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WHY IS CITING IMPORTANT?

If you refer to other people's work in your writing, you should include correct citations to:

Avoid committing plagiarism,

Avoid breaking copyright law, and

Allow your readers to find and read your sources of information.


Academic Honesty & Plagiarism
University policy and advice on avoiding plagiarism.
Moral Rights and Citing Material
Information on why and how you should cite different types of copyright material.

CHOOSING A REFERENCING STYLE

You should use the referencing style recommended by your lecturer for your
assignment. If they have not specified style, we recommend APA 6th, a widely used
style.

HOW TO USE A REFERENCING STYLE


Re:Cite

Re:Cite is an interactive library website that shows you how to use these common
referencing styles:

APA 6th

Harvard

Vancouver

Chicago

MLA

AGLC

Cambridge (for Art History)


Please note: Re:Cite provides introductory information for a limited number of
styles and reference types.

For further information please refer to a style manual or guide, you can:

Search for style manuals and guides in the library catalogue, or

See some examples in the library's Managing References guide.


You may also wish to use a fully-featured reference management software
application, see below for more information:

Reference Management Software


If you are writing a longer assignment or thesis, you should consider using a reference
management software application.
Managing References
A library guide to reference management software applications, including EndNote,
Mendeley, Papers, RefWorks, Zotero and JabRef, and how to choose one.
EndNote
The library supports EndNote, and University of Melbourne staff and students can
download it for free.
RefWorks
A web-based application that University of Melbourne staff and students can access
through the library for free.

APA 6th

No author

Entry in reference list


Title of book (Edition). (Year of publication). Place of publication: Publisher.

For example - reference list


The Good Housekeeping illustrated book of child care: From
newborn to preteen. (1995). New York, NY: Hearst Books.

For example - in text citation


As discussed in Good Housekeeping (1995)
OR

infants are weaned (Good Housekeeping, 1995)

Style notes
o

When a work has no author, move the title to the author position, before
the date of publication.

In the text citation, use a few words of the title, or the whole title if it is
short, in place of an author's name.

Book titles are italicised.

Capitalisation: Capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if
any, and any proper nouns.

If the author is specifically designated as "Anonymous" cite in-text as


(Anonymous, Year of publication) and in the Reference List use Anonymous as the
author.

Details about edition, volume number or chapter page range are placed in
parentheses directly after the title, with the period after the parentheses, e.g., (2nd ed.).
or (Rev.ed.). or (Vol.26).

In the in-text citation, if pages are being directly referenced, include the
page number/s after the year.

One author

Entry in reference list


Author. (Year of publication). Title of book (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

For example - reference list


Hassan, R. (2004). Media, politics and the network society.
Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.
Castells, M. (2000). End of millennium (2nd ed.). Malden, MA:
Blackwell.

For example - in text citation

Hassan (2004) has argued that


OR
In a major study (Hassan, 2004), it was found that
OR
In his major study Hassan (2004, pp. 20-23) discusses the network
society.

Style notes
Book titles are italicised.

o
o

Capitalisation - Capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle,
if any, and any proper nouns.

Details about edition, volume number or chapter page range are placed in
parentheses directly after the title, with the period after the parentheses, e.g., (2nd ed.).
or (Rev. ed.). or (Vol. xvi).

In the in-text citation, if pages are being directly referenced, include the
page number/s after the year.
Two authors

Entry in reference list


Author, A. A., & Author B. B. (Year of publication). Title of book (Edition). Place of
publication: Publisher.

For example - reference list


Wellman, B., & Haythornthwaite, C. (2002). The Internet in
everyday life. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

For example - in text citation


In their findings (Wellman & Haythornthwaite, 2002)
OR

Wellman and Haythornthwaite (2002) refute the argument


OR
Wellamn and Haythornthwaite (2002, pp. 34-35) refute the
argument

Style notes
Book titles are italicised.

o
o

Capitalisation - capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if
any, and any proper nouns.

An ampersand (&) is used to link authors names' when citations are


placed in parentheses (not when the names are included in the text).

If pages are being directly referenced in the text, include the page
number/s in the in-text citation after the year.

Details about edition, volume number or chapter page range are placed in
parentheses directly after the title, with the period after the parentheses, e.g., (2nd ed.).
or ( Rev. ed.). or (Vol. 26).
Three or more authors

Entry in reference list


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Title of
book (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

For example - reference list


Sharp, J. A., Peters, J., & Howard, K. (2002). The management of
a student research project. Aldershot, England: Gower.

For example - in text citation


First use:
In a major study (Sharp, Peters, & Howard, 2002)
OR

Sharp, Peters, and Howard (2002) have argued that


Subsequent use:
as argued (Sharp et al., 2002)
OR
Sharp et al. (2002) argued
OR
Sharp et al. (2002, p.45) have found

Style notes
o

Cite all authors (surnames and initials) the first time the reference
appears, then for subsequent references, use et al. (not italicised).

For in-text citation, include the names of three to five authors the first time
the citation appears. Subsequently include only the name of the first author followed
by et al. (not italicised) and (in parentheses) the year. Within one paragraph, you can
omit the year for non-parenthetical subsequent citations.

In-text, for six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author
followed by et al.and, in parentheses, the year.

Use an ampersand in parenthetical in-text citations between the last two


authors' names (but spell out and when the authors' names are included in the
narrative).

Distinguish references that would otherwise be identical by adding


information such as a first name (in brackets) or an additional author.

o
o

Book titles are italicised.


Capitalisation - Capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle,
if any, and any proper nouns.

If pages are being directly referenced in the text, include the page
number/s in the in-text citation after the year.

Details about edition, volume number or chapter page range are placed in
parentheses directly after the title, with the period after the parentheses, e.g., (2nd ed.).
or (Rev. ed.). or (Vol. 26).
Secondary source in a book

Entry in reference list

Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of book (Edition). Place of


publication: Publisher.

For example - reference list


Smith, P., Jones, M., & Black, J. (1983). Introduction to
psychology: A reader. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

For example - in text citation


Freud's study (as cited in Smith, Jones & Black, 1983)

Style notes
o

Use secondary sparingly, e.g., when the original text is not accessible.

In the reference list, record only the secondary source. Details about
edition, volume number or chapter page range are placed in parentheses directly after
the title, with the period after the parentheses, e.g., (2nd ed.). or (Rev. ed.). or (Vol.26).

In the text, name the original work, and give a citation in parentheses for
your secondary source. That is, if you did not read the work cited, list the reference for
the work you did access in the Reference List, but in the text, after identifying the
original work, put in parentheses the phrase as cited in followed by the authors' names
for your source and the publication year of their work.

o
o

Book titles are italicised.


If pages are being directly referenced in the text, include the page
number/s in the in-text citation after the year.

Edited book

Entry in reference list

Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year of publication). Title of book (Edition). Place of
publication: Publisher.

For example - reference list


Beckman, K. R., & Ma, J. (Eds.). (2008). Still moving: Between
cinema and photography. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

For example - in text citation


Beckman and Ma (2008) suggest that
OR
this theory was disproved (Beckman & Ma, 2008).

Style notes
o

Book titles are italicised.

Use the abbreviation (Eds.). for multiple editors.

For major reference works with a large number of editors, use the name of
the lead editor followed by et al. and, in parentheses, the year.

If pages are being directly referenced in the text, include the page
number/s in the in-text citation after the year.

Details about edition, volume number or chapter page range are placed
directly after the title in parentheses, with the period after the parentheses, e.g., (2nd
ed.). or (Rev. ed.(. or (Vol.26).

Book chapter

Entry in reference list

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter or section. In A.


Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of the chapter referred to).
Place of publication: Publisher.
If there is no author, as in an article or section from a reference work:
Title of entry or section (Year of publication). In Title of reference work (xx ed., Vol. xx,
pp. xxx-xxx). Place of publication: Publisher.

For example - reference list


Daniels, P. J. (1993). Australia's foreign debt: Searching for
the benefits. In P. Maxwell & S. Hopkins (Eds.), Macroeconomics:
Contemporary Australian readings (pp. 200-250). Pymble,
Australia: Harper Educational.

For example - in text citation


has been argued (Daniels, 1993)
OR
Daniels (1993) argues that

Style notes
Provide both the title of the chapter (not italicised) and the title of the book

o
(italicised).
o

Give inclusive page numbers for the chapter in the Reference List.

Details about edition, volume number or chapter page range are placed in
parentheses, e.g., ( 2nd ed.). or (Rev. ed.). or (Vol. 16).

If there is no chapter author, use the editor's name as author and do not
repeat as editor.

If pages are being directly referenced in the text, include the page
number/s in the in-text citation after the year.

Do not invert the editor's name. (e.g. P. Maxwell, not Maxwell, P.)

Group as author

Entry in reference list

Full name of group author. (Year of publication). Title of publication (Additional


information).Place of publication: Publisher.

For example - reference list


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
(2007). Babies and bosses: Reconciling work and family life: A
synthesis of findings for OECD countries. Paris, France: Author.

For example - in text citation


First use:

In a recent study, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and


Development [OECD] (2007) found
OR
was found (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development [OECD], 2007).
Subsequent use:
A recent OECD (2007) report suggested
OR
in work situations (OECD, 2007).

Style notes
o

When a group author is responsible for a publication (e.g., a Government


agency, a university department or an association) its name is usually spelled out each
time the work is cited in the text. However, if the name is long and the abbreviation is
familiar or readily understandable, you may abbreviate the name in the second and
subsequent citations.

If the publication originates from a sub-group of a larger organisation, put


a comma between the name of the larger group and the sub-group, e.g., University of
Melbourne, Melbourne Graduate School of Education. In the text citation, include
enough of the full name to enable identification in the Reference List.

Book titles are italicised.

o
o

Additional information should include edition, report number, volume


number or series volume as required for retrieval.

If pages are being directly referenced in the text, include the page
number/s in the in-text citation after the year.

Edition is written as 2nd ed. or Rev. ed. for revised.

When author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the
publisher.

Musical score
Musical scores are not discussed in the manual used in the compilation of the APA 6th
examples for this module. Our librarians suggest the following, however we advise that
you check with your subject guideline or tutor for recommended format.

Entry in reference list

Composer, A. A., & Composer, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of publication [Medium].


Place of publication: Publisher.

For example - reference list


Stravinsky, I. (1975). Rite of spring [Score]. London, England:
Hansen House.
If the score is part of a collection or anthology:
Whitfield, N., & Strong, B. (1966). I heard it through the
grapevine [Score]. In Motown anthology (pp.98-104). Milkwaukee,
WI: Hal Leonard.
If there is an editor:
Porter, C. (1953). It's all right with me [Score]. In W. L. Simon
(Ed.), Treasury of great show tunes (pp.104-110). Pleasantville,
NY: Reader's Digest.

For example - in text citation

"It's Alright With Me" (Porter, 1953) was also used in High
Society.
OR
Porter (1953) wrote "It's Alright With Me" for the musical CanCan.

Style notes
o

Examples of medium: score, choral score, miniature score, orchestral


score, libretto, song lyrics, etc

Often correct details for referencing items can be found on the Library
catalogue record.

Thesis

Entry in reference list


For an unpublished thesis:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title (Unpublished doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis). Institution
issuing degree, City, Country.
For a thesis available through a database service, such as ProQuest
Dissertations and Theses database, include the name of the database and the
accession or order number in the reference:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title (Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis). Retrieved from Name
of Database. (Accession or Order No.)
For a thesis from an institutional database:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title (Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis). Retrieved from web
address
For a thesis available on the web:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title (Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Institution issuing
degree). Retrieved from web address
When citing the abstract for a thesis, as from Dissertation Abstracts International:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section. Title of
section,Volume(Issue), Number of abstract.

For example - reference list

Considine, M. (1986). Australian insurance politics in the


1970s: Two case studies. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).
University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

For example - in text citation


Considine (1986) has shown
OR
was found (Considine, 1986).

Style notes
o

Italicise the title of the thesis, unless citing only the abstract.

When citing a thesis from outside the Unites States, include the city and
country of the institution, e.g., (Doctoral thesis, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg,
Germany).

Capitalisation: Capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if
any, and any proper nouns.

If pages are being directly referenced in the text, include the page
number/s in the in text citation after the year.