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Lecture 10

Explicit-to-Implicit
Sequential Solutions

14.5 Release

ANSYS LS-DYNA
in Mechanical APDL
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2013

Release 14.5

Objectives
This lecture concerns Explicit-to-Implicit (ETI) Sequential Solutions. Their
applications and procedural requirements are discussed.

Topics:
A. Overview
B. Springback Application
C. Required Procedure
D.ETI Sequential Solutions Workshop

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2013

Release 14.5

A. Overview
A sequential solution is an analysis technique that uses a combination of implicit
(general ANSYS) and explicit (ANSYS LS-DYNA) solution methods. In problems that
require a sequential solution, the results of an explicit analysis are imported into an
implicit model (or vice-versa) for the purpose of obtaining a final solution.

Reasons for Performing Sequential Solution


Some engineering processes are very complex and contain both dynamic and
static phases (e.g., initial hoop stress in a pressure vessel before a drop test or the
linear elastic springback after sheet metal forming).
The explicit technique is geared towards solving nonlinear dynamic-impact
problems and is not robust for solving static phases of physical phenomena.
The implicit method is best suited for solving static or quasi-static problems.
Combining the ANSYS implicit and ANSYS LS-DYNA explicit solvers is an extremely
powerful tool for allowing simulations of otherwise intractable engineering
problems.

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2013

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... Overview

An explicit-to-implicit sequential solution is one for which a dynamic


solution is first obtained for a geometry using the ANSYS LS-DYNA
program. Then, the deformed geometry and stresses are imported
into an ANSYS implicit analysis where a subsequent solution is
obtained through the application of appropriate boundary
conditions.
The explicit-to-implicit solution technique currently can only be applied
to SHELL163 and SOLID164 explicit elements. SOLID168 elements are
not currently supported.

The results of an explicit analysis can only be imported into SHELL181


or SOLID185 implicit elements.
Appropriate constraints must be specified in the implicit analysis to
prevent rigid body motion.
Explicit-to-implicit sequential solutions are predominantly intended for
simulating springback in sheet metal forming.

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B. Springback Application
In sheet metal forming processes, springback is defined as the dimensional change of
the formed part (i.e., blank), from that of the die, which occurs from linear elastic
unloading. In sheet metal forming, elastic energy is stored in the blank material
while it is in contact with the die. When the forming pressure is removed, the elastic
energy is released, causing the blank to deform or springback towards its original
geometry. A simplified forming process with springback is depicted below:
V
D

PUNCH
BLANK

DIE
Simplified Stamping Geometry

Forming of Blank

Springback of Blank During loading

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

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C. Required Procedure
There are nine basic steps required to perform an explicit-to-implicit sequential
solution. These steps include:
1. Solve the explicit portion of the analysis
2.
3.
4.
5.

Enter the implicit solver and change the current jobname


Convert explicit elements to implicit with the appropriate attributes
Turn off implicit element shape checking
Update the geometry of the implicit elements to the deformed shape of
the explicit solution

6. Unselect unnecessary elements for the implicit solution (retain only nonrigid body SHELL181 and SOLID185 elements)
7. Redefine the boundary conditions
8. Import the true stresses and shell element thicknesses from the explicit
analysis
9. Solve the implicit portion of the analysis
The following slides will be devoted to describing each of these steps in detail.

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2013

Release 14.5

... Required Procedure


Step 1: Solve the Explicit Portion of the Analysis
When performing the explicit portion of the analysis, follow the
recommendations given in the previous lecturess of the course notes. In
addition, there are several other guidelines that should be considered when
investigating springback.
Only SHELL163 or SOLID164 elements can be used to model the blank in
forming simulations that will consider springback effects.
Make sure that the shell element thicknesses for the blank are realistic.

Increase the punch velocity to speed up the simulation time.


Verify the results of the explicit analysis before proceeding to the implicit
solution.
Ensure that undesirable dynamic effects (i.e., vibrations) are not left in the
blank at the completion of the explicit solution using Time History
Postprocessing
Before exiting the explicit analysis, save the database as Jobname1.DB

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2013

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... Required Procedure


Step 2: Change the Jobname for the Implicit Run
Change the current jobname to Jobname2 and save the database
(Jobname2.DB).

If this is not done, the explicit results file (Jobname1.RST) will be overwritten
at the beginning of the implicit solution.
Utility Menu > File > Change Jobname ....

Utility Menu > File > Save as Jobname.DB

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2013

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... Required Procedure


Step 3: Convert the Element Types
In ANSYS, there are companion explicit and implicit element types. When performing a
sequential solution, all elements being analyzed must be converted to their companion
element to obtain a final solution. The companion explicit-implicit pairs are:
Explicit Type
LINK160
BEAM161
SHELL163
SOLID164
COMBI165
MASS166
LINK167

Implicit Type
LINK8
BEAM4
SHELL181
SOLID185
COMBIN14
MASS21
LINK10

All explicit elements are automatically converted to implicit elements by executing the
ETCHG,ETI command.
Preprocessor > Element Type > Switch Elem Type

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

February 5, 2013

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... Required Procedure


During the element conversion, some element attributes (i.e., KEYOPTS) may need to be
changed for the implicit portion of the analysis.

Typically, Real Constants such as element thicknesses (SHELL181) do not need to be


redefined the current thicknesses will be read in from the explicit results (see Step 8),
but the real constants themselves will be zero.

Only linear elastic material properties can be active in the implicit phase of the analysis.
Therefore, the plasticity material properties used for the blank in the explicit portion of
the analysis must be deleted.

Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models > Edit > Delete

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... Required Procedure


Step 4: Turn Off Element Shape Checking
During the explicit solution, it is likely that the elements of the blank have
undergone significant deformations during the forming process. Since singlepoint integration explicit elements are more robust for large deformations
than implicit elements, element shape checking should be turned off to obtain
a solution.

Element shape checking is turned off with the SHPP,OFF command


Preprocessor > Checking Controls > Shape Checking

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... Required Procedure


Step 5: Update the Geometry of the Implicit Elements
The starting point for the implicit springback analysis is the final deformed geometry of
the explicit solution.

In order to transfer the explicit deformed geometry of the blank to the implicit analysis,
the UPGEOM command is used. In the UPGEOM command, the explicit results filename
and the corresponding load step and substep must be specified to update the geometry.

Preprocessor > Update geometry ...

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... Required Procedure


Step 6: Remove Unnecessary Elements
In most forming analyses, solid or rigid elements are
used for the punch and dies during the explicit portion
of the solution. As these elements are not required in
the springback portion of the analysis (and may even
cause convergence difficulties), they should be
unselected before proceeding to the implicit solution.

Since most entities within an explicit analysis are based


on Part IDs, they can be unselected with the ESEL, U,
PART command:
Utility Menu > Select > Elements > By Attributes >
LS-DYNA Part ID > Unselect

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... Required Procedure

Step 7: Redefine the Boundary Conditions

During the explicit portion of the analysis, no constraints are


required on the blank during forming.

For an implicit solver, however, constraints are needed in all


directions to restrain rigid body motion. Additional constraints are
required for six DOF shell elements to implicitly model springback.

Typically, two or three nodes of each model component should be


fully constrained in the implicit portion of the analysis.

Symmetry conditions aid in stabilizing a model.

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... Required Procedure

Step 8: Import the Stresses

Along with the updated geometry (Step 5), true stresses and shell
thicknesses (for 5 point shells and bricks) need to be imported from the
explicit solution using the RIMPORT command. (Other shells import the
equivalent force and moment data instead of stress information directly.)

It is important to note that the deformed integration point thicknesses are


averaged before being imported and will override thicknesses defined by the
real constants for shell elements.

As with the UPGEOM command, the RIMPORT command requires the explicit
results filename, load step, and substep to be specified.
Solution > Loads > Apply > Structural > Other > Import Stress ...

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... Required Procedure


Step 9: Perform the Implicit Solution
Before solving the implicit springback solution, it is important to turn on
nonlinear geometry effects because it is likely that the blank has a highly
deformed geometry at the beginning of the implicit solution:
Make sure that the Analysis Options is set to Large Displacement Static

Solution > Analysis Type >


Soln Control > Analysis Options

Once the nonlinear geometry has been turned on, the explicit-toimplicit sequential solution is ready to be solved.
Solution > SOLVE > Current LS

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D. ETI Sequential Solutions Workshop


This workshop consists of the following problem:
WS10. Springback Analysis
Please refer to your Workshop Supplement for instructions.

Punch

Blank
Holder

Blank
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Die
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