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A.C. Bridges

Note A: Alternating voltage: An alternating

voltage can be written as complex number. It is

also known as phaser voltage.

Magnitude of Z = R 2 + X 2

.P

an

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V = V0 e jt

V = V0 (cos t + j sin t)

V = V0 cos t + j V0 sin t

Real part V = V0 cos t

Img. part V = V0 sin t

Here V0 =maximum or peak value of voltage

Z = Z 0Cos + jZ 0 sin

Z = R + jX

Thus impedance is represented as a complex quantity. An

impedance vector consists of a real part resistance, R and

an imaginary part (reactance) X as shown in the Figure.

R=Z0 cos

X=Z0 sin

=angular frequency of a.c. voltage

Note B: Alternating current: Similar to an

alternating voltage, the alternating current can

also be written as complex number. It is also

known as phaser current.

.K

I = I 0 e jt

I = I 0 (cos t + j sin t)

I = I 0 cos t + j I 0 sin t

Real part I = I 0 cos t

Img. part I = I 0 sin t

Here I 0 =maximum or peak value of current

Note C: Impedance: Impedance is an important

parameter used to characterize electronic circuits,

components, and the materials used to make

components.

Impedance (Z) is generally defined as the total

opposition a device or circuit offers to the flow of

an alternating current at a given frequency. It is

ratio of phaser voltage and phaser current. i.e.

Z=V/I

Let the phaser voltage leads the phaser current by

an angle . Then the equation for voltage and

current will be:

V = V0 e

j( t + )

The reactances are of two ftypes:

Inductive reactance XL = L= 2fL

Capacitive reactance XC = 1/C= 1/(2fC)

Here f and are the frequency and angular frequency of

a.c. source. L is inductance, and C is capacitance.

Figure A

The unit of impedance is the ohm (). Impedance is a

commonly used parameter and is especially useful for

representing a series connection of resistance and

reactance.

Note D: Admittance: Admittance is ratio of phaser

current and voltage or is equal to reciprocal of

impedance. i.e. Y = 1 / Z = I/V

If phaser voltage and current are :

V = V0 e j( t + ) , I = I 0 e jt

Then, Y =

I = I 0 e jt

Thus, Z =

V0 e j( t + )

I0 e

jt

I 0 e j t

I

1

=

= 0 e - j

Z V0 e j( t + ) V0

Y = Y0 e -j = Y0

V

= 0 e j

I0

Z = Z 0 e j = Z 0 : In polar co-ordinates

Do not publish it. Copy righted material.

Y = 1 / Z = G + jB

Here G is conductance, and B is susceptance. The unit of

admittance is the siemen (S).

1

Dr. D. K. Pandey

A.C. Bridges: AC bridges are similar to Wheatstone bridge in which D.C. source is replaced by an A.C.

source and galvanometer with head phone/null detector. The resistors of bridge are replaced with

combination of resistor, inductor and capacitors (i.e. impedances). These bridges are used to determine the

unknown capacitance/inductance of capacitor/inductor. The working of these bridges is also based on

Ohms and Kirchoffs law.

.P

an

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bridge. The two opposite junctions are connected to a head phone

while the other two are connected with an a.c. source (Fig.1).

Principle and Balance condition: When the potential difference

across B and D becomes zero. No current flows through BD arm.

Thus no sound is heard in head phone. This situation is called as

bridge balance situation. The bridge balance condition can be

obtained using the Kirchoffs voltage and current law. Suppose

that, total current flowing from source is I. The currents in the

Fig.1

arms AB, BC, AD, DC and BD are I1, I2, I3, I4 and IH

respectively.

Since under the balance condition the

Let, Z1 = R1 + jX 1 ; Z 2 = R2 + jX 2

head phone current (IH) is zero. Thus,

Z 3 = R3 + jX 3 ; Z 4 = R4 + jX 4

I1=I2 and I3=I4

Putting impedances in eq.(3b)

Applying KVL for loop ABDA, we have

R + jX

R + jX

1

1 = 2

2

R3 + jX 3 R4 + jX 4

(R1 + jX 1 )(R4 + jX 4 ) = (R2 + jX 2 )(R3 + jX 3 )

R1R4 X 1 X 4 + j ( R1 X 4 + R1 X 4 )

= R2 R3 X 2 X 3 + j ( R2 X 3 + R3 X 2 ) (4)

Z1I1 Z 3 I 3 = 0

Z1I1 = Z 3 I 3

(1)

And applying KVL for loop BCDB, we have

Z2I2 Z4I4 = 0

Z 2 I1 Z 4 I 3 = 0

Z 2 I1 = Z 4 I 3

(2)

R1R4 X 1 X 4 = R2 R3 X 2 X 3

If

X1 X 4 = X 2 X 3

(5)

(6)

Under the condition given by eq.(6), the eq.(5)

becomes as,

(7a)

R1R4 = R2 R3

.K

Z1I1 Z 3 I 3

=

Z 2 I1 Z 4 I 3

Z1 Z 3

=

Z2 Z4

Z1 Z 2

=

Z3 Z4

Or

(3a)

R1 R2

=

R3 R4

(3b)

balance condition.

Comparing imaginary terms of eq.(5), we have,

(8)

R1 X 4 + R4 X 1 = R2 X 3 + R3 X 2

Dividing eq.(8) by eq.(7b), we get,

This indicates that when the ratio of impedances

in two adjacent arms of bridge is equal to the

ratio of impedances of other two adjacent arms,

then the bridge is balanced.

Since impedance is combination of real and

imaginary part. Thus the above balance

condition can be divided in to two sub condition.

(7b)

R1 X 4 + R4 X 1 R2 X 3 + R3 X 2

=

R1R4

R2 R3

X 4 X1 X 3 X 2

+

=

+

R4 R1 R3 R2

Dr. D. K. Pandey

Parameters measured from AC Bridges: The

capacitance of capacitor, inductance of an

inductor and frequency of ac source can be

measured with AC bridge.

AC bridges for measurement of C

(1) De-sauty bridge

(2) Weins bridge (Series)

(3) Schering bridge

AC bridges for measurement of L

(4) Anderson bridge

(5) Maxwell inductance bridge

(6) Maxwell L/C bridge or Maxwell-Weins

bridge

(7) Hay bridge

(8) Owens bridge

(9) Heavisible Campbell equal ratio bridge

AC bridges for measurement of f

(10)Robinson bridge

(11)Weins bridge (parallel)

X1 X 4 X 2 X 3

+

=

+

R1 R4 R2 R3

1 + 4 = 2 + 3

(9)

Here is phase angle. The eqs. (6), (7) and (9)

suggests that a.c. bridge balance condition has

two type of balance condition. i.e.(i) magnitude

and (ii) phase angle balance condition.

VB = VD

.P

an

de

y

balance condition is obtained when,

If V is the source voltage then,

Z3

Z1

V=

V

Z1 + Z 2

Z3 + Z 4

Z3

Z1

=

Z1 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z 4

Z1 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z 4

=

Z1

Z3

Z

Z

Z2 Z4

or 1 = 3

=

Z2 Z4

Z1 Z 3

(1)

(a) Weins series bridge: It is used to determine the

unknown capacitance, its power factor .

(b) Weins parallel bridge: It is used in feedback

network circuit of oscillator. It is used as

frequency determining element in audio and high

frequency oscillators. It is also used in harmonic

distortion analyzer, where it is used as a notch

filter for discriminating against one specific

frequency. The circuit diagram and formula for

frequency is given below.

Since Z = Z 0 ; Z0=magnitude of Z

Thus,

Z1 = (Z 0 )1 1 , Z 2 = (Z 0 )2 2

Z 3 = (Z 0 )3 3 , Z 4 = (Z 0 )4 4

Putting values of impedances in eq.(1),

.K

(Z 0 )1 1 (Z 0 )3 3

=

(Z 0 )2 2 (Z 0 )1 4

(Z 0 )3

(Z 0 )1

(1 2 ) =

( )

(Z 0 )1 3 4

(Z 0 )2

(Z 0 )3

(Z 0 )1

(1 + 4 ) =

( + ) (2)

(Z 0 )2

(Z 0 )1 2 3

Eq.(2), we have

(Z 0 )1 (Z 0 )3

=

(Z 0 )2 (Z 0 )1

(3a)

(1 + 4 ) = ( 2 + 3 )

(3b)

Eqs. (3a) and (3b) suggests that a.c. bridge

balance condition has two type of balance

condition. i.e.(i) magnitude and (ii) phase angle

balance condition.

Do not publish it. Copy righted material.

f =

1

2 C1C3 R1R3

f = 1 /(2RC )

Dr. D. K. Pandey

Weins Bridges: It is an ac bridge. It is used to

determine the unknown capacitance of a

capacitor in terms of known capacitance of

standard capacitor and is used to define the

quality of capacitor by determination of its

power factor.

components.

1

1

R3 +

jC0

jC X

=

R4

R2

R

1

1

+

= 3+

jC X R2 R4 jC0 R4

R1 +

R1

R2

R1 R3

=

R2 R4

(3)

.P

an

de

y

with a series internal resistance R1

BC arm: Fixed resistance R2

AD arm: Standard capacitor of known

capacitance C0 with a series non-inductive

variable resistance R3

DC arm: Variable resistance R4

The complete bridge circuit is shown in

following figure (X).

(2)

bridge. By this, the series internal resistance of

unknown capacitor can be determined.

And comparing imaginary part of eq.(2), we have

1

1

C X R2 C0 R4

C X R2 = C0 R4

R

C X = C0 4

R2

=

(4)

determination of unknown capacitance. On the

knowledge of R2 and R4 in balance condition,

the unknown capacitance is calculated with

eq.(4).

The power factor of unknown capacitor can be

written as,

R

cos = 1 =

Z

.K

cos = C x R1

(5)

By knowing the value of R1 and C X , the power

factor can be determined with eq.(5). If power

factor is small then quality of capacitor is good

otherwise not.

Advantage

This bridge is most suitable for comparing capacitances

of capacitors.

Disadvantage

In this bridge, final balance condition is obtained by

alternate variation in R3 and R4. Thus both the

balance conditions are dependent on each other. Thus

sensitivity of bridge is low and is high for equal value

of R2 and R4.

1

; Z 2 = R2

Z1 = R1 +

jC X

1

; Z 4 = R4

Z 3 = R3 +

jC0

(1)

R12 + (1 / C x )2

If R1 (1/C x ) then,

Figure(X)

Working: The variable resistances R3 and R4

are varied at fixed value of R2 , till no sound is

heard in head phone. At no sound, bridge

becomes balanced.

Let Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 are the impedances of the

four arms of the bridge. Then,

Z1 Z 3

=

Z2 Z4

R1

Dr. D. K. Pandey

Schering Bridges: This is an ac bridge which is

used for the determination of the most accurate

value of the unknown capacitance of a capacitor

and is used to define the quality of capacitor by

determination of its power factor. This bridge is

also used in measurement of dielectric constants of

liquids, testing of cables and insulators at high

voltages.

The four arms of this encloses following

components.

AB arm: Capacitor of unknown capacitance

C1with a series internal resistance R1

BC arm: Fixed resistance R2

AD arm: Standard Capacitor of known

capacitance C0

DC arm: A variable capacitor of capacitance C4 in

parallel combination with Variable resistance R4.

The complete bridge circuit is shown in following

figure (Y).

jC X

1 1

=

+ jC 4

R2

jC0 R4

R1

C

1

1

+

= 4+

R2 jC X R2 C0 jC0 R4

R1 +

(2)

R1 C 4

=

R2 C0

(3)

.P

an

de

y

1

1

C X R2 C0 R4

R

C X = C0 4

R2

.K

R

cos = 1 =

Z

R1

(5)

R12 + (1 / C x )2

Power factor of unknown capacitor can be determined

with eq.(5) by knowing the value of R1 and C X .

Since the Both C4 and R4 are required for

determination R1 and C X , thus power factor require

both the variable quantity. If power factor is small

then quality of capacitor is good otherwise not.

1

; Z 2 = R2

jC X

1

1

1

;

=

+ jC4

Z3 =

jC0 Z 4 R4

Z1 = R1 +

condition, most accurate result and is most sensitive.

It is also useful in measurement of dielectric

constants of liquids and testing of cables and

insulators at high voltage.

(1)

Do not publish it. Copy righted material.

(4)

By this, the series internal resistance of unknown

capacitor can be determined. This condition also

indicates that the variation in C4 results this

balance condition and is independent of R4 .

The equation (4) is second balance condition

and provides formula for the determination of

unknown capacitance. On the knowledge of R2

and R4 in balance condition, the unknown

capacitance is calculated with eq.(4). This equation

also suggests that this balance is obtained by

variation in R4 and is independent of C4 .

Thus C4 and R4 are varied at fixed value

of R2 for getting the balance condition.

The power factor of unknown capacitor can be

written as,

Figure (Y)

Working: The variable capacitor C4 and

resistance R4 are varied at fixed value of R2 , till

no sound is heard in head phone. At no sound,

bridge becomes balanced.

Let Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4 are the impedances of the

four arms of the bridge. Then,

Z1 Z 3

=

Z2 Z4

C X R2 = C0 R4

Dr. D. K. Pandey

Maxwell inductance bridges: It is the simplest

ratio AC Bridge for the determination of

unknown medium inductance of an inductor.

This bridge is very similar to Weins series bridge.

L

R

R1

L

+ j X = 3 + j 0

R4

R2

R2 R4

(2)

R1 R3

=

R2 R4

following components.

(3)

bridge. By this, the series internal resistance of

unknown inductor can be determined.

.P

an

de

y

with a series internal resistance R1

BC arm: Fixed resistance R2

AD arm: Variable inductor of known inductance

L0 with its series internal resistance R3

DC arm: Variable resistance R4

The complete bridge circuit is shown in

following figure (XX).

L X L0

=

R2 R4

R

L X = L0 2

R4

(4)

determination of unknown inductance. On the

knowledge of R2 and R4 in balance condition,

the unknown inductance is calculated.

Advantage

From eqs. (3) and (4), we can write,

R

L X = L0 1

R3

L X L0

=

R1 R3

Time constant of unknown inductor

=time constant of known inductor

.K

Figure(XX)

Working: The variable inductance L0 and

resistance R4 are varied at fixed value of R2 ,

till no sound is heard in head phone. At no

sound, bridge becomes balanced.

comparing inductances and in measurement of self

inductance in terms of known self inductance.

This bridge is also used for measuring the iron

losses of the transformers at audio frequency.

four arms of the bridge. Then,

Z1 = R1 + jL X ; Z 2 = R2

Z 3 = R3 + jL0 ; Z 4 = R4

Under the balance condition of bridge,

Z1 Z 3

=

Z2 Z4

(5)

Disadvantage

The disadvantage of this bridge is that the both

balance condition can not be satisfied

independently because any change in L0 causes

change in R3. Thus process of getting balance is

not easy.

(1)

R1 + jL X R3 + jL0

=

R2

R4

Dr. D. K. Pandey

Maxwell L/C bridges: This is an AC bridge

which is also known as Maxwell-Wein bridge.

It is modified Maxwells inductance bridge. By

this bridge unknown inductance of an inductor

is measured in terms of capacitance.

Z1 Z 3

=

Z2 Z4

Z2 Z4

=

Z1 Z 3

(1)

following components.

1

R + jL X

R2 + jC1 = 4

R3

R1

R2

R

L

+ jC1R2 = 4 + j X (2)

R1

R3

R3

.P

an

de

y

in parallel combination of resistance R1

BC arm: Fixed resistance R2

AD arm: Fixed resistance R3

DC arm: An inductor of unknown inductance

LX in series of variable resistance R4

The complete bridge circuit is shown in

following figure (yy).

R2 R4

=

R1 R3

R1 R3

=

R2 R4

(3)

bridge. Thus variation in R4 provides dc balance

condition.

And comparing imaginary part of eq.(2), we have

L

C1R2 = X

R3

L X = C1R2 R3

(4)

The equation (4) is the formula for the

determination of unknown inductance. On the

knowledge of C1 , R2 and R3 in balance

condition, the unknown inductance is calculated.

.K

Figure(yy)

Working: The variable inductance C1 and

resistance R4 are varied at fixed value of

R1 , R2 and R3 , till no sound or minimum sound

is heard in head phone. At this situation, bridge

becomes balanced.

Advantage

Both the balance conditions are independent to

each other. Initially, R4 is varied then C1 is varied

to obtain final balance condition. Thus process of

getting the balance condition is easy. In view of

getting the balance condition, this bridge is better

than the Maxwells inductance bridge.

1

1

=

+ jC1 ; Z 2 = R2

Z1 R1

; Z 4 = R4 + jL X

Z 3 = R3

Disadvantage

The perfect balance can never be obtained in this

bridge due to stray capacitance (self capacitance

of coil) and presence of harmonics in ac source.

four arms of the bridge. Then,

Dr. D. K. Pandey

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