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Empowering

LEADERSHIP
Dr. F. Budi Hardiman

Agenda
9.30 10.30 : Sesi 1 Kepemimpinan dan
Kepengikutan
10.30 11.00: Tanya Jawab
11.00 12.00: Sesi 2 Kepemimpinan
dalam Masyarakat Kita
12.00 12.30: Tanya Jawab

Mengapa Kepemimpinan?
Sesi 1: Kepemimpinan dan
Kepengikutan

1. Normatif: Demokrasi pasca


Orba = pembukaan aneka
peluang => tantangan
kepemimpinan

2. Faktual: Krisis
kepemimpinan/keteladanan
karena konsumerisme dan
hedonisme

Kepemimpinan: Urusan
Siapakah?
3. Profesionalisme kerap tidak
disertai pendidikan karakter

Pemerintah?
Pengusaha?
Profesional?
Tokoh masyarakat?

Siapa?

Kepemimpinan Urusan Siapa?


Kepemimpinan adalah urusan setiap
orang.
Juga kalau Anda tidak peduli dengan
siapa yang memimpin Anda, Anda
terlibat dalam kepemimpinannya
sebagai pengikut yang pasif.
Kepemimpinan adalah urusan kita
semua!

Anda adalah
pemimpin

WHY?

Apakah itu Kepemimpinan?

The best way to understand


leadership is to see some
ways to define it.
(Hughes, R.L. et.al., Leadership, McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2009,
p.4)

1. The process by which an


agent induces a subordinate to
behave in a desired manner

3. An interpersonal relation in
which others comply because
they want to, not because the
have to

2. Directing and coordinating the


work of group members

4. The process of influencing an


organized group toward
accomplishing its goals

5. Actions that focus resources to


create desirable opportunities
6. The leaders job is to create
conditions for the team to be
effective

8. Leadership is a process, not


a position (Hughes, p.1)

7. Leadership is not a job, but a


life-long activity

Jawablah: Leadership atau Management?

[Lih. Nanus, Burt, Visionary Leadership, San Francisco,


1992, h.11]
Memelihara struktur dan
Memusatkan diri pada
sistem
manusia-manusianya
Wawasan jangka pendek Wawasan jangka panjang
Kegiatan kontrol
Memberi inspirasi dan
kepercayaan
Menjawab pertanyaan
bagaimana dan kapan
Menjawab pertanyaan
apa dan mengapa
Mengikuti pola yang
sudah ada
Menciptakan pola baru
Mempertahankan status
Menantang status quo
quo
Person lebih penting
Peran dan fungsi lebih
daripada fungsi dan
penting daripada
perannya.
personnya

Cermatilah Bedanya![Lih. Northouse,


Leadership, Sage, London, 1997, h.9]

Managers

Leaders

Administer
Maintain
Control
Have a short time view
Ask how and when
Imitate
Accept status quo
Do things right

Innovate
Develop
Inspire
Have a long time view
Ask what and why
Originate
Challenge status quo
Do right things

Management (doing
things right)

Leadership (doing
right things)

1. Planning and
budgeting
2. Organizing/Staffing
3. Controlling/Problem
Solving

1. Vision
Building/Strategy
2. Aligning People/
Communicating
3. Motivating/Inspiring

Northouse Definition

Two Creatures
Managers
Know the ways in the
jungle and guide the
others to enter the paths
in it

Leaders
Is someone that shouts
on the top of the highest
tree: We are in the false
jungle!

Leadership is a process
whereby an individual
influences a group of
individuals to achieve a
common goal (P.G.
Northouse, Leadership, p.3)

Analysis of the Definition


process

1. Leadership is a
, i.e. a communicative event
that occurs between leader and his followers

influence, i.e. it concerns

2. Leadership involves
with how the leader affects followers
3. Leadership occurs in
in group processes

a process

groups, i.e. a leader involves

4. Leadership includes attention to

common

influence

time

group context

direction

goals.
power

the others

Common goal

Dengan kata lain:

Kesalahan dengan Orang


Kuat

Empowerment
Pemimpin sejati bukanlah seseorang yang
membuat para pengikutnya tergantung
padanya

Future-building

Seharusnya ia membuat
mereka courage to be

Changing the present

Empowerment

Decision making
Risk-taking

Leadership activity as empowerment according to the definition of leadership

Gaya manakah yang bagus


untuk kepemimpinan?

Kepemimpinan
berkorelasi dengan
Situasi

Development Levels
Definition

According to the situational approach there


are many situations, but they can be
reduced in two factors of situation, i.e.:
1. Competence (skill, ability,
performance)
2. Commitment (motivation, endurance,
work ethics)

Dimension Definitions

The degree to which


subordinates have
the competence and
commitment
necessary to
accomplish a given
task or activity

High
D4

D3

Developed

D1

Low Competence
High Commitment

D2

Some Competence
Low Commitment

D3

Mod-High Competence
Low Commitment

D4

High Competence
High Commitment

Moderate
D2

Low
D1
Developing

Developmental Level Of Followers

Situational Approach
Focus

Centered on the idea


subordinates vacillate along
the developmental continuum
of competence and
commitment
Leader effectiveness
depends on assessing subordinates
developmental position, and
adapting his/her leadership
style to match subordinate
developmental level

The Situational
approach
requires leaders
to demonstrate
a strong degree
of flexibility.

How
Work?
HowDoes
DoesThe
TheSituational
Situational Approach
Approach Work?
Employees Developmental
level

D1

Low Competence
High Commitment

D2

Some Competence
Low Commitment

D3

D4

Leaders
Leadership style

Mod-High Competence
Low Commitment

High Competence
High Commitment

S1 - Directing Style

S1

High Directive
Low Supportive

Leader focuses
communication on goal
achievement
Spends LESS time using
supportive behaviors

S2 - Coaching Style
S2

High Directive
High Supportive

Leader focuses
communication on BOTH
goal achievement and
supporting subordinates
socioemotional needs
Requires leader involvement
through encouragement and
soliciting subordinate input

S3 - Supporting Style

S3

High Supportive
Low Directive

Leader does NOT focus


solely on goals; rather the
leader uses supportive
behaviors to bring out
employee skills in
accomplishing the task
Leader delegates day-to-day
decision-making control, but
is available to facilitate
problem solving

S4 - Delegating Style
S4

Low Supportive
Low Directive

Leader offers LESS task


input and social support;
facilitates subordinates
confidence and motivation
in relation to the task
Leader lessens
involvement in planning,
control of details, and goal
clarification
Gives subordinates control
and refrains from
intervention and unneeded
social support

Followership

Followership
Definisi Lama

Kepengikutan yang efektif akan membantu


kepemimpinan yang efektif.

one that follows the


opinions or teachings of
another or one that
imitates another
(Hughes).

Definisi Baru

Mitra pemimpin, karena


kepengikutan bukanlah
kodrat, melainkan
peran.

Followership Styles

Ambil gaya yang tepat!

Berpikir mandiri dan kritis

Pengikut
Terasing
Pasif

Pengikut
Teladan
Pengikut
Pragmatis

Pengikut
Pasif

Aktif

Pengikut terasing
Pengikut pasif
Pengikut teladan
Pengikut konformis
Pengikut pragmatis

Supporting
Directing
Delegating
Coaching
Coaching

Pengikut
Konformis

Berpikir secara tergantung dan tak kritis

Sesi 2: Kepemimpinan dalam


Masyarakat Kita
Tanya Jawab

3. Commanding

Gambaran Lazim tentang


Kepemimpinan
Memimpin adalah memegang komando
(orang kuat penyelamat bangsa)

Pemimpin adalah penguasa yang tampil


ke depan (banyak uang, disembah, hidup
mudahsemua mengejar hal itu)

Kepemimpinan adalah job

(seusai jam kerja

ditinggalkan/ditanggalkan)

Para pengikut adalah orang-orang pasif


dan dependen terhadap pemimpin mereka
(Terserah Bapak saja, deh.)

Restaurant
Cafe
Pleasure

Banking
Investment
Retail

Impian
Kepemimpinan:
Mendapat
Meraih
Sukses
Punya
Lulus
Punya
Impian
Penghasilan
Punya
Membina
Pacar
Rumah
dengan
teman
seperti
Anak
dari &

Jaminan Hari
pekerjaan
prestasi
99,76%
Sehat
Rumah
Mobil
Nilai
Dan
Bill
Cantik
tinggi
&
Gates
relasi
mewah
tinggi
tangga
laki
Cerdas
laki
Tua

Teknik
Mencapainya:

Executive
Search

Lembaga
Pendidikan

Biro
Dress up
Salon

Bisnis
Insurance
Asset
Management

Club
Bar
Society

Banquet
Photography
Catering

Hospital
Day Care
School

Seminars
Master
Degree

Real Estate
Cars
Home appliance

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Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)


Kepemimpinan:
Naluri kuasa itu wajar
Pengikut itu berbahaya,
maka perlu dimanipulasi.
Curigailah stafmu
Lebih aman ditakuti
daripada dicintai
Pandai-pandailah menjadi
bunglon organisasi.
Moral hanyalah alat kuasa.

Bagaimana Mesin Organisasi


Sistem
Mereproduksi oportunisRanking
oportunis

Sistem Sanksi

Kepatuhan
Motivasi
Loyalitas

Sistem Training

Sistem
Gaji/Insentif

OUTPUT
-Motivasi eksternal
-Safe player
-Company exploiter

Kelemahan
Gaya Kepemimpinan Lazim

Pandangan kita tentang manusia akan berdampak


pada hubungan kerja dalam kantor

Visi kita tentang


KEMANUSIAAN

INPUT
Pemimpin
-kontrol ketat atas bawahan
-survival posisinya sendiri
- Company exploiter

Objek rasa
takut, stereotipe

Sahabat yang
Perlu didukung

1. Harapan perubahan hanya diletakkan di


tangan satu-satunya orang, yakni
pemimpin
2. Bakat-bakat besar para pengikut tidak
dibiarkan tumbuh atau justru dicekik
3. Perusahaan menjadi survival arena
(uang+kuasa) belaka, dan bukan space of
vision-sharing.
4. Perusahaan bertahan selama sistem
represi ada.

Bad public
services

Masyarakat kita menghadapi


kompleksitas masalah

Poverty

Moral
Confusion
Problems
of our
society

? (your

Health
Care

opinions)

Lack of political
consciousness

Educational
Underdevelopment

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The Urgent Call of Indonesian Higher


Education
Indonesian higher education like our
university has a responsibility to the
society to help address societal
needs
Our university has a responsibility to
empower the weakest parts of our
society so that they could help
themselves with their own hands.

Apakah tantangan
kepemimpinan yang
sesungguhnya dalam
masyarakat kita?

All of us are
called to
EMPOWER
people

Simbol absurditas hidup

1. Hukuman
Sisifus
= BANALITAS

Bagaimana etos kerja terbangun?

Karakter

Nasib

Pribadi sukses

Sikap

Pribadi disiplin

Prilaku
Disiplin

Kebiasaan

Tindakan

Spontan tepat waktu


Selalu tepat waktu

Datang tepat waktu

2. Risikogesellschaft
(Ulrich Beck)

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Efek Demokratisasi
Masyarakat Pembangunan
Fokus pada
pembangunan dan
pertumbuhan ekonomi
dan distribusi hasilhasilnya
Sentralisasi pendapat
dan menutup
kemungkinankemungkinan

3. Hilangnya rasa kepastian =


Ketidakberdayaan

Masyarakat Risiko
Masyarakat yang
memproduksi dan
mendistribusikan risikorisiko dan para warganya
sadar akan risiko-risiko.
Plurasisasi opini dan
kontingensi komunikasi

Two Types of Leader


Manipulative Leader
[Pemimpin yang
MEMPERDAYA]
For him his followers are
dangerous enemies who
thread his position
Leading with divide et
impera principle
Morality as instrument of
his power
Manipulation as tactic

Encouraging Leader
[Pemimpin yang
MEMBERDAYAKAN]
For him the followers are
friends who can
contribute to his
leadership
Leading with
encouragement
Morality as his vision
Trust as principle

Empowerment is
To help people so that they can help themselves
and others = to serve people so that they can
serve themselves and others

Empowerment
Professional

So, the purpose of helping/serving is not making


people dependent to us, but to make them moving
by their own power.
Leadership is an art of mobilizing others so that
they could move by their own initiatives and inner
motivation.

People in the
community

LeadershipLearning
Process

Empowerment

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Asas-asas Kepemimpinan yang


Memberdayakan

1. (Struktural) Asas
Subsidiaritas:
Instansi yang lebih tinggi jangan
melakukan intervensi ke dalam
instansi yang lebih rendah, bila
instansi ini sudah mandiri

Instansi 1 1

2. (Mental) Asas Servant


Leadership: Kepemimpinan
adalah sarana pelayanan dan
bukan sebaliknya

Instansi 2
Instansi 3

Kutipan dari Robert K.


Greenleaf

Leader First

New attitude toward


subordinates

1. How to stabilize my position

The servant-leader is servant first . . . It begins with the


natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first.
Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That
person is sharply different from one who is leader
first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual
power drive or to acquire material possessions. For such it
will be a later choice to serveafter leadership is
established. The leader-first and the servant-first are two
extreme types. Between them there are shadings and
blends that are part of the infinite variety of human
nature. . . The difference manifests itself in the care taken
by the servant-first to make sure that other peoples
highest priority needs are being served.

Servant First

1. How to multiply service from my Respecting them as service partners


position

2. I lead them by commanding and 2. I lead them by doing what I will Coaching them to realize the share
preaching

that they do

goals

3. I concern only for my tasks to perform 3. I concern for how to help them to Serving their highest priority
my leadership and they will automatically accomplish their tasks and to relate
finish their tasks

4.

I make them

to my tasks

dependent on my 4. I help them to help themselves

Empowering them

initiatives
5. I demand them to change their bad 5. I reflect myself to change my own Self-reflective attitude that inspires
attitudes

attitude

them to reflect themselves

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3. (Visioner) Asas Membagi


Daya
Bagilah daya dengan visi yang kuat

Visi sebagai Social capital

SOCIAL CAPITAL
berbeda dari MATERIAL
CAPITAL
VISI termasuk SOCIAL
CAPITAL perusahaan

Mobilisasi

Komunikasi Visi [Kouzes, h.124]


Juru Bicara Visi

Agar visi pemimpin menjadi modal sosial


perusahaan, pemimpin harus mengkomunikasikan
visinya. Ingat bahwa kepemimpinan adalah sebuah
relasi.
Jika visi dibagikan kepada para pengikut, akan
meningkatkan: motivasi, kepuasan kerja, komitmen,
kesetiaan, esprit de corps, rasa bangga,
produktivitas

4. Asas Pro-Active: Ubahlah


pengikut reaktif menjadi proaktif lewat mobilisasi visi

Membagikan visi

Pemimpin
Trainer Visi

Memberdayakan pengikut

Agen Perubahan utk Visi

Mengarahkan pengikut

Perhatikan Anjing Pavlov ini!

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Dua jenis sikap


Sikap reaktif
Yakin bahwa situasinya
disebabkan oleh faktorfaktor di luar dirinya,
misalnya faktor genetis,
psikis ataupun
environmental.
Hanya memberi respons
atas stimulus (bdk anjing
Pavlov) (tergantung
mood, situasi, dst.)

Sikap proaktif
Mampu memilih secara
bebas dan tidak sekedar
bereaksi atas stimulus.
Mampu untuk memilih
respons (response-ability)
Menciptakan situasinya
sendiri.
Mengambil inisiatif

Pengikut reaktif = bermotivasi


eksternal

Dikonfirmasi oleh Riset Motivasi


Riset oleh Douglas McGregor
Asumsi para manajer teori X
Manusia itu pemalas, maka mesti dimotivasi dan
dikontrol
Beri ancaman PHK
Asumsi para manajer teori Y

Manusia pada dasarnya termotivasi oleh dirinya


sendiri, maka perlu ditantang dan disalurkan
Cintailah karyawanmu

1.
Subsidiarity

Resume: Sebutkan lagi


keempat asas kepemimpinan
yang memberdayakan

3. Vision
Sharing

Empowering
Leadership

4. Pro-Active

2. Servant
Leadership

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