an angle of 3.32 with the

normal. The deviation of the ray emerging from

the second surface and the refractive index of the

material of the prism respectively are

(a) 0.66, 1.66

(b) 1.66, 1.5

(c) 1.5, 1.66

(d) 0.66, 15

18.

P

S

4

3

3

2

4

3

3

is immersed in a liquid having refractive

index

2

Physics For you | december 16

67

4

. A ray of light is incident at the edge PQ of

3

the slab as shown in figure. What is the sine of angle

of incidence i such that the ray comes out from the

slab as shown in figure?

1

4

17

8

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

8

9

17

19. In Youngs double slit experiment, one of the slits

is wider than the other, so that the amplitude of

the light from one slit is double that from the other

slit. If Im be the maximum intensity, the resultant

intensity when they interfere at phase difference f

is given by

I

I

f

f

(a) m 1 + 2 cos2 (b) m 1 + 2 cos2

9

3

2

2

index

(c)

Im

5

2 f

1 + 4 cos

2

(d)

Im

9

2 f

1 + 8 cos

2

D. A convex lens of focal length f such that 4f < D,

is moved between the object and the screen to get

two sharp images. If the two positions of the lens

are separated by a distance L, then

(a) L is equal to D(D 4 f ).

(b) object distance in one position is numerically

equal to image distance in the other position.

(D L )

(c) the ratio of sizes of the two images is

.

(D + L )

(d) the ratio of sizes of the two image is

(D L)2

(D + L)2

l1 = 400 nm and l2 = 600 nm, is used in a Youngs

double slit experiment. If recorded fringe widths for

l1 and l2 are b1 and b2 and the number of fringes

for them within a distance y on one side of the

central maximum are n1 and n2, respectively, then

(a) b2 > b1

(b) n1 > n2

(c) from the central maximum, 3rd maximum of l2

overlaps with 5th minimum of l1.

(d) the angular separation of fringes for l1 is greater

than l2.

22. A transparent thin film of uniform thickness and

refractive index m1 = 1.4 is coated on the convex

spherical surface of radius R at one end of a long

solid glass cylinder of refractive index m2 = 1.5, as

shown in the figure. Rays of light parallel to the axis

68

air to glass get focused at distance f1 from the film,

while rays of light traversing from glass to air get

focused at distance f2 from the film. Then

1

(a) |f1| = 3R

(b) |f1| = 2.8R

2

Air

(c) |f2| = 2R

(d) |f2| = 1.4R

23. Consider three

1

converging lenses

L1, L2 and L3

O

O1

O2

2

having identical

geometrical

L3

construction. The refractive indices of L1 and L2 are

m1 and m2 respectively. The upper half of the lens L3

has a refractive index m1 and the lower half has m2.

A point object O is imaged at O1 by the lens L1 and

at O2 by the lens L2 placed in same position. If L3 is

placed at the same place,

(a) there will be an image at O1.

(b) there will be an image at O2.

(c) the only image will form somewhere between

O1 and O2.

(d) the only image will form away from O2.

Integer Answer Type

24. The focal length of a thin biconvex lens is 20 cm.

When an object is moved from a distance of 25 cm

in front of it to 50 cm, the magnification of its image

changes from m25 to m50. The ratio m25/m50 is

25. In Youngs double silt experiment, two slits act as

coherent sources of equal amplitude a and same

wavelength l. In another experiment with the same

set up, the same two slits are incoherent. The ratio

of intensity of light at the middle point of the screen

in the first case to that in second case is

26. Image of an object approaching a convex mirror

of radius of curvature 20 m along its optical axis

25

50

is observed to move from

m to

m in 30 s.

3

7

The speed of the object in km h1 is

Comprehension Type

A prism of refractive index m1 and another prism of

refractive index m2 are stuck together without a gap

as shown in the figure. The angles of the prisms are

as shown. Refractive indices m1 and m2 depends on

wavelength l as follows :

10.8 104

1.80 104

m1 = 1.20 +

and

m

=

1

.

45

+

2

l2

l2

where l is in nm.

D

C

60

70

1

40

angle on the interface BC pass through without

bending at the interface is

(a) 500 nm (b) 600 nm (c) 650 nm (d) 700 nm

28. For light of wavelength l0, the angle of incidence on

the face AC such that the deviation produced by the

combination of the prisms is minimum will be

(a) 30

(b) 45

3

1

(c) sin

(d) sin 1 4

4

3

Matrix Match Type

29. Four combinations of two thin lenses are given

in column I. The radius of curvature of all curved

surfaces is R and the refractive index of all the

lenses is 1.5. Match lens combinations in column I

with their focal length in column II.

Column I

Column II

(P) 2R

(A)

R

2

(B)

(Q)

(C)

(R) R

(D)

(S) R

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

A

P

Q

S

Q

B

Q

S

P

P

C

R

R

Q

R

y

30. A

monochromatic

S2

parallel beam of light

of wavelength l is

x

O

incident normally on

S1

Screen

the plane containing

D

slits S1 and S2. The slits are of unequal widths

such that intensity only due to one slit on screen

is four times that only due to the other slit. The

screen is placed along y-axis as shown in figure.

The distance between slits is d and that between

the screen and slits is D. Match the statement in

column I with results in column II.

Column I

Column II

D

S

P

R

S

points on the screen having

equal intensities, such that

intensity at those points is

1

th of maximum intensity.

9

(B) The distance between two (Q)

points on the screen having

equal intensities, such that

intensity at those points is

3

th of maximum intensity.

9

(C) The distance between two (R)

points on the screen having

equal intensities, such that

intensity at those points is

5

th of maximum intensity.

9

(D) The distance between two (S)

points on the screen having

equal intensities, such that

intensity at those point is

7

th of maximum intensity.

9

A

B

C

(a) P, Q, R, S Q, R, S

P, Q, R, S

(b) P, R, S

P, Q, R, S Q, R, S

(c) Q, R, S

P, Q, R, S Q, R, S

(d) P, Q, R

P, Q, R, S Q, R, S,

Dl

3d

Dl

d

2Dl

d

3Dl

d

D

P, R, S

P, Q, R, S

P, Q, R, S

P, Q, R

> 90%

ExcEllEnt work !

90-75%

Good work !

74-60%

satisFactory !

< 60%

69

PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment

the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / NEET / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who

send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

density . A particle of mass m and charge q is

released at a distance r from the wire. The speed of

the particle as it crosses a point at distance 2r from

the wire is

(a)

q ln r

m0

(b)

q ln 2

m0

(c)

q ln 2

2 m0

(d)

2q ln r

.

m0

radius a and 3a with uniformly distributed charge

Q and 8Q respectively, fixed in yz plane with

center at origin.

A particle of small positive

charge q and mass m is

at origin as shown in

the figure then which of

the following statements

is/are correct ?

(Neglect gravity)

(a) If the particle is given a small push along

x-axis then it performs oscillatory motion of

time period, T = 12

33a3m0

.

19qQ

x-axis then it performs oscillatory motion of

time period, T = 12

73a3m0

.

19qQ

it performs oscillatory motion then amplitude

7

of oscillation must be less than

a.

3

(d) If the particle is given a velocity along x-axis and

it performs oscillatory motion then amplitude

5

of oscillation must be less than

a.

3

3. To measure velocity of sound wave in air, a student

performs air resonance column experiment with

a tuning fork of frequency 500 Hz. He records

length of air column for first three resonances.

First and third resonance lengths are 15.6 cm and

82.8 cm but second resonance length is not clearly

readable because of his casual writing. Then,

(a) velocity of sound wave is 336 m s1

(b) velocity of sound wave is 342 m s1

(c) second resonance length is 49.2 cm

(d) second resonance length is 46.8 cm.

4. A solid sphere of mass M and radius R is lying

on a rough horizontal plane. A constant force

F = 4Mg acts vertically downwards at point P

such that OP makes 60 with horizontal. Find the

minimum value of coefficient of friction m so that

sphere does pure rolling.

3

(a)

F = 4Mg

7

P

4

(b)

60

7

O

2

(c)

7

2

(d)

5

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for Jee main & Advanced, Professor, IITians PAce, mumbai.

70

at point A about which it can rotate freely. The rod

is kept horizontally by means of a vertical string as

shown. A small block is placed at other end B of the

rod. Now string is cut, then

block M and end B of the rod is g/2.

(b) just after cutting relative acceleration between

block m and end B of the rod is zero.

(c) tension in the rod at its mid point when the rod

9Mg

becomes vertical is

.

8

(d) tension in the rod at its mid point when the rod

3 Mg

becomes vertical is

.

4

6. A solid conducting sphere of radius R is initially

uncharged. Charge Q is brought from infinity to

point A which is at distance 2R from centre of the

sphere. B and D are points on sphere as shown in

figure and switch S is initially opened.

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

sphere to ground.

7. A spherical ball of mass m moving with initial

velocity v collides elastically with another ball of

mass m, which is fixed at one end of L shaped rigid

massless frame as shown in figure. The L shaped

frame contains another mass m connected at the

other end. The speed of the striking mass after

collision is

v

(a)

backwards

2

(b) v in same direction

5

v

(c)

in same direction

3

v

(d)

backwards.

7

integer ansWer tyPe

8. Two factories are sounding their sirens at 400 Hz

each. A man goes from one factory to the other at a

speed of 2 m s1. The velocity of sound is 320 m s1.

Therefore what will be the number of beats heard by

the person in one second ?

9. Where should a convex lens of focal length 9 cm

be placed (in cm) from nearest source between two

point sources S1 and S2 which are 24 cm apart, so

that the images of both sources are formed at the

same place?

10. A system consist of a uniformly charged sphere

and surrounding medium is filled by charge with

a

volume charge density = ; where a is a positive

r

constant and r is distance from centre of the sphere.

VD

5

; where VB and VD are potential

=

VB 2 5

at B and D respectively due to induced charge

on the sphere.

Q 1 1

(b) VB VD =

; where V B and

40R 2

5

VD are potential at B and D respectively due to

induced charge on the sphere.

Q

(c) If switch is closed then charge

flows from

2

sphere to ground.

3a

then m =?

constant and given by E =

m0

(a)

MPP-6 CLASS XI

1.

6.

11.

16.

21.

26.

(c)

(c)

(a)

(d)

(a,d)

(4)

2.

7.

12.

17.

22.

27.

(b)

(c)

(c)

(a)

(a,b)

(a)

3.

8.

13.

18.

23.

28.

ANSWER

KEY

4.

9.

14.

19.

24.

29.

5.

10.

15.

20.

25.

30.

(d)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(a,b,d)

(d)

(a)

(c)

(a)

(d)

(8)

(d)

(c)

(b)

(c)

(a,c,d)

(9)

(c)

71

ON

R-C Circuit

Er. Sandip Prasad

Initial state

initial state. In this state, current in the circuit i is

maximum because there is no potential difference

across capacitor to oppose the applied voltage, i.e., it

behaves like being short circuited. If you wish to find

initial current, short the terminals of the capacitor.

Hence at t = 0 the circuit can be redraw as shown in

the figure.

C

VR =

VC = 0

im

im =

Transient state

R

+q C q

gradually so does instantaneous

VR

VC

voltage across resistance,

i

VR also decreases gradually,

but instantaneous voltage

gradually till it reaches at its

maximum value or steady state value . Although VR and

VC are variable, their algebraic summation at any instant

always equal to , i.e., at any time t, = VR + VC .

Final state (Steady state)

gradually and it becomes zero at final state or steady

state, hence at steady state condition, the circuit appears

as an open circuit (i = 0), which implies VR = 0 and

VC = . At this state capacitor gets completely charged

and the value of charge becomes maximum and its

maximum value is q0 = C.

+q0 C q0

VC =

VR = 0

charging of capacitor

e C

Consider a circuit in which a

R

+

resistor of resistance R is

A B

connected in series with a

i

capacitor of capacitance C,

the combination is connected

K

across a battery of emf .

to plate B as shown in the figure. The voltage across

capacitor rise to exponentially and not linearly.

Charging current i is maximum at the start, i.e., when

capacitor is uncharged, then it decreases exponentially

and finally ceases when potential difference across

capacitor plate becomes equal and opposite to the

battery voltage. Hence as charge q on capacitor increases,

current i in the circuit decreases. In other words, as

the time passes, potential difference across resistor

(V R) decreases and difference across the capacitor

(VC) increases.

Whenever a R-C circuit connected with a DC source,

goes from initial state to final state (steady state

condition), it passes through a transient state which is

of short duration. In fact transient state lies in between

initial state and final state (steady state condition).

i=0

state

R

+q

i

K

As, V = 0

dq

q

q

\ + iR = 0; = R +

dt

C

C

1

dq

q dq

= R; dt =

q

R

C dt

Sandip Physics Classes, Girish Park-1/1 Shiv Krishna Daw Lane, Kolkata-700007

72

dq

i =

dt

q

t

dq

1

=

q R dt

0

0

C

q

1

1

q

ln

= t

1 / C C 0 R

q

RC ln ln( 0) = t

C

q

q

C = e t /RC

C=

ln

;

RC

q

q

= e t /RC ; e t /RC =

C

C

q

t / RC

t / RC

)

(1 e

) = ; q = C (1 e

C

q = q0 (1 et/)

Here, q0 = C is the maximum charge on the capacitor

and = RC is time constant of the circuit.

At t = , q = q0(1 e1) = 0.63q0

Hence, time constant is defined as the time in which

charge in the capacitor grows to 63% of its maximum

value.

dq d

Now, i =

= [C(1 e t /RC )] = e t /RC

dt dt

R

i = i0 et/

R

Important points

Charge on the capacitor at time t is,

q = q0 (1 et/RC)

q0 is the maximum charge on the capacitor, i.e.,

charge on the capacitor at steady state.

\ q0 = C, where is the emf of the cell applied

to the circuit.

Here, = RC is the time constant of the R-C circuit.

Its unit is second.

Hence, charge at time t becomes,

q = q0(1 et/)

We know that charge in the circuit at time t is,

q = q0(1 et/)

If t = , i.e., after one time constant, charge in the

circuit is,

\ q = q0(1 e / )

1

= q0(1 e 1) = q0 1

e

\ q = 0.632 q0

defined as the time during which charge on the

capacitor actually rises from zero to 0.632 of its

final steady value (maximum value) of the charge.

It means after one time constant, 63% of total

charge is accumulated on the capacitor.

As, q = q0(1 et/)

At t = 0, q = q0(1 e0) = q0(1 1)

\ q=0

Hence at t = 0, capacitor can be treated as short

circuit, i.e., capacitor provides zero resistance.

At t = ,

1

1

q = q0(1 e) = q0 1

= q0 1

\ q = q0

Hence t = , i = 0, i.e., capacitor acts as an open

circuit.

Just at the start of the charging, charge on the

capacitor is zero. As, charging continues, charge

on the capacitor changes according to the equation

q = q0(1 et/). It becomes maximum (q0) when

t = , though it is almost charged to this value in

about five time constants (5).

As, q = q0(1 et/)

Graph showing the

variation of charge q

with time t

As, i = i0et/

Here, i0 = = imax

R

If t = ,

i = i0e / = i0e 1

C

0.632C

O t=

i

i0

i = 0.37i0

Graph showing the 0.37 i

0

variation of current i

O

with time t

Voltage across resistance at time t,

VR = iR = i0 Ret/

VR

VR = e t / i0 =

variation of voltage

0.37

across resistance VR

O

with time t

Voltage across capacitor at time t,

VC =

q q0(1 e t / ) C

= (1 e t / )

=

C

C

C

Physics For you | december 16

73

Important points

VC

\ VC = (1 e t / )

Graph showing the variation

of voltage across capacitor

VC with time t

0.632

O

t=

Heat dissipated:

By energy conservation,

Heat dissipated = work done by cell Ucapacitor

1

1

= C() C2 0 = C2

2

2

Alternatively:

Heat = H = i 2Rdt

0

R2

2t

e RC Rdt

2 2t /RC

dt

e

R 0

2t

2RC RC

2C

e 0 =

=

2R

2

Discharging of capacitor

In the previous case, suppose battery

is shorted after the capacitor is fully

charged and the capacitor is allowed

to discharge through a resistor or

+C

K

R

through a resistor.

Suppose the key is closed at t = 0, let q be the charge

on the capacitor and i be the current in the circuit at

any instant of time.

By Kirchhoff s voltage law,

q

iR = 0

C

dq

But i =

dt

Negative sign indicates that charge on the capacitor

is decreasing.

dq q

q

dq

=

\

+ R = 0;

dt RC

C

dt

q

dq

1

dq

1 t

=

dt ;

=

dt

q

RC

q

RC

q0

0

q

1

ln =

t ; q = q0e t /RC

q0

RC

dq

Again, i = = e t / = i0e t /

dt R

74

q = q0 et/RC

q0 is the initial charge on the capacitor, i.e., charge

on the capacitor at t = 0.

Here, = RC is the time constant of the R-C circuit.

Its unit is second.

Hence, charge at time t becomes,

As, q = q0 et/RC

We know that charge in the circuit at time t,

q = q0 et/

If t = , i.e., after one time constant, charge in the

circuit is,

\ q = q0 e/; q = q0 e1 = 0.37 q0

Hence, the time constant of an R-C circuit is defined

as the time during which charge on the capacitor

falls to 0.37 of its initial value (maximum value)

of the charge. Time constant can also be defined

as the time in which charge on the capacitor falls

to 37% of its maximum value during discharging

process.

As, q = q0 et/

At t = 0, q = q0 e0 = q0

\ q = q0

At t = ,

1

1

q = q0e = q0 = q0

e

\ q=0

Just at the start of the charging, charge on the

capacitor is maximum and equal to q0. As,

discharging continues, charge on the capacitor

changes according to the equation q = q0 et/.

It becomes zero when t = , though it is almost

discharged to zero in about five time constants (5).

Graph showing the variation of charge q with

time t

q

q0

0.37 q0

O

As, q = q0(et/)

And i =

dq i = q0 (e t / )

;

()

dt

q

\ i = 0 (e t / )

or i = i0e t /

q i1R

+

R=0

2R

C

2q

2q

2i1R + i1R = 0 ; 3i1R =

C

C

dq

Again, we know that i1 =

dt

dq

1

dq

2q

=

dt

\ 3 R=

2q 3R

dt

C

C

Integrating both sides,

\ i1R

i

i0

0.37 i0

q

VR = iR = 0 Re t /

VR

VR = e t / ( q0 = C)

0.37

variation of voltage

across resistance VR

with time t

Voltage across capacitor at time t,

q e t / C t /

q

e

= 0

=

C

C

C

VC

\ VC = et/

Graph showing the

variation of voltage

across capacitor VC

0.37

with time t

As, VC =

is uncharged, find the charge

on the capacitor as a function

of time, if switch is closed at

t = 0.

Soln.: Method-I:

By applying KVL

in loop (1)

As, S V = 0

\ + iR i2R = 0 ... (i)

By applying KVL in loop (2)

As, S V = 0

R

R

R

i

R

t

1

dq

=

dt

2q

3R

0

0

C

q

1 2q

1

ln = t

2 / C

C 0 3R

2q

C = 2t

ln

3RC

2q

C = e 2t /3RC ; 2q = e 2t /3RC

C

2q

2t /3RC 2q

e

= ; (1 e 2t /3RC ) =

C

C

C

2t /3RC

q = (1 e

)

2

Method-II: Another method can be used to find

the charge on the capacitor of R-C circuit as a

function of time. Before going to the method-II,

we need to learn a very important concept related

to electrical circuit or network. This concept is not

only used to solve the problems of R-C circuit but

you can apply it any type of electrical circuit.

r1

Consider the circuit as

shown in figure.

r2

B

to a single source of battery

r3

formula : Equivalent emf,

1 2 3

r + r + r

2

3

eq = VA VB = 1

1 1 1

r + r + r

1

2

3

Where, 1, 2 and 3 are the net emf of the branches

1, 2 and 3 respectively and r1, r2 and r3 are the net

resistances respectively.

Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be

given by following formula,

1 1 1 1

= + +

req r1 r2 r3

2

1

i1

i2

i

K

q

... (ii)

\ i1R + i2R = 0

C

Hence from both the equations, we can write an

expression in terms of i1.

From equation (i)

(i1 + i2)R i2R = 0

i1R 2i2R = 0

i1R

... (iii)

\ i2 =

2R

From equations (ii) and (iii)

75

an equivalent battery, where 1 = 3 V, 2 = 2 V,

3 = 1 V and r1 = r2 = r3 = 1 W.

Equivalent emf of the battery can be written as,

+3 2 +1

+

+

1

1

1 =2 V

eq = VA VB =

1 1 1

3

+ +

1 1 1

Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be

given by following formula,

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

= + + =

= + + \ req = 3 W

req r1 r2 r3 req 1 1 1

Hence the given network becomes as a single

2

source of voltage

V and having an internal

3

resistance 3 W.

r1

3V

r2

2V

r3

B = A

req

eq =

1V

2

V

3

it is easier to convert the R-C circuit having a number

of parallel branches into a R-C circuit of single voltage

source with a series resistance. It makes the solution of

complicated networks quite quick and easy.

Steps for converting an electrical circuit between two

terminals into a single battery:

containing capacitor and redraw the remaining circuit.

The remaining circuit has a number of parallel branches

containing voltage source (battery) and resistance.

R

B

B

equivalent battery, apply the following formula :

Equivalent emf,

1 2 3

r + r + r

2

3

eq = VA VB = 1

1 1 1

r + r + r

1

2

3

76

given by following formula,

1 1 1 1

A

B

= + +

1

R

req r1 r2 r3

Here there are two parallel

branches 1 and 2 in between R

K

2

the terminals A and B. So,

0 +

+

eq = VA VB = R R =

1 1 2

+

R R

Internal resistance of the equivalent battery can be

given by following formula,

1 1 1

1 1

R

= +

\ req = .

= +

req r1 r2 R R

2

Here req is the resistance between the terminal A and

B, i.e., it is considered as the internal resistance of the

equivalent battery.

B

req = R

2

eq =

2

connected back across from where it was temporarily

removed earlier. From this arrangement we get an R-C

circuit containing a single source.

R

R

R

B

req = R

2

eq =

2

of capacitor takes place, in this case the value of charge

at any time t is given by

q = q0(1 et/)

Here, q0 = the maximum charge on the capacitor, i.e.,

2

2

3R

\ = C

2

Hence the equation of charge is given by,

C

q = (1 e 2t /3RC )

2

To be continued in next issue

OLYMPIAD

PROBLEMS

1. A heavy particle is tied to the end A of a string of

length 1.6 m. Its other end O is fixed. It revolves as a

conical pendulum with the string making 60 with

the vertical. Which of the following statements is

incorrect ?

4

(a) Its period of revolution is

s.

7

(b) The tension in the string is double the weight of

the particle.

(c) The velocity of the particle is 2.8 m s1.

(d) The centripetal acceleration of the particle is

10 m s2.

2. The gravitational potential changes uniformly from

20 J kg1 to 40 J kg1 as one moves along x-axis

from x = 1 m to x = +1 m. Mark the incorrect

statement about gravitational field intensity at the

origin.

(a) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 must be

equal to 10 N kg1.

(b) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 may be

equal to 10 N kg1.

(c) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 may be

greater than 10 N kg1.

(d) The gravitational field intensity at x = 0 must

not be less than 10 N kg1.

3. A uniform magnetic field of

induction B fills a cylindrical volume

of radius R. A rod AB of length 2l

is placed as shown in figure. If B is

changing at the rate of dB/dt, the emf that is

produced by the changing magnetic field between

the ends of the rod is

dB

dB

l R2 l 2

(a)

(b)

l R2 + l 2

dt

dt

1 dB

1 dB

2

2

l R l

l R2 + l 2

(c)

(d)

2 dt

2 dt

4. A monochromatic beam of light of 6000 is used in

Youngs double slit experiment set-up. The two slits

are covered with two thin films of equal thickness

78

figure. Considering the intensity of the incident

beam on the slits to be I0, find the distance on the

screen from central maxima at which intensity is I0

(Assume that there is no change in intensity of the

light after passing through the films.)

S1

1 =

3

2

S2

2 =

4

3

Screen

d and D have their usual meaning.

(a) 20 mm

(b) 30 mm

(c) 25 mm

(d) 15 mm

5. A man of mass m on an initially stationary boat

gets off the boat by leaping to the left in an exactly

horizontal direction. Immediately after the leap, the

boat of mass M, is observed to be moving to the

right at speed v. Then,

1

(a) work done by the man on boat is mv 2

2

(b) increase in the mechanical energy of the system

1 M2

+ M v2

of man and boat is

2 m

(c) velocity of centre of mass of system is v

(d) increase in kinetic energy of man is

M2 2

v .

m

L

6. A rod of mass m, uniform

x

cross sectional area A and

F

length L is accelerated by

Smooth

applying force F as shown in

figure on a smooth surface. Youngs modulus of

elasticity of the material of rod is Y. Which of the

measured from the right end.)

(a) Tension in rod as a function of distance x is

Fx

.

2L

F

(b) Strain in rod is

.

AY

(c) Elastic potential energy stored in the rod is

F 2L

.

6AY

(d) There is no stress in rod.

of the internal energy U

A

C

with density r of one mole

of an ideal monatomic

B

(kg m3)

gas for a thermodynamic

cycle ABCA. Here process AB is a part of rectangular

hyperbola. Then,

(a) process AB is isothermal and net work in the

cycle is done by gas

(b) process AB is isobaric and net work in the cycle

is done by gas

(c) process AB is isobaric and net work in the cycle

is done on the gas

(d) process AB is adiabatic and net work in the

cycle is done by gas.

8. A homogeneous rod AB of length L = 1.8 m and

mass M is pivoted at the centre O in such a way that

it can rotate freely in the vertical plane as shown in

figure. The rod is initially in the horizontal position.

An insect S of the same mass M falls vertically with

speed v on the point C, midway between the points

O and B. Immediately after falling, the insect moves

towards the end B such that the rod rotates with a

constant angular velocity. If the insect reaches the

end B when the rod has turned through an angle of

90, then the value of v will be

S

(a) 3.5 m s1

(c) 10 m s1

L

2

L

4

L

4

(b) 7 m s1

(d) 1.5 m s1

ion (He+) in its ground state and excites to a higher

level. After the collision, He+ ion emits two photons

The principal quantum number of the excited state

is

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 5

(d) 7

10. A

right

angled

triangular loop as a

v

v

a

shown in figure enters

a

a

uniform

magnetic

x

field (at right angle to

a

0

2a

3a

the boundary of the

field) directed into the paper at constant velocity.

Draw the graph between induced emf e and the

distance along the perpendicular to the boundary

of the field, (say x) along which loop moves.

(a)

a 2a 3a

(b)

a 2a 3a

(c)

a 2a 3a

(d)

2a 3a

1

R A

A P S E R A T E

A

O B O S

7

P I T O T T U B

M

U

11

P O L A R I

12

S

F

C

E

15

14

R

L A M

P

L

U

R

U C A U L T P E N

N

S

E

T

23

22

S

I

R

D

R

H

E

Y

F

A

P

I

F

I

C

A G E

N

E

C

27

G R A V I

T

D I O L Y S I S

M I C R O W A V

6

B

8

U

B

E

F

A

R

F

R

S C O P E

R

E

T

B D A P O I N T

E

17

D U L U M

R

19

I

P

C

A

24

A S T E R S C A

O

H

T

G

M

Y

R

O

M

26

E

M

A

F

V

E

A

T

I

E

T O N

R

E

I

T

28

29

Y

N

I S O B A R F L A S H O V E R

H

3

L

E

5

P H

A

T

9

J

D

10

Z E T T A

N

A

T

S

H

K

13

Y

H

N

I

16

G

F O

18

A

G

I

C

S

S

21

B S O N E

U

O

S

S

T

O

25

N L I N K

C

S

20

I

N

T

E

R

F

A

C

E

Jyoti rathour, Haldwani

Santoshi Rawat, Delhi

79

At extreme position the velocity

of the ball is zero, thus normal

l cos

ve2

acceleration an =

= 0, and

l

h

tangential acceleration at = g sinq.

g sin

\ Total acceleration at extreme

position ae = g sinq

At mean position, the velocity of the ball

solution set-40

Mass

M

M

s=

=

=

Area p (4 R)2 (3R)2

7 pR2

P

x and thickness dx as

4R

shown in the figure.

Mass of the ring,

3R

dx

dM = s2pxdx

4R

x

2pMxdx

=

7 pR2

Potential at point P due to annular disc is

VP =

4R

GdM

GM 2p 4 R

2

18 1.8 10 5 2 10 3

4 900 9.8

3

r = 10 5 m

7

4 pr 3g

From equation (i), we get q =

3E

Substituting the given values, we get

xdx

r2 =

6rvT

v2

The normal acceleration at this position, an = m

l

2 g (l l cos q)

=

= 2 g (1 cos q)

l

and tangential acceleration at = g sin q = g sin0 = 0

Thus total acceleration at mean position

am = 2g (1 cos q)

According to given condition, we have

ae = am g sin q = 2g (1 cos q)

q 1

1

tan = q = 2 tan 1

2 2

2

4. (c) : Let n number of men are required for the

block to just start moving up the plane

nF = mg sin q + f

nF

= mg [sin q + ms cos q]

1

or n =

mg

200 10 3

2 2 500

A

5. (b) : Q = T

A 4

T = Q A 4 = 5.5 216 = 5.4 MeV

A

220

6. (c) : Impulse = change in momentum Dp = 50 N s

and Dp = p 0 \ p = 50 N s

Velocity along vertical direction

p sin60

= 25 3 m s 1

m

Velocity along horizontal direction,

p cos60

vH =

= 25 m s 1

m

Since, the impulse is applied tangentially, the ball will

take parabolic path.

vV =

4 p 10 5 900 9.8

7

q=

= 8 1019 C

81p

5

3

10

7

80

g g cos

vm = 2 gh = 2 g (l l cosq )

7 pR 3R 16R2 + x 2

(4 R)2 + (x )2

Solving, we get, VP = 2GM 4 2 5

7R

Work done in moving a unit mass from P to

2GM

(4 2 5)

= V VP =

7R

2. (d) : In presence of electric field, in equilibrium,

Force on the drop due to electric = Weight of the drop

field(E),

4

...(i)

qE = mg = pr 3g

3

In the absence of electric field, drop acquires equilibrium.

So, Viscous force on the drop = Weight of the drop

4 3

...(ii)

6phrvT = mg = pr g

3

2 18 h vT

or r =

4 g

Substituting the given values, we get

3R

Time of flight, T =

vessel.

2vV

= 5 3s

g

L rp

50 0.2 5

=

Also, w = =

= 625 rad s1

I 2 2 2 1 (0.2)2

mr

5

w 625

=

As 2pu = w \ u =

2p 2p

Now, total number of rotation during the time of flight

3125 3

= u T =

2p

V

Q

7. (i) VA = VB = V, E =

and V =

d

C

2Q

e = 2V =

...(i)

C

Q Q

Q

(ii) VA =

=

; VB =

C K C

C

Q

1

...(ii)

Hence e =

1+

C K

From (i) and (ii), we get

2K

Q =

Q , since K > 1, Q > Q

1+ K

2K

2

VA =

V and VB =

V

1+ K

1+ K

V

2V

Electric field E A = A =

d (1 + K )d

VB

2KV

EB =

=

d (1 + K )d

Change in electric fields

2V

V V 1 K

DE A = E A E =

=

(1 + K )d d

d 1 + K

2KV

V

V K 1

DEB = EB E =

=

(1 + K )d d

d K + 1

The amount of charge that flows into the circuit

2K

1 K 1

DQ = Q Q =

1 Q =

Ce

2 K + 1

1+ K

8. According to gas equation, PV = nRT

\ n=

PV

6

(1.6 10 ) 0.0083

16

8.3 300

3

3R

5R

CP CV = R \

CV = R or CV =

2

2

\

RT

dT =

2.49 10 4 3 2

16 3 8.3

= 375 K

P1V

T1

P2V

or

T2

P2 = P1

or P2 = 3.6 106 N m2

T2

T1

(1.6

106 ) 675

300

motion. The components of its acceleration are;

0. 9

ax =

= 1.80 m s 2 and a y = 0

0. 5

when the sphere crosses the y-axis, its displacement

component along x-axis is zero.

ay = 0

ax = 1.8 m s2

30

1

1

0 = ux t + ax t 2 = 3 sin 30 t (1.8)t 2 or t = 1.66 sec

2

2

10. Let Mmix be the molecular weight of the mixture.

m

m

m1 + m2 = 1 + 2 M mix

M1 M2

As v1 =

...(i)

RT

RT

or M1 = 2

M1

v1

RT

RT

or M2 = 2

M2

v2

RT

Similarly, Mmix =

v2

m + m2

From (i), Mmix = 1

m1 m2

+

M1 M2

m1 + m2

m1v12 + m2v22

RT

or

=

v=

m1 + m2

v2

m1v12 m2v22

+

RT

RT

and v2 =

Set-40

1. Nikita Pandey, Dehradun (Uttrakhand)

2. Jisha Nair, Kota (rajasthan)

3. Sabhya Sanchi, Asansol (West bengal)

Physics For you | December 16

81

CLASS XI Series 6

CBSE

Dp

=

= nmv 2x A

Dt

2

Force nmv x A

Pressure on the wall =

=

Area

A

or P = nmvx2

As the molecules move with different velocities, so

we replace vx2 by its average value v x2 in the above

equation.

\ P = nmv x2

Again, the gas is isotropic. So the molecular

velocities are almost equally distributed in different

directions. By symmetry,

v x2 = v y2 = vz2 =

1 2

1 2

v + v y2 + vz2 = v

3 x

3

molecules.

1

...(i)

Hence, P = nmv 2

3

Mass

nm

Density of gas, r =

= nm

=

1

Volume

1

\ P = rv 2

...(ii)

3

OR

(a) In case of a monatomic gases, like He, Ar,

etc., a molecule has three translational degrees of

freedom. According to the law of equipartition of

energy, average energy associated with each degree

1

of freedom per molecule = kBT

2

Let R = gas constant per mole of a gas

NA = Avogadro's number i.e., the number of

atoms in one mole of the gas.

Then the total internal energy of one mole of a

monatomic gas,

3

3

U = kBT NA = RT

(Q kB NA = R)

2

2

The molar specific heat at constant volume will be

dU

d 3

3

=

CV (monatomic) =

RT = R

dT dT 2

2

The molar specific heat at constant pressure,

3

5

CP (monatomic) = CV + R = R + R = R

2

2

82

CP (5 / 2)R 5

=

= = 1.67

CV (3 / 2)R 3

behave as rigid rotator at moderate temperatures.

Such molecules have 5 degrees of freedom : 3

translational and 2 rotational. According to the law

of equipartition of energy, the total energy of a mole

of such a gas is

5

5

U = kBT N A = RT

2

2

dU 5

= R

\ CV (rigid diatomic) =

dT 2

7

CP (rigid diatomic) = CV + R = R

2

(7 / 2)R 7

g(rigid diatomic) =

= = 1.4

(5 / 2)R 5

(ii) If the diatomic molecule is not rigid but has

also a vibrational mode, then each molecule has

1

an additional energy equal to 2 kBT = kBT,

2

because a vibrational frequency has both kinetic

and potential energy modes.

7

7

5

\ U = kBT + kBT N A = kB N AT = RT

2

2

2

dU 7

= R

CV (diatomic with vibrational mode) =

dT 2

CP (diatomic with vibrational mode)

9

= CV + R = R

2

g (diatomic with vibrational mode)

(9 / 2)R 9

=

= = 1.28

(7 / 2)R 7

(c) (i) A non-linear triatomic gas molecule has six

degrees of freedom.

6

\ U = kBT N A = 3RT

2

dU

CV =

= 3R; CP = CV + R = 4R

dT

C

4

g = P = = 1.33

CV 3

(ii) A linear triatomic molecule has seven degrees

of freedom.

7

7

\ U = kBT N A = RT

2

2

dU 7

9

CV =

= R ; CP = CV + R = R

dT 2

2

C

(9 / 2)R 9

g= P =

= = 1.28

CV (7 / 2)R 7

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER

Do you have a question that you just cant get

answered?

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the

questions, easy and tough.

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in

this column each month.

cannot exist at the same place having exactly the

same properties. Electron, proton, neutron etc.

are fermions.

Bosons have whole number spins. These particles

can exist at same place and in same physical state.

Photons, mesons etc. are bosons.

Q2. We can tune radio only on a AC source, then

phones?

Seetharaman

Ans. Tuner receive a mixture of signals of different

frequencies and able us to choose a particular

frequency whereas detector is responsible for

separating audio information from the carrier

wave. For AM signals, this can be done with a

diode but for FM signals, the detector circuits

are specially designed. Detectors are basically

demodulators, FM demodulators convert

frequency variations of the input signal into

amplitude variations at the output.

Q3. Why does pizza develop a nicely melted cheese

surface, with lightly browned spots, if topped

with real cheese but not with fat-free cheese?

Harlin Engtipi, Guwahati

of infrared radiation from the oven walls

surrounding it, and convection of hot air across

its top (especially if the air is being forced to

move by a fan). As thermal energy is gradually

transferred to the interior, largely to cook the

dough, the cheese is supposed to melt uniformly

over the top and then lightly brown. The browning

occurs where bubbles form in the cheese (where

water vaporizes to form bubbles of steam inside

during bubble growth, the tops can absorb enough

thermal energy to turn brown.

If the pizza is topped with fat-free cheese, the water

evaporates very quickly from the cheese, and the

dried-out individual strands of cheese never melt

and fuse, but instead just burn. To remedy this,

fat-free or low-fat cheese is sprayed with an oil

film when the pizza is prepared. Then the oil film

slows the evaporation of water from the cheese, so

that melting, fusing, bubbling, and browning can

all occur.

Q4. When the sky is overcast, why is snow at the

horizon brighter than the adjacent sky?

Nustrat Khan, Hyderabad

brighter than the adjacent sky for three reasons

(1) Drops in the cloud scatter sunlight primarily

in a forward direction, and so you intercept more

light from the overhead portion of the overcast

sky than a portion near the horizon. Thus, the sky

near the horizon is comparatively dark.

(2) Snow scatters light strongly in all directions,

and so you intercept significant light from snow

near the horizon. Thus that snow is bright.

(3) When you view a border separating regions

differing in brightness, your visual system will

enhance that difference in order to make the

border more distinct.

Q5. Why are the hairs on polar bears hollow?

Deepika Tyagi, Surat

and infrared portions of sunlight, because those

portions are reflected and transmitted down into

the pelt to reach the skin. There it is absorbed which

increases the thermal energy of the skin. (The

ultraviolet portion of sunlight is also absorbed by

the hairs, but ultraviolet light contributes little to

the warming of a bear). The thermal energy of the

skin is maintained partially because the hairs are

hollow and conduct thermal energy poorly. (The

notion that the hollow hairs somehow function as

optical fibres is just a myth.)

ANSWER KEY

1.

6.

11.

16.

21.

26.

(d)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a,b,c)

(3)

2.

7.

12.

17.

22.

27.

(d)

(b)

(b)

(a)

(a,c)

(b)

3.

8.

13.

18.

23.

28.

(c)

(b)

(d)

(b)

(a,b)

(c)

4.

9.

14.

19.

24.

29.

(a)

(d)

(c)

(d)

(6)

(b)

5.

10.

15.

20.

25.

30.

(d)

(b)

(a)

(a,b,d)

(2)

(c)

83

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.

Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

CUT HERE

ACROSS

2

1

2. An instrument for measuring changes in

5

magnetic flux. [9]

3. A semiconductor device that acts as a

10

storage location in processing unit of a

11

computer. [8]

8. A unit of frequency equal to 1012 hertz.

[7]

17

11. A mechanical device that prevents any

18

sudden or oscillatory motion of a moving

part of any piece of apparatus. [4, 3]

12. A device used for separating two isotopes

21

by thermal diffusion. [7, 6]

15. An inductor that presents a relatively high

22

impedance to alternating current. [5]

17. An electronic instrument for measuring

very short time intervals. [11]

20. A particle made from glass is being

developed that can absorb pollutants from

contaminated water. [7, 8]

27

22. The path that a moving object follows

through space as a function of time. [10]

23. An equation that predicts the degree of thermal ionization

in a gas. [4, 8]

24. The variable voltage dividers with a shaft or slide control for

setting the division ratio. [13]

25. A machine invented by E.O. Lawrence in 1934. [9]

26. The process of boiling or bubbling up of a liquid. [10]

27. The forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the

relative fluid flow velocity. [4]

28. The reciprocal of the force constant. [10]

DOWN

1. Father of electrodynamics. [5, 5, 6]

4. A spinning wheel in which the axis of rotation is free to

assume any orientation by itself. [9]

5. An electrical device permitting only one way current flow.

[5]

6. A mode of computer processing and output in which a large

proportion of the output is in pictorial form. [8]

7. A part of the electromagnetic spectrum comprising low

energy X-rays. [5, 4]

4

7

6

9

13

12

14

16

15

19

20

23

24

25

26

28

9.

10.

13.

14.

15.

16.

18.

19.

21.

25.

beam of electromagnetic radiation. [6]

An electronic device in which a single bit of data is stored

temporarily. [5]

A rule for determining the direction of lines of magnetic

force around a wire carrying a current. [9, 4]

An instrument for measuring the inclination of a surface to

a horizontal plane. [12]

The special arrangement of molecules in a liquid crystal.

[9]

An optical system that produces a beam of parallel

light. [10]

The reciprocal of capacitance. [9]

An instrument for measuring optical transmission or

reflection of a material. [12]

An instrument that measures the rate of flow of fluids. [9]

The streams of gas and dust surrounding the nucleus of a

comet. [4]

85

86

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