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Aryo Wicaksono
Bramantya Adji Pratama
Brian Hernanda
Danestyan Arif Pradana
Jason Dominic
M. Rah Adi Satrio
Pandya Dhira

Faculty of Engineering
Universitas Indonesia


Praise the almighty god for allowing us to finish this report on time. In this report, we
will be talking about Land Subsidence in DKI Jakarta a problem thats quite important in
society and we should be to know what land subsidence is, how it happened and how itll impact
the nature that we live in.
This report is made with the intention to educate readers regarding land subsidence as
well as finishing the PBL-2 assignment of the MPKT-B class. We are aware that this report isnt
perfect, so criticisms and suggestions are very welcome so that we can better ourselves for the

Depok, November 26th 2016

Home Group 4

Problem Definition
Land Subsidence
Mechanism of Land Subsidence
Factors that Contribute to Land Subsidence
Land Subsidence Monitoring Systems
Effects of Land Subsidence
Solutions to Fix Land Subsidence

1. Background
City development will affect the physical condition of the city itself. The bigger
the city is, the more complex the problems will be. One of the problems big cities will
face is the problem of land subsidence.
Indonesia is a country that always suffers land subsidence. One of the cities
Indonesia where land subsidence is a problem is Jakarta, especially Northern Jakarta
where the land subsidence goes as fast as 7,5cm per year. This is a serious problem
especially in coastal areas (e.g. Cengkareng, Pademangan, Ancol, Penjaringan, etc.)
where subsidence reaches more than 100cm. The Subsidence is caused by ground
water conditions as well as consolidations.
Because of this, this report will discuss what land subsidence is, how it happens,
why it happens, the effects caused, as well as solutions to overcome the problem. The
DKI Jakarta government has to act fast to prevent further land subsidence,
considering that Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia as well as an important point
in the international economy.
2. Problem Definition
1) How does Land Subsidence happen in DKI Jakarta?
2) What are the effects of Land Subsidence in DKI Jakarta?
3) What effort and solutions the government can implement to fix Land
Subsidence in DKI Jakarta?

3. Objective
1) Learn what land subsidence is in general
2) Learn what causes land subsidence
3) Learn the process of land subsidence
4) Learn the effects of land subsidence in DKI Jakarta
5) Learn the countermeasures of land subsidence in DKI Jakarta

1. Definition of Land Subsidence
Land subsidence is a phenomenon of vertical earth surface
deformation. Land subsidence happens over a long period of time, which
means that if it happens continuously, areas that experience it will
experience the impacts of it as well, all while the land subsidence itself
doesnt happen evenly. Land subsidence in DKI Jakarta is dominated in
Northern Jakarta, where it happens from 5 to 10cm a year, causing 40% of
Jakarta being below water surface
One of the causes of land subsidence in Jakarta is excess ground
water exploitations. Since the 20th century, citizens of Jakarta use ground
water for their needs, from consumption to industrial use. However, as the
demand of water increases, the withdrawal of ground water also increases.
The use of ground water in Jakarta is due to several factors, such as
urbanization, the density of Jakartas population, as well as industrial
activity. This condition is made worse by the tendency of water level rise
due to global warming.
2. Mechanisms of Land Subsidence
Land Subsidence happens when the soil beneath the surface holds
weight of the surface soil, causing an increase in tension to the point
where the lower soil cant handle any more tension. This tensioning causes
soil particle deformation, relocation as well as reduction of soil density.

There are different types of Land Subsidence:

1) Immediate Settlement
This form of subsidence is caused by the elastic
deformation of soil without any water content change.
Generally, this happens during any construction process
and it happens very quickly and its magnitude depends on

the weight of the soil above the surface and the soils
elasticity modulus
2) Primary Consolidation Settlement
This type of subsidence is caused by the change in soil
volume during the process of the extraction of soil and pore
water. In this subsidence, the continual pore water tension
change causes the dissipation of the water. This
consolidation usually happens on cohesive soil.
3) Secondary Consolidation Settlement
This subsidence happens when the pore water pressure
completely disappears because of the compression process.
Subsidence thats caused by secondary consolidation is
important for all times of organic or inorganic soil that are
very compressible.
3. Factors That Causes Land Subsidence
Land Subsidence is a common occurrence in Indonesia, especially
in Jakarta, its capital. This phenomenon occurs regionally (over a wide
area) or locally (small area) and is often caused by the existence of a
cavity under the surface, especially soils rich in Lime. Factors that affect
the occurrence of land subsidence are:
1) Natural Subsidence
Subsidence due to geological processes. The factors are
divided into two types:

Geological cycle
This consists of Denudation, Deposition, and crustal
Basin Sedimentation
Basins are usually found in tectonic plates
especially on the border area of the plate. Sediments
found on the basins causes more weight the more it
accumulates and then the compaction of the

2) Subsidence Due to Groundwater Extraction

Excess ground water extraction causes cavitation in

the sub-surface soil, causing the hydrostatic pressure to
decrease and causes aquifer layer compression.
3) Subsidence due to Settlement
Construction above the soil surface causes the layer
beneath it to compress due to soil particle deformation,
relocation, the dissipation of water or air from the pores,
and other causes.