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Report of the Advanced Resources and Environmental System Lecture

: Ni Made Pertiwi Jaya
Student Number : 15-9355-502-6
Study Program : Disaster Prevention System Engineering, Department of Environmental
Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering,
Yamaguchi University

A. Describe the present situation of the countermeasures against groundwater pollution

in your country:

The Countermeasures and Prevention against Groundwater Pollution in Indonesia

Water is an important aspect of life, especially for humans. During this time, humans
need for water become very large, therefore it cannot be separated from human life. One
of the sources of water that can be used to meet daily needs is groundwater. The ground
water used by humans for drinking, bathing, cooking, washing, or meet other needs.
Therefore, groundwater must be maintained properly. However, along with the rapid
development, there were some environmental problems regarding with groundwater, such
as the reduction of groundwater availability and the enhancement of groundwater
Some factors which cause the decreasing of groundwater sources, i.e.:
1. The rapid industrial growth in an area accompanied by the growth of human settlements
leads to a trend of the rising of groundwater demand.
2. The diverse use of water which differs in interests, purposes and ways of obtaining
water sources.
3. The need to change the attitude of most of the people who tend to wasteful the water

usage and neglect soil conservation element.

When the shallow groundwater and groundwater have been taken excessively, then
the source of groundwater will be reducing. Consequently, there will be deterioration in
soil (subsidence) and the salt water will be breaking through the groundwater (seawater
intrusion) around coastal areas. The intrusion of seawater has caused the water supply
interrupted because fresh water mixed with seawater. Efforts to clean back the water will
take many years. Therefore, a variety of ways should be taken to prevent and control the
occurrence of seawater intrusion.
The boundary between fresh water and salt water in the groundwater is called the
interface. This interface will move in accordance with the balance between fresh water and
salt water. The excessive use of groundwater in coastal areas will lead to the movement of
the interface line into the inland. In addition, salt water will urge freshwater so that the salt
water will get into wells in coastal areas.
Problems which are related to the reduction of groundwater availability have been
compounded by the contamination of many groundwater sources due to the occurrence of
harmful substances, so that the groundwater sources cannot be used as usual.
Contamination of groundwater is condition that soil is contaminated by pollutants. It
makes the water in it is contaminated. Contaminants (pollutants) can be defined as
chemical biological, radioactive tangible liquid, solid, or gas, either of natural origin
whose presence triggered by humans (indirect) or from human activity (anthropogenic
origin) which has resulted in bad effects for human life and environment. Signs of water
pollution can be explained as follows:
1. Physical, such as on water clarity, temperature changes, changes in taste, and
discoloration of water.
2. Chemical, such as the dissolved chemicals in water and pH changes.
3. Biological, such as the presence of microorganisms in the water.

Contaminated groundwater can lead to some result, for example:

1. The increasing of the population of pathogenic microorganisms.
2. The disruption of health which is caused by the use of contaminated water used. A
common disease perceived by humans as a result of contamination of groundwater is a
skin disease or disturbance of the digestive system.
3. The availability of water is reduced, so that it has become difficult to get water
resources which can be used for drinking, bathing, and washing.
Some cases of groundwater contamination that occurred in Indonesia, i.e.:
1. The case of groundwater contamination of dozens residents wells in the Banggle
backwoods, Genukwatu village, Ngoro sub district, Jombang district in 2009. Wells
water in the village was poisoned by industrial waste of textile laundering.
2. The groundwater level decreased due to the increasing of the dryness level of
groundwater sources in the Harapan Jaya village, North Jakarta district, Bekasi city,
West Java province in 2012.
3. The groundwater contamination by fecal coliforms in the residents dug wells in the
region around Cikapundung-downstream, Citeureup village, Dayeuhkolot district,
Bandung regency.
Those cases prompted the Government and relevant agencies to carry out
countermeasures against groundwater contamination. Furthermore, prevention is also
needed to conduct in order to prevent impacts of the pollution. Some of the
countermeasures which have been carried out to reduce impacts of groundwater
contamination in the area of Indonesia, i.e.:
1. Remediation
Remediation is an activity to clean up contaminated soil surface. There are two
types of soil remediation, i.e. in-situ (on-site) and ex-situ (off-site). The on-site
remediation is done at the site. It is cheaper and easier, consists of cleaning, venting

(injection), and bioremediation.

In the other hand, the off-site remediation consists of excavation of contaminated
soil and movement of it into a safe area. Afterwards in a safe area, the land is cleared
from the contaminants. The cleaning process is done by kept the soil at a tub or
watertight tank and pumped it to the tub cleaning agents or tanks. Further contaminants
are pumped out of the tub, which is then processed using waste water treatment plant.
The off-site remediation is much more expensive and complicated.
2. Bioremediation
Bioremediation is the process of cleaning the pollution of soil using
microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria. Bioremediation aims to break down or
degrade contaminants into materials that are less toxic or non-toxic (carbon dioxide and
water). The microorganism that serves as bioremediation agent is vesicular arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi (VAM). VAM fungus can contribute directly or indirectly in the soil
remediation. They play a direct role because of their ability to absorb metals from the
soil. They also stimulate the growth of other bioremediation microorganisms indirectly,
such as particular bacteria, fungi and so on.
In addition, some forms of prevention efforts were also made to prevent the
occurrence of groundwater contamination cases. There are basically three ways that can be
performed in order to prevent environmental pollution of groundwater, i.e.:
1. Administrative way
Prevention of environmental pollution administratively is the prevention of
environmental pollution done by the Government or related agencies by issuing policies
or regulations relating to the environment. For instances the law on the discharge of the
main points of environmental management issued by the President of the Republic of
Indonesia on 11 March 1982. It regulates about the essential of Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA). EIA should be done prior to plant construction projects and other

projects. In addition, strict sanctions and supervision from the Government are also
needed in performing pollution prevention administratively.
2. Technological way
This way is taken by requiring industry plants to have their own sewage treatment
plants. Before the industrial waste discharges into the environment, the plants are
required to process such waste in advance so that it becomes substances which are not
harmful to the environment.
The other simplest thing in technological way is to make Biopori. Biopori is a
water catchment method which is intended to cope flooding by increasing the absorbing
power of water in the soil. This method proposed by Dr. Kamir R. Brata, one of the
researchers from the Bogor Agricultural Institute. The improvement of water absorption
power on the ground is done by making a hole in the ground and filling it with organic
waste to produce compost. Then the organic waste at these holes can feed the soil
faunas, which are able to create pores in the soil.
The 3R-based technology that is Reduce, Recycle and Reuse can also be performed.
The reduce purpose is to encourage people to reduce the use of water so that the
exploitation of groundwater can be minimized. After the use of groundwater can be
reduced, then the community waste disposal results can be reprocessed by doing
recycle method. There are many technologies to mitigate pollution especially in
groundwater, such as making a tank for water filtering. Once the water is declared
eligible, it can be used again (reuse).
3. Educational way
This way is taken by conducting outreach to the public about the importance of the
environment and the dangers of environmental pollution. Besides, it can be done
through education-formal education or school, for instance a seminar about the
importance to overcome the groundwater crisis.

In addition to the above three ways, the groundwater pollution prevention can be done
by planting Vetiver grass. The Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizaniodes) is used as an
alternative solution. Besides preventing erosion, Vetivers can also filter the polluted water
(such as lead), land improvement and water quality improvement. Plant reaches two
meters high, while the roots that grow vertically downwards reaches up to 4.5 meters for
binding the soil.

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Jumianto. 2011. Prevention of Water Pollution. [Cited on

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Wikipedia. Soil Pollution. [Cited on December 21st, 2015].

B. Describe the present situation of recycling of secondary resources such as spent home
(electronics) appliances in your country:

The Management and Regulation of Electronic Waste in Indonesia

The rapid advancement of information and communication technology industry has

implicated both positive and negative impacts. One of the negative implications is the
birth of a new type of garbage or waste, known as electronic waste (e-waste). Electronic
waste (e-waste) is waste originating from electronic equipment which has been damaged,
the former and not used again by the owner. Electronic waste is a type of waste which has
the highest growth rate each year.
In any electronic waste contains materials and precious metals besides contains
hazardous and toxic materials which may cause pollution and environmental damage, if
the electronic waste is not managed properly. One of the toxic substances is cadmium (Cd),
which used for rechargeable computer batteries and contacts and for switch mode in old
CRT monitors. Cadmium can be bio-accumulated in the environment. It has high toxic
effects to humans, especially for kidney and may affects bones. Electronic goods contain a
variety of other toxic substances such as lead (Pb), beryllium (Be), brominated flame
retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). On the other hand, the major impact of
electrical and electronic equipment for precious metal resources should not be ignored.
The United States is the world leader in producing electronic waste, throw away about 3
million tons per year. China already produces about 2.3 million tons (estimation in 2010)
domestically, second only to the United States. Although China has banned e-waste
imports, the country still remains as a major e-waste disposal place for the advanced
countries. Electrical waste is not only containing hazardous substances but also valuable
and rare substances. Up to 60 elements can be found in the form of electronics complex. In

the United States, an estimated 70% of heavy metals in landfills come from discharged
Over the last 10 years the number of electronic goods, such as televisions, refrigerators,
and computers in Indonesia has increased quite dramatically. It resulted in the increasing
of the electronic. Some components of electrical and electronic equipment and waste
(e-waste) management should meet the qualification required, because they contain
hazardous and toxic materials. However, until now electronic waste is not regulated
specifically and in detail. Although the law governing waste management has been
published long time ago, that is the Law Number 18 in 2008.
While the Department of Commerce through the Law of Act of the Ministry of
Commerce Number 229/MPP/Kep/7/97 on the General Provisions in the Import has
mentioned explicitly that the goods may be imported only new goods. The Department of
Commerce banned the import of used electronic goods, such as televisions, refrigerators,
computers, iron and washing machine.
Lately, the illegal trade and import of used electronic equipment and electronic waste
has made the situation worsen. Disposal of electronic waste from advanced countries to
developing countries, including Indonesia, with reasons of humanitarian aid to victims of
natural disasters or education. In this case, the lifetime of electronic goods (such as
computers) scars are very short, even zero altogether. In some regions in Indonesia, used
electronic goods and electronic waste is accepted as illegal imports of goods and legal to
use the licensing documents that do not fit with it. On the other hand, it is considered as an
illegal matter by the Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of
hazardous wastes and their disposal, an international treaty addressing the uncontrolled
dumping of materials, which come into force in 1992 and has been ratified by Indonesia a
year later.
The absence of clear rules on setting up the e-waste in Indonesia is the reason why

many illegal products entered Indonesia and also made the Ministry of Environment had
difficulty in calculating the amount of electronic waste in Indonesia. Based on Arum Tri
Pusposari, a spokesman for a private waste management company licensed to handle
e-waste, PT Prasadha Pamunah, the legal basis of industrial regulation explained that most
of e-waste in Indonesia is dumped in landfill in the company which is located in East
In relation to the Basel Convention of 1989, Indonesia has imposed a ban in importing
hazardous and toxic materials which are limited only for electronic waste. These rules
were set out in Article 1 point (20) of the Law Number 32 of 2009 on the Environmental
Protection and Management and of Article 1 point (2) of the Government Regulation
Number 18 of 1999 on Waste Management of Hazardous and Toxic Waste Materials.
Those rules stated that the electronic waste classified as hazardous and toxic materials.
Therefore setting up and managing e-waste refers to the government regulations of
hazardous and toxic waste materials.
The management of hazardous and toxic waste materials according to the Article 1
point (23) of the Law Number 32 of 2009 on the Environmental Protection and
Management, is the activity which includes reduction, storage, collection, transport, use,
processing, and or landfill. The provision is then made clear in Article 2 of Government
Regulation Number 18 in 1999 on Hazardous and Toxic Waste Management. Pursuant to
Article 2 Clause (j) of the Law Number 32 in 2009 on the Environmental Protection and
Management, electronic waste management and hazardous and toxic waste are based on
the principle of polluter-payer.
According to Siti Sundari Rangkuti, in general, the polluter pays principle implies that
the polluter should bear the cost of pollution prevention and the authorities decided to
maintain the quality standards of the environment. The background is that the cost for
environmental management efforts supposed to be revealed in the cost of goods and

services that manufacture or use resulting in contamination. The main objectives and
principles are to finance the measures of prevention and control of pollution.
Further elaboration and polluter-payer principle is the principle of Extended Producer
Responsibilities (EPR). Based on the practice of countries, especially countries in the
European Union (EU), the management of electronic waste is carried out based on the
principle of Extended Producer Responsibilities (EPR) or Individual Producer
Responsibilities (IPR) The principle of EPR is implemented in the EU through regulations
of the WEEE Directive in 2002 based on the principle of EPR, manufacturers and users
(end user) of electronic devices are responsible for managing and processing electronic
devices which were manufactured and or used. Responsibility occurs when consumers buy
electronic devices because of the cost of recycling and waste management electronic
components included in the selling price of goods. Consumers can return the electronic
devices they own for free.
The EPR principle is not yet known and applied in the legal system of environment in
Indonesia. But the manifestation of EPR principle has gained implicitly as legal basis in
the Law Number 32 in 2009 on the Environmental Protection and Management. One of
legal basis is the provision of Article 59 Paragraph (1) of Law Number 32 in 2009 on the
Environmental Protection and Management, which states that any person who produces
hazardous and toxic waste shall undertake the management of the waste.
Furthermore, there are provisions in Article 9, section 1 of the Government Regulation
Number 18 in 1999 on Management of Hazardous and Toxic Waste which states that every
person doing business and or activities that use hazardous and toxic materials and or
produce hazardous and toxic waste is obligated to carry out the waste reduction, treatment
or landfill.
Then in Article 9 Paragraph (4) and (5) of the Government Regulation Number 18 in
1999 in Management of Hazardous and Toxic Waste stated that if the waste producer is not

able to process and or landfill the waste, the hazardous and toxic waste can be handed the
treatment and or landfill of the waste to the processor and or landfilling service company.
It wont loss the waste producer responsibility for waste processing.
Furthermore, the polluter pays principle which is the initial idea of EPR principle is
also accommodated in Article 2 Subparagraph (j) of Law Number 32 in 2009 on the
Protection and Environmental Management. Furthermore, the application of the principle
of EPR is indirectly has also accommodated in Article 43 paragraph 1 of the Law Number
32 in 2009 on the Management and Protection of the Environment as the internalization of
environmental costs life. In the explanation mentioned that the internalization of
environmental costs is the inclusion of the cost of pollution and or damage to the
environment in the calculation of production costs or the cost of a business and / or
The provisions above constitute the basis for the application of the principle of the EPR
indirectly in the management of electronic waste in Indonesia. But in reality, there are no
implementing regulations that set out clear and complete regulation about how should the
principle of EPR can be implemented. However, although there has been no implementing
regulations governing more about the application of the principle of the EPR in the
management of electronic waste, essentially management of electronic waste can be
applied based on the principle of EPR.
In practice, not all electronic waste management activities carried out in accordance
with the regulations relating to the management of hazardous and toxic waste. There is an
illegal electronic activity of the landfill in the village of Tanjung Uncang, Batu Aji sub
district, Batam city which is incompatible with Article 60 of Law Number 32 in 2009 on
the Environmental Protection and Management. The regulation states that every person
prohibited from dumping waste and or materials to environmental media without
permission. The hazardous and toxic waste disposal activities can only be carried out with

the permission of the minister, governor or mayor in accordance with their authority. The
case of Tanjung Uncang can be an indication that awareness of the application of
electronic waste management regulations based on existing regulations is still very weak.
Based on principles from cradle to grave, supervision of the management of electronic
waste should be done from the beginning until the eventual disposal.

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