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TS.

Ng Vn Thanh,
Vin Vt l.

Chuyn ngnh : in t - Vin thng , Cng ngh thng tin,


in - in t

Chng 8: C hc lng t.
8.1 Lng tnh sng-ht ca cc vi ht.
8.2 H thc bt nh Heisenberg.
8.3 Hm sng v ngha thng k.
8.4 Phng trnh Schrdinger v ng dng.

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

C hc c in

C hc Newton 3 nh lut c hc.


Khng gian v thi gian l tuyt i.
Khi lng l bt bin.
Vn tc truyn tng tc l v hn.
p dng cho th gii v m chuyn ng vi
vn tc b
.

C hc l thuyt

Nguyn l tng i ca Galilean.


L thuyt tng i ca Einstein.
Khng gian v thi gian c tnh tng i.
Khi lng ca vt ph thuc vo vn tc.
p dng cho th gii v m chuyn ng vi
vn tc ln.

C hc lng t

Cc vi ht mang lng tnh sng-ht (gi


thuyt ca de Broglie).
H thc bt nh Heisenberg.
Chuyn ng ca ht c m t bi hm
sng (phng trnh Schrdinger).
p dng cho th gii vi m.
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

8.1 Lng tnh sng-ht ca cc vi ht.


Cc giai on lch s:

1900: Trong qu trnh nghin cu v bc x ca vt en


M. Planck a ra gi thit v tnh gin on ca nng lng bc x in t.
Nng lng bc x in t bng bi s nguyn ca vi lng
1905: A. Einstein xut tnh cht ht ca nh sng, ht photon.
Gii thch c hiu ng quang in.
1923: Hiu ng Compton kim chng l thuyt ht ca nh sng.
1913: N. Bohr cho rng, nng lng ca nguyn t ca cc vt liu cng gin
on v c gi l cc mc nng lng.
1914: Franck v Hertz kim chng gi thit ca Bohr bng thc nghim.
1923: L. de Broglie a ra gi thit v lng tnh sng-ht ca cc vi ht nh
cc electron, proton
1927: Davisson v Germer quan st bng thc nghim thy hin tng
nhiu x ca chm tia in t trn tinh th.
1925: Heisenberg a ra h thc bt nh.
1926: Schrdinger a ra phng trnh chuyn ng ca vi ht.
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Gi thit ca L. de Broglie (1923):


a ra gi thit v lng tnh sng ht ca electron v cc vi ht ni chung.

Mt vi ht t do c nng lng xc nh, ng lng xc nh tng ng


vi mt sng phng n sc xc nh.

Nng lng ca vi ht lin h vi tn s dao ng ca sng tng ng theo


cc h thc:

ng lng ca vi ht lin h vi bc sng ca sng ht tng ng theo


h thc:

Bc sng c gi l bc sng de Broglie.

gi l vector truyn (sng).


@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Xt mt ht c khi lng m, theo thuyt tng i ca Einstein:

s dng

suy ra

Mt khc:

Vi E l ng nng ca ht khng tng i.


Cui cng:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Th nghim nhiu x sng ht electron:


(Davisson v Germer -1927)
Cc i nhiu x:

Gi s in t c tng tc bi in th U,
suy ra nng lng ca in t l eU.
S dng biu thc:

Ta c:

Biu thc ny c kim chng bng


thc nghim.
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Th nghim nhiu x sng ht electron:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Th nghim tn x tia X trn tinh th:


(Tartakowski v Thomson)

Cc i nhiu x - iu kin Wulf-Bragg:

Bn knh ca vn giao thoa trn mn nh:


suy ra:

S dng biu thc:

Cui cng ta c:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Th nghim nhiu x tia X trn tinh th:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

8.2 H thc bt nh Heisenberg.


H thc bt nh i vi ta :

V tr v ng lng ca ht khng c xc nh ng thi. Nu v tr ca


ht cng xc nh th ng lng ca ht cng bt nh.
Xt hin tng nhiu x ca chm vi ht qua mt khe hp

B rng khe hp bng b, gc nhiu x ca ht l .

V tr x ca ht trong khe hp x (0, b).

Hnh chiu ng lng ca ht theo phng x:

iu kin cc tiu nhiu x:


suy ra:

mt khc:
Cui cng ta c:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Khi nim qu o:

Xt trng hp trong nguyn t, electron chuyn ng trong phm vi 10Ao.


bt nh v ta ca electron:
bt nh v vn tc:

bt nh v vn tc ca electron l rt ln, tc l :
electron khng c vn tc xc nh.
Trong nguyn t, electron khng chuyn ng theo mt qu o xc nh.
Trong th gii vi m, khng c khi nim v qu o.
H thc bt nh Heisenberg ch p dng cho th gii vi m khi m ta v
ng lng ca ht khng c xc nh ng thi.
Hai i lng khng c xc nh ng thi trong th gii vi m li c xc
nh ng thi trong th gii v m.
V d, xt ht v m c khi lng m = 10-15 kg, x =10-8m.

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

H thc bt nh i vi nng lng:

Nng lng ca h trng thi no cng bt nh th thi gian h


tn ti trng thi cng ngn v ngc li.

Trng thi bn ca mt h l trng thi m h vn tn ti trng thi


trong mt khong thi gian di. Ngc li l trng thi khng bn.
Trng thi c nng lng bt nh l trng thi khng bn, v thi gian
h vn tn ti trng thi ny l xc nh.
Ngc li, trng thi c nng lng xc nh l trng thi bn.

Kt lun:

Trong c hc lng t, khng ch c cc cp i lng khng c xc nh


ng thi nh "ta " "ng lng", "nng lng" "thi gian" m cn c
nhiu i lng khc cng khng xc nh c mt cch ng thi.
Khng c khi nim qu o chuyn ng ca ht vi m, v tr ca ht khng
th xc nh mt cch chnh xc, m ch c th on nhn v tr ca ht vi
mt xc sut no .
Quy lut chuyn ng ca vi ht tun theo cc quy lut thng k.
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

8.3 Hm sng v ngha thng k.


Hm sng:

Cc vi ht trong th gii vi m mang tnh cht sng (lng tnh sng ht).
Trng thi hay tnh cht sng ca vi ht c m t di dng hm s theo
ta v thi gian, hm s c gi l hm sng.
Theo gi thit ca de Broglie, chuyn ng ca ht t do c m t bi hm
sng c dng tng t nh sng phng n sc ca nh sng.
Hm sng de Broglie

trong

l bin ca hm sng c xc nh bi biu thc

l lin hp phc ca
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

ngha thng k ca hm sng:

Mt xc sut xc sut tm thy ht trong mt n v th tch:

Xc xut tm thy ht trong th tch dV no :

Xc xut tm thy ht trong ton khng gian:

Biu thc ny c gi l iu kin chun ha ca hm sng.

Hm sng trong c hc lng t mang tnh cht thng k, n c s dng


tnh xc sut tm thy ht ti mt trng thi no m n khng m t
mt sng thc nh sng c, sng in t trong vt l c in.
Cc quy lut thng k trong c hc lng t khng ch p dng cho h nhiu
ht ging nh trong vt l phn t, m n cn c p dng cho tng ht
ring l.

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

iu kin ca hm sng:
Hm sng phi gii ni.

Suy ra t iu kin chun ha ca hm sng, tch phn phi gii ni.

Hm sng phi n tr.

Mi mt trng thi ca h ch c c trng bi mt gi tr xc sut tm


thy ht duy nht.
Hm sng phi lin tc.

Xc sut tm thy ht phi lin tc.


o hm bc nht ca hm sng cng phi lin tc.

Hm sng tha mn phng trnh Schrdinger.

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

S lin h gia sng de Broglie v chuyn ng ht.

Vn tc pha ca sng:

Vn tc pha khng phi l vn tc truyn ht hay vn tc truyn nng lng.

Chuyn ng ca cc ht trong c hc lng t khng th m t bi cc sng


n sc ring bit, m n ng vi mt tp hp sng c tn s khc nhau. Tp
hp sng c gi l b sng.

Vn tc nhm ca b sng: vn tc chuyn ng ca ton b b sng.


Tm li: chuyn ng ca vi ht c th c m t bi chuyn ng ca c
b sng.
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

8.4 Phng trnh Schrdinger v ng dng.


Phng trnh Schrdinger.

Hm sng de Broglie m t chuyn ng ca ht t do.

Trng hp vi ht chuyn ng trong trng th ngoi

Trong thnh phn ch ph thuc vo ta khng gian tha mn phng


trnh phng trnh Schrdinger:

Phng trnh Schrdinger l phng trnh vi phn tuyn tnh, t hp tuyn


tnh ca cc nghim cng l nghim ca n.

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Trng hp vi ht chuyn ng t do.

Xt hm sng c dng

Trong

p dng ton t Nabla

suy ra

Mt khc

cui cng ta c

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

ng dng.
Ht trong ging th:

Xt chuyn ng ca ht theo phng x, ht chuyn ng


t do trong ging th v khng th vt ra ngoi.
Xt phng trnh Schrdinger cho ht chuyn ng
trong th nng:

Nghim tng qut:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Xt iu kin bin:

Thay vo biu thc cho phng trnh nghim


ta c:

V B = 0 nn A phi khc 0, suy ra

T iu kin chun ha hm sng:

ta tnh c h s chun ha

Cui cng:
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Suy ra nng lng ca ht

Ht c nhiu trng thi khc nhau, mi mt trng thi


ng vi mt hm sng.

Nng lng ca ht trong ging th l gin on, tc l nng lng b


lng t ha.
Khong cch gia hai mc nng lng k tip nhau:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Mt xc sut tm thy ht trong ging th

Vi n = 1 : xc sut tm thy ht ti
l ln nht.

Vi n = 2 : xc sut tm thy ht ti
v
l ln nht.

Xt trng hp tng qut, ht trong ging th 3 chiu


hnh hp lp phng vi cc cnh l a1, a2, a3

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Nghim ca phng trnh:

T iu kin bin:

suy ra

Nng lng ca ht:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Hiu ng ng ngm:

Xt chuyn ng ca ht theo phng x, t tri sang phi.


Nng lng ca ht:
Theo quan im c hc c in th ht
khng th vt qua ro th.
Theo quan im ca c hc lng t th
ht vn c th xuyn qua hng ro th nng.
Hin tng ny c gi l hiu ng chui ngm.
Xt ro th c dng hnh ch nht:
min I
min II
min III

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Phng trnh Schrdinger cho tng min ca ro th:


Min I:
Min II:
Min III:

Nghim ca cc phng trnh ny:

: c trng sng ti.


: c trng sng phn x trn b x = 0.

: c trng sng truyn qua ro th.


: c trng sng phn x t v cc.
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Cc h s A1, B1, A3 v B3 = 0 c gi l bin sng.


H s truyn qua ro th:

Theo iu kin lin tc ca hm sng ti x = 0 v x = a

Ti x = 0 :

Ti x = a :
Theo iu kin lin tc ca o hm bc nht hm sng ti x = 0 v x = a

Ti x = 0 :

Ti x = a :
Gi thit cao ca hng ro th rt ln
rt ln

hoc b rng ca ro th

hoc
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

8.1 Lng tnh sng-ht ca cc vi ht.

Gi thit ca de Broglie v lng tnh sng ht ca electron v cc vi ht ni


chung
Nng lng ca vi ht lin h vi tn s dao ng ca sng

ng lng ca vi ht lin h vi bc sng ca sng ht - bc sng de


Broglie.

Vector truyn - s sng

ng nng ca ht khng tng i lin h vi bc sng

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

8.2 H thc bt nh Heisenberg.


H thc bt nh i vi ta

V tr v ng lng ca ht khng c xc nh ng thi. Nu v tr ca


ht cng xc nh th ng lng ca ht cng bt nh.
Trong th gii vi m, khng c khi nim v qu o.
H thc bt nh Heisenberg ch p dng cho th gii vi m khi m ta v
ng lng ca ht khng c xc nh ng thi.

H thc bt nh i vi nng lng:

Nng lng ca h trng thi no cng bt nh th thi gian h tn


ti trng thi cng ngn v ngc li.
Trng thi bn ca mt h l trng thi m h vn tn ti trng thi
trong mt khong thi gian di. Ngc li l trng thi khng bn.
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

8.3 Hm sng v ngha thng k.

Hm sng de Broglie

Mt xc sut xc sut tm thy ht trong mt n v th tch


iu kin chun ha ca hm sng

Hm sng trong c hc lng t mang tnh cht thng k.


iu kin ca hm sng:
Hm sng phi gii ni v n tr.
Hm sng v o hm bc nht ca hm sng phi lin tc.
Vn tc pha ca sng
Vn tc nhm ca b sng:
@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

8.4 Phng trnh Schrdinger v ng dng.

Hm sng:

Phng trnh Schrdinger cho ht chuyn ng trong trng th nng.

Phng trnh Schrdinger cho ht chuyn ng t do

Ht trong ging th, nng lng l gin on

Khong cch gia hai mc nng lng k tip nhau:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L

Mt xc sut tm thy ht trong ging th:

Hiu ng ng ngm:

Hm sng:

H s phn x v truyn qua ro th:

@2009, Ng Vn Thanh - Vin Vt L