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Critical Approaches to

Development (CAD)

Module Handbook 2016-17

Dr Jonathan Fisher

International Development Department


School of Government and Society
College of Social Sciences
University of Birmingham

Please note: Aside from assignment information and questions, the


contents of this handbook may change during the term please keep an
eye on Canvas where such changes will be announced.
Additional readings (particularly those for sessions in the second half of
term) will also be added during the term, via Canvas.

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Timetable
Lectures will take place in Lecture Room 1, Arts Building and will run weekly
on Thursdays, 1400-1500
These will be followed by a 1-hour seminar, to run weekly on Thursdays
1515-1615 in the Muirhead Tower (details on p.3)
Week Date

Lecture and Seminar Topic

Lecture delivered by

Part One: What is


development?
1

06/10

What is development?
Introduction to the module

Dr Jonathan Fisher,
IDD

13/10

Talking about development:


A linguistic history of
international development

Dr Jonathan Fisher,
IDD

20/10

Measuring Development:

Chloe Bailey and Sif


Heide-Ottosen, Mo
Ibrahim Foundation

Exploring the Ibrahim Index of


African Governance
This will be a two-hour
session (1400-1600) which
will include a lecture and Q &
A. There will be no separate
seminar afterwards.
4

27/10

The State and Development:


From Modernization Theory to
Neo-Liberalism and Good
Governance

Dr Jonathan Fisher,
IDD

03/11

Dependency and Development:


From dependencia to Ha-Joon
Chang

Dr Tom Hewitt, IDD

Part Two: Key Issues in


Development

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Date

Lecture and Seminar Topic

Lecture delivered by

10/11

Key issues in development:


Gender as a development issue

Ellie Gore, IDD

17/11

Key issues in development:


Fragility and Intervention

Dr Jonathan Fisher,
IDD

24/11

Key issues in development:


Education

Dr Paul Lynch, School


of Education

01/12

Key issues in development:


Dr Heather Marquette,
Politics and thinking politically IDD and
Developmental
Leadership Program
and Dr Jonathan
Fisher, IDD

10

05/12

Key issues in development:


Emerging economies and
poverty*

Marco Vieira (POLSIS)

*Please note. The lecture for


this week will be held in Arts
Building, Main Lecture Theatre
between 1300-1400 on
Monday, 5th December.
The seminars will be held, as
normal, on Thursday (08/12)
between 1515-1615

Seminar Rooms (all Muirhead Tower):


Group 1 (Jonathan): Arts Lecture Room 1 ever seminar
Group 2 (Laurence): Room 415 (Muirhead Tower, MT) every seminar
Group 3 (Mattias): Room 420 (MT) every seminar
Group 4 (Ellie): Room 417 (MT) every seminar
Group 5 (Robert): Room 427 (MT) every seminar
Group 6 (Joe):

Room 429 (MT), Weeks 1-4;


Arts Lecture Room 5, Weeks 5-6

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Room 429 (MT), Weeks 7-8


Arts Lecture Room 5, Weeks 9-10

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Critical Approaches to Development (CAD)


Lectures will take place in Lecture Room 1, Arts Building and will run weekly
on Thursdays, 1400-1500
These will be followed by a 1-hour seminar, to run weekly on Thursdays
1515-1615 in the Muirhead Tower (details on p.3)

Dr Jonathan Fisher
Office hours: by appointment | j.fisher@bham.ac.uk | Ext. 43492 | room 1114,
Muirhead Tower
Lectures from:
Chloe Bailey (Mo Ibrahim Foundation)
Dr Jonathan Fisher (IDD)
Ellie Gore (IDD)
Sif Heide-Ottosen (Mo Ibrahim Foundation)
Dr Tom Hewitt (IDD)
Dr Paul Lynch (Education)
Dr Heather Marquette (IDD and Developmental Leadership Program)
Dr Marco Vieira (Department of Politics and International Studies)
Seminar Leaders:
Joe Bell
Dr Laurence Cooley
Dr Jonathan Fisher
Ellie Gore
Dr Mattias Hjort
Robert Skinner

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Introduction to the Module

Note: we have tried to make this handbook as accurate and comprehensive


as possible but please note that content is subject to change. You will be
notified of any changes via the Announcements section of Critical
Approaches to Development on Canvas.
Aims
This module gives you a broad introduction to different approaches to
development. You will critically examine development theories and how they
have been, and are, applied in different areas of development. You will also
have the opportunity to apply these critical approaches to case studies of
contemporary development concern.
The module is designed to give you a solid introduction to the key aspects of
the topic that will serve as the analytical basis for much of the rest of your
Masters studies. A number of the issues are dealt with in more detail in
other modules. In addition, you may want to pursue some of the themes in
your dissertation.
After an introductory session, you will explore theories of development in
historical and thematic context from (roughly) 1945 up to the present. The
theories are then applied to contemporary development approaches and
issues. Throughout, the emphasis is on you developing a critical
understanding of the evolution of development theories over the last halfcentury and its implications for present day thinking about development.
Learning Outcomes: By the end of this course you should be able to:
MSc/MA

Graduate Diploma

Have an in-depth understanding of

Understand competing development

competing development theories


their origins, their continuities and
their differences - and to critically
evaluate their strengths and
weaknesses.
Distinguish between and critique
different approaches to development
Understand and critique how
theories of development relate to
specialist approaches to
development
Apply analytical and theoretical
thinking to contemporary
development situations.
Develop an in-depth understanding
of the different ways in which
development is measured, including
their strengths and drawbacks.

theories their origins, their continuities


and their differences - and evaluate their
strengths and weaknesses.
Distinguish between different approaches
to development
Understand how theories of development
relate to specialist approaches to
development
Apply analytical and theoretical thinking
to contemporary development situations.
Develop an understanding of the
different ways in which development is
measured, including their strengths and
drawbacks.

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Conduct of the Module


Lectures, Seminars and Assignments
The module is taught by a series of 1-hour lectures on Thursdays,
complemented by 1-hour seminars where you will explore in groups key
questions and controversies in development thinking. You will be assigned to
a seminar group at the beginning of the module.
You are expected to attend all lectures and seminars and registers will be
taken in each. In addition to formal assessment, you will be expected to
participate in class discussions, work together in groups and present
material to your seminar group.
You must accept the responsibility for taking on the necessary background
and specialist reading and participating in different learning activities.
Postgraduate seminars are not intended to be another mini-lecture from
the lecturer. They depend upon a high level of input and participation from
the members of the group.
In each of the ten weeks of the module, your study time works out as
follows:
Two contact hours for lectures and seminars
A minimum of four hours private study and other learning activities
Three hours
assignments

per

week

accumulated

and

carried

over

for

two

You are expected to attend all lectures and seminars. If you cannot
attend, then it is expected that you will inform the lecturer in advance
and provide a satisfactory reason for your absence.
A taught MSc is very much a co-operative enterprise. It works well if you
accept the basic commitment to attend all lectures and seminars, and to
participate in seminars. Teaching and learning depends upon all playing
their part and participating actively. Absences and poor preparation
disrupt the work of the group and disadvantage all students.
If for some good reason you are unable to keep an academic appointment,
you should inform your lecturer and/or the Programme Director in advance,
either directly or through the Postgraduate Office. If you are ill you should
endeavour to get a message to us as soon as possible. Lecturers will of
course be sympathetic in cases of illness or other difficulties.
If you encounter difficulties with your work, or illness or personal problems
affect your ability to pursue your studies, please tell someone (THE WELFARE
TUTOR, YOUR ACADEMIC TUTOR, OR YOUR PROGRAMME DIRECTOR)!

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Enquiry-based learning at Birmingham


At Birmingham we are committed to learning based on critical enquiry,
debate and self-motivation. Central to this is enquiry-based learning. What is
this?
The Universitys Vision for Birmingham Learning explains it like this:
Enquiry-based learning describes an environment in which learning is driven
by a process of enquiry shared by the student. It can encompass problembased learning, evidence-based learning, small scale investigations,
fieldwork, projects and research. It understands learning as an interactive
process between students and those academic staff who support and enable
their progress It places students at the centre of the learning process so
that they learn through involvement and ownership and not simply by
listening. It views students initially as active participants in the learning
process, and once equipped with the right tools, as active participants in the
investigation and analysis of problems, issues and evidence encountered in
teaching and learning situations. It fosters and promotes learner
responsibility and learner independence.

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Assignments
Please note: All extensions to essays must be agreed in advance with the
welfare tutor.
Performance on this module will be measured by:

Assignment One:
One 2,000 word assignment (40%):
DUE:

- formative (practice) essay, Monday, 31st


October, midnight;
- summative essay, Sunday, 11th December,
midnight

Assignment Two:
One 2,000 word assignment (60%):
DUE: Sunday 15th January, midnight.
You are permitted to go 10% over/under the word limit in each assignment
(ie. 2,200/1,800).

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Assignment 1:
Process:
Writing essays is an integral and important part of your degree.
Your first essay on CAD is initially formative, that is, a practice run. You will
get feedback on your essay and also an indicative grade (whether, for
example, it would be considered a pass, merit, or distinction level essay) the
first time you submit it.
Your formative feedback will be returned to you on or before Monday 21st
November. You will have an opportunity to learn more about essay feedback
in the Study Skills Session to be held on Wednesday 30th November.
You will then have some time (just under three weeks) to adjust/edit/rewrite
this essay for resubmission in doing so you should be guided by the
feedback received but also by your additional learning on CAD since 31
October. This time the essay is summative, that is, the grade counts towards
the module grade (40%).
Please note your formative and summative essays may be marked by
different people although final marks and feedback will be moderated
by Jonathan Fisher before being released.
You must include the word count on the cover sheet of your assignment
and submit it to Canvas on or before midnight on Sunday 11th December.
Essay focus:
For assignment one, everyone must answer the same question in 2,000
words:
What is development?
Answer with reference to scholarly literature and theories and support
your argument with empirical examples.
The question is consciously broad and encourages you to reflect critically
and openly on what development means in theory and in practice. You
will be expected to consider different perspectives but ultimately to put
forward an argument on what development is.
As you will discover in Week One, development means different things to
different people, there is no agreed definition. Throughout the rest of the
module you will also be introduced to different understandings of
development, different theories on what it means, what it looks like and/or
how it can be achieved. You will also have your own perspectives, based on
your own experiences. You are encouraged to draw-upon the latter in
answering the question assigned, but it is crucial that you situate these

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

personal reflections within the wider literature what scholars themselves


have said and the extent to which you agree or disagree with their analyses.
Development is not, of course, simply a theoretical issue and you should also
incorporate real-world examples where possible to illustrate your argument.
These do not need to be in the form of case studies (indeed, you probably
will not have space for this) and can instead be occasional sentences or short
examples (drawn from literature or, if appropriate, your own experiences
the important thing is that they are relevant and that they are properly
referenced).
You will only have covered 4/10 weeks of the module by the time you submit
your formative (though this will include 4/5 of the what is development
sessions) and so you may wish to read ahead in preparing your formative
submission. You should also, though, see the formative assignment as a
work in progress you will gain further insight into the question during
Weeks five, six and seven while your formative is being marked and you can
incorporate these insights into your final, summative submission. Your
markers will be conscious of this being a work in progress and will therefore
point you towards appropriate literatures to be covered later in the term
when preparing the feedback on your formative submission.
Two final points:
1. There is no right or wrong answer to this question. You will be
assessed on your ability to engage critically with the question and the
literature and to produce a clear, well-supported argument.
2. There is no expectation that your answer understands development as
a positive phenomenon. As we will discuss in Weeks Two and Five
especially, several major strands of development theory view the
international development enterprise as extremely problematic, even
unwelcome.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Assignment 2:
Whereas Assignment 1 encouraged you to think about the meaning and
nature of development in general, Assignment 2 asks you to look in greater
depth at an aspect of development, or at a key issue in the field. We will be
exploring some of the central contemporary debates in international
development during Weeks Six-Ten.
For Assignment 2, you should answer one of the following questions:
1. Is security a necessary prerequisite for development?
2. Is it possible to have development without gender equality? Illustrate
your answer with examples.
3. What do you consider to be the main issues affecting access to and
quality of education in developing countries?
4. India is the worlds seventh largest economy but is home to more of
the worlds poor than the whole of sub-Saharan Africa combined
With this in mind, how should we best understand the relationship between
economic growth and development?

The assignment should be 2,000 words and is worth, 60% of the module
assessment.
The submission deadline for this essay is: midnight, Sunday 15th January.
The assignment is to be submitted to the submission portal for CAD on
Canvas. You must include the word count on the cover sheet of your
assignment.
Please note: All assignments are run through plagiarism software on
Canvas.
Assignment deadlines are to be regarded as the last possible date for
submission. It is advisable to aim for an earlier date in order to avoid excess
pressure on library or computing resources. Permission to submit an
assignment after the deadline must be sought directly from the welfare
officer and will be given only in exceptional circumstances (e.g. serious
illness). Failure to meet these conditions will result in a penalty of 5% on the
mark actually achieved for each working day the assignment is late (i.e.
excluding weekends, public and University holidays).

11

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

12

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

For each session:


In this handbook there is a list of suggested readings accompanying
each weeks theme.
The lecture and seminar for each week will focus on the same topic
and therefore there is a general reading list for each week, together
with a one/two compulsory readings for the seminar discussion.
1. You are strongly advised to read at least one item per week from
the general list before the lecture and then to follow up with other
readings after the lecture. The reading lists are only a small number of
readings about each topic and you are encouraged to seek out other
readings on the subject. This is most obviously the case when you
come to writing your assignments.
2. The two compulsory readings assigned for each seminar are just
that, compulsory. The seminar discussions will be primarily structured
around these two readings and if you have not read both then you may
find it difficult to follow the discussion and to contribute. This will
result in a poorer learning experience both for you and for others in
the seminar group.
The seminar leader will assume that all students have read both
readings in facilitating the weekly seminar discussions.

13

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Reading Lists
The rest of the document contains suggested readings based around each
weekly theme. Under each week you will find a general reading list and a
seminar reading list. You are expected to read at least one piece from the
general reading list and the compulsory seminar readings before the
lecture/seminar in question. Your reading should not be limited to these,
however. The library and the eLibrary (for journals and other online
resources) gives you access to a wealth of literature. Use them!
Perhaps the most important practical skill you will acquire during the year is
the ability to search for good quality academic literature. The library (physical
and electronic) is a resource available only to you as a student at
Birmingham. Whilst there is plenty of material out there on the public
internet a google search for any given development-related term will return
thousands of results it is of variable quality (that is, some of it is good and
some of it is bad) and so should be treated with caution (even suspicion!).
Academic sources retrieved from the library and eLibrary have credibility and
reliability. Their use in your assignments will be credited.
Text books and core reading
You will be provided with one text book at the beginning of the course which
will help you to understand the basic features of many of the theories and
ideas discussed during the course:
Greig, A., Hulme, D. and Turner, M. (2007) Challenging Global Inequality:
Development Theory and Practice in the 21st Century, Basingstoke, Palgrave
Macmillan.
This textbook and the suggestions below will provide you with only an
introduction to the topic under discussion. They are a necessary but not a
sufficient basis from which to write assignments and participate in
discussions.
Text books on development
Allen, T and A. Thomas (eds) (2000) Poverty and Development Into the 21st
Century, 2nd ed., OUP.
Haynes, J. (ed) (2005) Development Studies, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Haynes, J., Ed. (2008) Development Studies: A Short Introduction. Cambridge,
Polity Press.
Hettne, B. (1995) Development Theory and the Three Worlds (2nd ed), Harlow:
Longman Group Ltd.
Pieterse, J. N. (2010) Development
Publications.

Theory. 2nd Edition. London, Sage

Rapley, J. (2002) Understanding Development: Theory and Practice in the


Third World. London: Lynne Rienner.
Rist, G. (2008) The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global
Faith. London, Zed Books

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Willis, K. (2005) Theories and


Perspectives on Development.

Practices

of

Development.

Routledge

Some key contemporary books on development


Acemoglu, D. and Robinson, J. (2012) Why nations fail: the origins of power,
prosperity and poverty. Profile Books Ltd.
Chambers, R. (2005) Ideas for Development. London, Earthscan
Chang, H.-J. (2003). Kicking Away the Ladder: Historical Strategy in Historical
Perspective. London, Anthem Press.
Collier, P. (2007). The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing
and What Can Be Done About It. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Cornwall, A., E. Harrison, et al. (2007). Feminisms in Development:
Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges. London, Zed Books.
Easterly, W. (2006) The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the
Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. Penguin.
Hoogvelt, A. (1997) Globalisation and the Postcolonial World: The New
Political Economy of Development, Basingstoke: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Kapuciski, R (2002) The Shadow of the Sun: My African Life. Penguin Books
Kothari, U. & A. Minogue (eds) (2002) Development Theory & Practice :
Critical Perspectives, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Leftwich, A. (2000) States of Development. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Riddell, R. (2007). Does Foreign Aid Really Work? Oxford, Oxford University
Press.
Sachs, J. (2005) The End of Poverty: How We Can Make It in Our Lifetime,
London: Penguin Books.
Stiglitz, J., (2006) Making Globalisation Work for the Poor, New York: WW
Norton & Company.
Readers on development
Chari, S. and S. Corbridge, Eds. (2008). The Development Reader. London:
Routledge.
Clark, D. A. (ed.) (2006) The Elgar Companion to Development Studies,
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. This is a recent and quite comprehensive
introductory set of readings on key development issues. You will find this a
useful reference work for this and other modules on your programme.
Desai, V. & B. Robert (eds) (2002) The Companion to Development Studies,
London: Arnold. This is a general reader on development studies with
chapters on specific topics. You will find this a useful reference work for this
and other modules on your programme.
Haslam, PA, Schafer, J and Beaudet, P (eds) (2009) Introduction to
International Development: Approaches, Actors, and Issues, Oxford: Oxford
University Press

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Timmons Roberts, J. & A. Hite (eds) (2000) From Modernization to


Globalization: Perspectives on Development and Social Change, Oxford:
Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Useful Journals
World Development, Development & Change, Development Policy Review,
New Political Economy, Third World Quarterly, Journal of International
Development but there are many more.
Blogs
are useful as a source of contemporary commentary on development. Here
are a few interesting ones but again there are many more:
Aid Watch
available)

(http://blogs.nyu.edu/fas/dri/aidwatch/)

(now

closed

but

still

Chris Blattmans blog (http://chrisblattman.com/)


Development Drums (http://developmentdrums.org/)
Developmental Leadership Program (http://www.dlprog.org/opinions.php)
Duncan Green (http://www.oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/)
Global Dashboard (http://www.globaldashboard.org/)
IDD Blog (iddbirmingham.wordpress.com)
Lawrence
Haddads
(http://www.developmenthorizons.com/)

Development

ODI Blog (http://blogs.odi.org.uk/blogs/main/default.aspx)


Open Democracy (http://www.opendemocracy.net/economics)
Owen Abroad (http://www.owen.org/)

16

Horizons

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week One: What is development?


What the week is about:
This week introduces the module by presenting a range of perspectives on
the meaning, character and nature of development. You will be presented
with a number of statements and interpretations of development from key
thinkers in the field some of which contradict one another. Major changes
and continuities in development theory and practice since the 1950s will also
be highlighted as a means to contextualize the module and its content. The
lecture will be delivered by Dr Jonathan Fisher.
The seminar will focus on exploring how you view development, based
around the object you were asked to bring to the session which represents
development to you. Over the course of the module you will be able to
explore how your understanding of development (and that of others in your
group) fits into existing theories and paradigms in the field.
Aims:
The session aims to:

Provide an introduction to the module

Explore different ways in which development can be understood

Introduce the idea of development as a field of study and of the


importance of theory to development studies

Encourage you to think about development (and development studies)


critically

Compulsory Seminar Readings:


There is no compulsory reading for this week but you may wish to begin your
intellectual journey for CAD through reading:
Sumner, A. & Tribe, M. 2008. What could Development Studies be?
Development in Practice, 18(6), 755-766.
General Readings:
Acemoglu, D. and Robinson, J. 2012. Why nations fail: the origins of power,
prosperity and poverty. London: Profile Books Ltd.
Allen, T. & Thomas, A. 2000. Poverty & Development into the 21st Century,
Oxford: OUP, ch. 1 & 2.
Arsel, M. & Dasgupta, A. 2015. Critique, Rediscovery and Revival in
Development Studies, Development and Change, 46(4), 644-665.
Bernstein, H. 2006. Studying development/development studies, African
Studies, 65(1): 45-62.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Copestake, J. 2014. Whither development studies? Reflection on its


relationship with social policy, Journal of International and Comparative
Social Policy, 31(2), 100-113.
Harriss, J. 2005. Great Promise, Hubris and Recovery: A Participant's History
of Development Studies, in U. Kothari (ed.) A Radical History of Development
Studies: Individuals, Institutions and Ideologies. Cape Town and London:
David Philip and Zed Books. The bibliography contains some of the key
writings in the discipline over the last 50 years.
Harriss, J. 2014. Development Theories, in Currie-Alder, B., Kanbur, R.,
Malone, D.M. and Medhora, R. (eds.), International Development: Ideas,
Experience, and Prospects, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Haynes, J. 2005. Development Studies, Basingstoke: Palgrave, Part 1.
Kenny, C. & Sumner, A. 2011. More Money or More Development: What have
the MDGs achieved? Working Paper 278, Washington, DC: Center for Global
Development.
Kothari, U. & Minogue, M. (eds). 2002. Development Theory & Practice,
Basingstoke: Palgrave,
Leftwich, A. 2000. States of Development: On the Primacy of Politics in
Development, Cambridge: Polity, ch. 3.
Natsios, A. 2006. Five Debates on International Development: The US
Perspective, Development Policy Review, 24(2): 131-9.
Nicolai, S., Hoy, C., Berliner, T. and Aedy, T. 2015. Projecting Progress:
Reaching the SDGs by 2030, London: Overseas Development Institute.
Pieterse, J.N. 2010. Development Theory, 2nd edition, London: Sage,
especially Chapter 1.
Remenyi, J. 2004. What is Development? in Kingsbury, D. et al., Key Issues in
Development, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Seers, D. 1969. The Meaning of Development, Sussex: Institute of
Development Studies. Just so that you know that the debate over the
meaning of development has been going on a long time
Sen, A. 1999. Development as Freedom, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Sumner, A. 2011. The Global Economic Crisis and Beyond: What Possible
Future(s) for Development Studies? European Journal of Development
Research, 23, 43-58.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Two: Talking about development: A


linguistic history of international development
What the week is about
Last week we talked about different ways of understanding the concept of
development. This weeks aim is to get you thinking about what is meant by
thinking critically by outlining how development has been talked about
throughout history. In doing so, the lecture will unpack some of the
assumptions and histories which lie behind the word development and the
many other phrases we use in development studies such as the Third World
or poverty reduction. This will involve exploring how development language
is or has been used and why understanding this critically really matters. It
will also involve an introduction to post-development theory a radical
critique of more orthodox theories of development to be introduced during
the module. The lecture will be delivered by Dr Jonathan Fisher.
The seminar will explore two different critiques of development as a field
or practice (Escobar) and as a discourse (Cornwall and Brock).
Aims
The session aims to:

Outline what is meant by thinking critically in the context of


development studies

Demonstrate how the development discourse has evolved over time


and show its connections to Western philosophical traditions and
ideas

Encourage you to interrogate how language is used in development


studies and with what implications

Encourage you to challenge the notion that development is a neutral


or objective field of study through exploring the field of postdevelopment theory

Compulsory Seminar Readings:


1. Cornwall, A. and Brock, K. 2005. What do buzzwords do for development
policy? A critical look at participation, empowerment and poverty
reduction, Third World Quarterly, 26 (7): 1043-1060.
2. Escobar, A, Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the
Third World, Chapter 6 (pp.212-226) (Princeton University Press: Princeton,
NJ; 1995). (Available at
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/class_homepages/geog_3682_f08/Arti
cles/Escobar%20-%20Imagining%20post%20development.pdf)

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Textbook reading:
Greig, A., Hulme, D. and Turner, M. (2007) Challenging Global Inequality:
Development Theory and Practice in the 21st Century, Basingstoke, Palgrave
Macmillan, Chapters 4 and 5.
General Readings
Critical thinking and the language of development:
Bakewell, O. 2008. Research beyond the categories: The importance of
policy irrelevant research into forced migration, Journal of Refugee Studies,
21 (4): 432-453.
Berger, M. 1994. The end of the Third World, Third World Quarterly, 15 (2):
257-275.
Berger, M. 2004. After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third
Worldism, Third World Quarterly, 25 (1): 9-39.
Crewe, E. 1998. Whose development? An ethnography of aid. London: Zed
Books.
Esteves, P. 2010. Peace operations and the government of humanitarian
spaces, International Peacekeeping, 17 (5): 613-628.
Greig, A., Hulme, D. and Turner, M. (2007) Challenging Global Inequality:
Development Theory and Practice in the 21st Century, Basingstoke, Palgrave
Macmillan. Chapter 4: 53-72.
Kapoor, I. 2008. The postcolonial politics of development. London:
Routledge.
McFarlane, C. 2006. Knowledge, learning and development: A postrationalist approach, Progress in Development Studies, 6 (4): 287-305.
Mohan, G. and Wilson, G. 2005. The antagonistic relevance of development
studies, Progress in Development Studies, 5 (4): 261-278.
Rist, G. 1997, 2008. The history of development: From Western origins to
global faith. London: Zed Books; also an electronic resource in Birminghams
e-library.
Said, E. 1979, 2003. Orientalism. London: Penguin.
Spivak, G. 1985. The Rani of Sirmur: An essay in reading the archives,
History and Theory, 24 (3): 247-272.
Therien, J-P. 1999. Beyond the North-South divide: The two tales of world
poverty, Third World Quarterly, 20 (4): 723-742.
Weber, H. 2004. Reconstituting the Third World? Poverty reduction and
territoriality in the global politics of development, Third World Quarterly, 25
(1): 187-206.
Post-development theory:
Andrews, N and Bawa, S. 2014. A post-development hoax? (Re)-examining
the past, present and future of development studies, Third World Quarterly
35 (6): 922-938.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Batliwala, S. 2007. Taking the power out of empowerment: an experiential


account, Development in Practice, 17(4-5): 557-65.
Blaikie, P. 2000. Development, post-, anti-, and populist: a critical review.
Environment and Planning, 32: 1033-50.
Brigg, M. 2002. Post-development, Foucault and the colonisation metaphor,
Third World Quarterly, 23(3): 421-36.
Crush, J. (ed) 1995. Power and Development, London: Routledge.
De Rivero, O. 2001. The Myth of Development : The Non-Viable Economies
of the 21st Century, London: Zed Books.
Escobar, A. 1996. Imaginging a Post-Development Era, in Crush, J. (ed) The
Power of Development, London: Routledge: 211-27.
Escobar, A. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of
the Third World. Princeton: PUP.
Esteva, G. 1987. Regenerating Peoples Space, Alternatives, XII: 125-52.
Fagen, G.H. 1999. Cultural Politics and (post) Development Paradigms, in
Munck, R. and D. OHearn (eds) Critical Development Theory: Contributions
to a New Paradigm. London: Zed Books: 179-95.
Friedmann, J. 1992. The Politics of Alternative Development. Cambridge, MA:
Blackwell Publishers.
Gardner, K. & Lewis, D. 1996. Anthropology, Development & the PostModern Challenge, London: Pluto Press.
Griesgraber, J.M. & B. Gunter (eds) 1996. Development: New Paradigms and
Principles for the 21st Century, London: Pluto Press.
Hickey, S. & Mohan, G. 2004. Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation,
London: Zed Books.
Kiely, R. 1999. The Last Refuge of the Noble Savage? A Critical Assessment
of Post-Development Theory, European Journal of Development Research,
11(1): 30-55.
Latouche, S. 1993. In the Wake of the Affluent Society: An Exploration of
Post-Development, London: Zed Books.
Lehmann, D. 1997. An Opportunity Lost: Escobars Deconstruction of
Development, Journal of Development Studies, 33(4): 568-78.
Leys, C. 1996. The Crisis in Development Theory New Political Economy,
1(1): 41-58.
Little, P. & Painter, M. 1995. Discourse, Politics, and the Development
Process: Reflections on Escobars Anthropology and the Development
Encounter, American Ethnologist, 22(3): 602-16.
Matthews, S. 2004. Post-Development Theory and the Question of
Alternatives: A View from Africa, Third World Quarterly, 25(2): 373-84.
McKinnon, K. 2008. Taking post-development theory to the field: Issues in
development research, Northern Thailand, Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 49(3):
281-93.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Nanda, M. 1999. Who Needs Post-Development? Discourses of Difference,


Green Revolution and Agrarian Populism in India, Journal of Developing
Societies, 15(1): 1-31.
Pieterse, J.N. 2000. After post-development, Third World Quarterly, 21(2):
175-91.
Pieterse, J.N. 1998. My Paradigm or Yours? Alternative Development, PostDevelopment, and Reflexive Development, Development and Change, 29:
343-73.
Rahnema, M. (ed) 1997. The Post Development Reader. M. Rahnema (ed.).
London: Zed Books.
Schuurman, F. 2000. Paradigms lost, paradigms regained? Development
studies in the 21st century, Third World Quarterly, 21(1): 7-20.
Storey, A. 2000. Post-Development Theory: Romanticism and Pontius Pilate
Politics, Development, 43(4).
Sylvester, C. 1999. Development studies and postcolonial studies: disparate
tales of the Third World, Third World Quarterly, 20(4): 703-21.
Ziai, A. 2004. The Ambivalence of Post-Development: Between Reactionary
Populism and Radical Democracy, Third World Quarterly, 25(6): 1045-60.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Three: Measuring Development:


Exploring the Ibrahim Index on African
Governance
What the week is about
This week is aimed at getting you thinking about a question which is
simultaneously theoretical and very practical how can we actually measure
development? The lecture will introduce the theme through exploring one
way in which governance has been measured in recent years.
Representatives from the Mo Ibrahim Foundation (will present on their Index
on African Governance before opening-up to questions on the Index and
topic in general.
Aims
The week aims to help you:

Explore how aspects of development can be measured through the


case study of the Ibrahim Index on African Governance

Introduce the Ibrahim Index on African Governance

Explore the challenges of measuring development in a specific


context

Provide students with an opportunity to engage with key staff from


the Mo Ibrahim Foundation on the Index and its design in a Q & A
session

Compulsory Seminar Readings:


There will be no seminar this week. Instead, the lecture will last for 2
hours (1400-1600) and consist of a one-hour lecture and one hour for
Q & A.
You are expected, then, to read at least two pieces from the below list of
studies on the Ibrahim Index on African Governance and come to the
lecture with a pre-prepared question on the basis of this and wider
reading on measuring development (broader readings on this theme can
be found below).
Delapalme, N. 2011. African Governance: The importance of more and
better data, Governance 24 (1): 1-3.
Farrington, C. 2009. Putting good governance into practice I: The Ibrahim
Index of African Governance, Progress in Development Studies 9 (3): 249255.
Farrington, C. 2010. Putting good governance into practice II: Critiquing and
extending the Ibrahim Index of African Governance, Progress in
Development Studies 10 (1): 81-86.
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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Farrington, C. 2011. Putting good governance into practice III: Measuring


intrinsic and instrumental empowerment in local government contexts,
Progress in Development Studies 11 (2): 151-161.
Gisselquist, R. 2013. Evaluating governance indexes: Critical and less critical
questions, WIDER Working Paper No 2013/068, available at
http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/workingpapers/2013/en_GB/wp2013-068/
Mo Ibrahim Foundation. 2014. 2014 IIAG Methodology, available to
download at http://www.moibrahimfoundation.org/iiag-methodology/ (and see
http://www.moibrahimfoundation.org/downloads/publications/2014/2014-iiagmethodology.pdf for a more detailed explanation of this)

Key information on the Ibrahim Index and links to publications by the


Index can be found at:
http://www.moibrahimfoundation.org/iiag-resources/
http://www.moibrahimfoundation.org/downloads/publications/2014/2014-iiagdata-portal.xls

Textbook reading:
Greig, A., Hulme, D. and Turner, M. (2007) Challenging Global Inequality:
Development Theory and Practice in the 21st Century, Basingstoke, Palgrave
Macmillan, Chapters 3.
General Readings
Alkire, S. 2014. Measuring acute poverty in the developing world:
Robustness and scope of the multidimensional poverty index, World
Development 59: 251-274.
Alkire, S and Foster, J. 2011. Understandings and misunderstandings of
multidimensional poverty measurement, Journal of Economic Inequality 9
(2): 289-314.
Armstrong, D. 2011. Stability and change in the Freedom House political
rights and civil liberties measures, Journal of Peace Research 48 (5): 653662.
Barrientos, A. 2010. Should poverty researchers worry about inequality?
Brookes World Poverty Institute Working Paper 118, University of Manchester.
Available
at
http://www.bwpi.manchester.ac.uk/medialibrary/publications/working_pape
rs/bwpi-wp-11810.pdf.
Bilbao-Ubillos, J. 2013. The Limited of Human Development Index: The
complementary role of economic and social cohesion, development
strategies and sustainability, Sustainable Development 21 (6): 400-412.
Bogaards, M. 2012. Where to draw the line? From degree to dichotomy in
measures of democracy, Democratization 19 (4): 690-712.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Esposito, L and Lambert, P. 2011. Poverty measurement: Priotiarianism,


sufficiency and the Is of poverty, Economics and Philosophy 27 (2): 109121.
Ferreira, F. 2011. Poverty is multidimensional. But what are we going to do
about it?, Journal of Economic Inequality 9 (3): 493-495.
Giannone, D. 2010. Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of
democracy: The Freedom House case, Democratization 17 (1): 68-97.
Hoyland, B; Moene, K and Fredrik Willumsen. 2012. The tyranny of
international index rankings, Journal of Development Economics 97 (1): 114.
Knack, S; Rogers, FH and Eubank, N. 2011. Aid quality and donor rankings,
World Development 39 (11): 1907-1917.
McGillivray, M. 2003. Commitment to Development Index: A Critical
Appraisal,
available
at:
http://aid.dfat.gov.au/Publications/Documents/cdi_appraisal.pdf.
McGillivray, M and White, H. 1993. Measuring development? The UNDPs
human development index, Journal of International Development 5 (2): 183192.
Morrell, D. 2011. Who is poor?, Harvard Magazine, January 2011, available
at http://www.harvardmagazine.com/2011/01/who-is-poor.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 2008.
Handbook on Constructing Composite Indicators: Methodology and User
Guide, OECD: Paris, available at http://www.oecd.org/std/42495745.pdf
Overseas Development Institute (ODI). 2013. Blog series on measuring
development,
available
at
http://www.odi.org/programmes/developmentprogress/blog-series/measuring-poverty.
Ravallion, M, Two goals for fighting poverty, blog entry on Development
Progress, May 2013 (available at
http://www.developmentprogress.org/blog/2013/05/10/two-goalsfighting-poverty)
Scott-Villiers, P, We are not poor! Dominant and subaltern discourses of
pastoralist development in the Horn of Africa, Journal of International
Development 23 (6): 771-781 (2011)
Sen, A. 1976. Poverty: An ordinal approach to measurement, Econometrica
44
(2):
219-231,
available
at
http://www.ophi.org.uk/wpcontent/uploads/Sen-1976.pdf.
Sen, A. 1979. Issues in the measurement of poverty, Scandinavian Journal of
Economics 81 (2): 285-307.
Sen, A. 1981. Poverty and Famine: An essay on entitlement and deprivation,
Oxford University Press: Oxford. Especially Chapter 2 (Concepts of Poverty).
Sianes, A. 2013. Shedding light on policy coherence for development: A
conceptual framework, Journal of International Development, Early view
November 2013.
Steiner, N. 2014. Comparing Freedom House democracy scores to
alternative indices and testing for political bias: Are US allies rated as more
democratic by Freedom House?, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Early
25

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

view
May
2014
(earlier
version
of
this
article
available
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1919870)

at

Trani, J-F and Cannings, T. 2013. Child poverty in an emergency and conflict
context: A multidimensional profile and an identification of the poorest
children in Western Darfur, World Development 48: 48-70.
Further information, videos, statistics etc on a range of indices can be
found at:
Commitment to Development Index
(www.cgdev.org/initiative/commitment-development-index/index)
Freedom House
(www.freedomhouse.org)
Human Development Index
(hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi)
Multidimensional Poverty Index
(hdr.undp.org/en/content/multidimensional-poverty-index-mpi)
Polity IV Project
(http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/polity4.htm
nb. There are many, many more indices to explore!

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Four: Development and the State: From


Modernization Theory to Good Governance
What the week is about
This week focuses on one of the most longstanding and central debates in
development studies what should the role of the state be in promoting and
supporting development? In doing so, the lecture takes a broadly
chronological approach showing how early ideas on the state as a vital driver
of development in the 1950s (modernization theory) were replaced by far
more skeptical viewpoints by the 1980s (neo-liberalism and the good
governance agenda). Analysis of the work of contemporary development
thinkers notably Jeffrey Sachs and Paul Collier nevertheless shows how
influential these early statist approaches to development remain today. The
lecture will be delivered by Dr Jonathan Fisher.
The seminar will unpack a central debate within development studies on the
role of the state that on the developmental state. We will focus on this
entity in Africa and debate whether its economic virtues (Mkandawire) and
political drawbacks (Jones, Soares de Oliveira and Verhoeven) are
reconcilable.
Aims
The week aims to help you:

Understand key debates on the role of the state in development,


particularly those linked to Modernization Theory and Neo-Liberal
Theory

Explore critiques of modernization theory and neo-liberalism

Explore the concept of good governance

Critically analyse the continuing relevance of these theories to


contemporary development thinking

Compulsory Seminar Readings:


1. Mkandawire, T. 2001. Thinking about developmental states in Africa,
Cambridge
Journal
of
Economics
25:
289-313
(available
at
http://rrojasdatabank.info/Mkandawire.pdf)
2. Jones, W; Soares de Oliveira, R and Verhoeven, H. 2013. Africas Illiberal
Statebuilders, Refugee Studies Centre Working Paper 89, University of Oxford
(available
at
http://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/files/publications/working-paperseries/wp89-africas-illiberal-state-builders-2013.pdf)
Textbook Reading:

27

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Greig, A., Hulme, D. and Turner, M. (2007) Challenging Global Inequality:


Development Theory and Practice in the 21st Century, Basingstoke, Palgrave
Macmillan, Chapters 6 and 7.

General Readings
On Modernization Theory:
Douglas, M. 2004. Traditional culture lets hear no more about it, in Rao,
W. & Walton, M. (eds.) Culture and Public Action. London: Stanford Univ.
Press.
Inglehart, R. & Baker, W. 2000. Modernisation, cultural change and the
persistence of traditional values, American Sociological Review 65(1): 19-51.
Ish-Shalom, P. 2006. Theory Gets Real, and the Case for a Normative Ethic:
Rostow, Modernization Theory, and the Alliance for Progress, International
Studies Quarterly (2006) 50, 287311.
Kitchen, G. 2006. The modernization myth, Open Democracy, 30 May.
Martinussen, J. 1997., Society, State and Market: A Guide to Competing
Theories of Development, London: Zed Books. Chapters 5 and 12 (WL)
(economic aspects of modernisation)
Preston, P. 1996. Development Theory: an introduction, Blackwell (Chapter 9:
Decolonization, Cold War and the construction of modernization theory)
Randall, V. & Theobald, R. 1985. Political Change and Underdevelopment: A
Critical Introduction to Third World Development, London: Macmillan,
chapter 1 (WL)
Rapley, J. 1996., Understanding Development: Theory and Practice in the Third
World, London: Lynne Rienner/UCL Press Limited (HD64R) chapter 1 (WL)
Rostow, W. 1959. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist
Manifesto, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 2
Smith, B. 2003., Understanding Third World Politics, London: Macmillan
Chapter 3 (WL) (Political aspects of modernisation)
Webster, A. 1995. Modernisation theory, in Ayres, R. (ed.) Development
studies: an introduction through selected readings. London: Greenwich
University Press
On Neoliberalism:
Cammack, P. 2002. Neoliberalism, the World Bank and the New Politics of
Development, in Kothari, U. & A. Minogue (eds) Development Theory &
Practice : Critical Perspectives, Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. 157-78.
Chomsky, N. 1998. Profits over People: Neoliberalism and the Global Order,
Seven Stories Press.
Colclough, C. and Manor, J. 1991. States or Markets: Neo-Liberalism and the
Development Policy Debate, Oxford, Clarendon Press
Fine, B. 2001. Neither the Washington nor the post-Washington consensus:
An Introduction in Fine, B., Costas, L. and Pincus, J (eds). Development Policy
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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond the Post-Washington Consensus.


Routledge Studies in Development Economics
Friedman, M. 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press.
Grindle, M. 2004. Good Enough Governance: Poverty Reduction and Reform
in Developing Countries, Governance, 17(4):525-48.
Gwynne, R. & C. Kay 2000. Views from the periphery: futures of
neoliberalism in Latin America, Third World Quarterly, 21(1):141-56.
Harrison, G. 2005. 'Economic Faith, Social Project, and a Misreading of
African Society: the Travails of Neoliberalism in Africa' Third World Quarterly,
26 (8):1303-1320.
Harvey, D. 2005. A Brief History of Neo-Liberalism, Oxford, Oxford University
Press.
MacEwan, A. 1999. Neo-Liberalism or Democracy? Economic Strategy,
Markets, and Alternatives for the 21st Century, London: Zed Books.
ni, Z. 1995. The Limits of Neoliberalism: Toward a Reformulation of
Development Theory, Journal of Economic Issues, XXIX(1).
Owen, H. 1994. The World Bank: Is 50 Years Enough? Foreign Affairs, 73(5):
97-108.
Owusu, F. 2003. Pragmatism and the gradual shift from dependency to neoliberalism: the World Bank, African leaders and development policy in Africa,
World Development 31 (10):1655-1672.
Portes, A. 2000. Neoliberalism and the Sociology of Development: Emerging
Trends and Unanticipated Facts, in Timmons Roberts, J. & A. Hite (eds) From
Modernization to Globalization: Perspectives on Development and Social
Change, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd:, 353-72.
Santiso, C. 2004. The contentious Washington Consensus: reforming the
reforms in emerging markets Review of International Political Economy,
11(4): 828-44.
Schuurman, F. (ed) 1994. Beyond the Impasse:
Development Theory, London: Zed Books. (ch 1)

New

Directions

in

Toye, J. 1993. Dilemmas of Development: Reflections on the Counter


Revolution in Development Economics, ch 3 & 4. London: Wiley-Blackwell.
World Bank.1981. Accelerated Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: An
Agenda for Action. Washington DC, The World Bank (The Berg Report)
Zack-Williams, T. & G. Mohan. 2005. Africa from SAPs to PRSP: Plus Ca
Change Plus Cest la Meme Chose, Review of African Political Economy, 106:
501-3.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Five: Dependency and Development:


From dependencia to Ha-Joon Chang
What the week is about:
This week examines enduring views in the literature that development
processes and outcomes are strongly (if not primarily) conditioned by
international / global forces. Such views range from the (then) orthodox
Keynesian arguments in the early days of development thinking, through
more radical formulations of the dependency school and related theories, to
contemporary arguments that there is no such thing as a level playing field
of free markets; in the words of Korean economist Ha Joon Chang, rich
countries have kicked away the ladder by forcing free-market, free-trade
policies on poor countries (Bad Samaritans). Dependency debates became
sterile and fizzled out but the legacy of the critical thinking that inspired it
lives on to the present. The lecture will be delivered by Dr Tom Hewitt, IDD.
The seminar focuses on how these longstanding debates are framed in
contemporary development studies, by examining an exchange between
Justin Lin, former World Bank Chief Economist (2008-2012) and Ha-Joon
Chang. This discussion may be quite dense for those without an economics
background so it is the only compulsory reading set for this week.
Aims
The week aims to help you:

Explore how development dynamics domestically interact with and are


impacted by international economic and political forces

Introduce the dependency school of thinking on development

Understand linkages between past theories on dependency and


development and contemporary debates on level-playing fields and
free markets

Compulsory Seminar Reading:


1. Chang, H-J. 2003. Kicking Away the Ladder: The Real History of Free
Trade,
FPIF
Special
Report,
December
2003.
Available
at
http://www.personal.ceu.hu/corliss/CDST_Course_Site/Readings_old_2012_f
iles/Ha-Joon%20Chang%20-%20Kicking%20Away%20the%20LadderThe%20%E2%80%9CReal%E2%80%9D%20History%20of%20Free%20Trade.pdf
2. DPR Debate: Should Industrial Policy in Developing Countries Conform to
Comparative Advantage or Defy It? A Debate Between Justin Lin and Ha-Joon
Chang, Development Policy Review, 27 (5): 483-502.
Textbook Reading:

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Greig, A., Hulme, D. and Turner, M. (2007). Challenging Global Inequality:


Development Thoery and Practice in the 21st. Century. Basingstoe, Palgrave
Macmillan. Chapter 5 is an accessible account of dependency theory
General Readings:
Chang, H.-J. (2003). Kicking Away the Ladder: Historical Strategy in Historical
Perspective. London, Anthem Press.
It is in the library and also available in google books here:
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=X5N7JMS1wNYC&printsec=frontcover&source=
gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

This article takes the debate about international forces effecting


development from a different angle; to explain the roots of political
underdevelopment. It is a long article so read selectively.
Frank, A. G. (1966) The Development of Underdevelopment. Monthly
Review, 18(4):17-31
Moore, M. (2001). "Political Underdevelopment: What
Governance"." Public Management Review 3(3): 385-418.

Causes

Bad

It is important to read original sources. Here is one of the main proponents


of dependency theory (a copy is posted on Canvas).
Other readings
(there are quite a few original - ie old - articles here about dependency
for those who want to get a taste of the writing of the time)
Bernstein, H. et al 1993. 'Capitalism and the expansion of Europe' in Allen, T.
& Thomas, A. Poverty and Development in the 1990s, Milton Keynes: Open
Univ. Press.
Browett, J. 1985. "The NICs and radical theories of development", World
Development, 13 (7):789-803.
Cardoso, F.H. 1972. 'Dependence and development in Latin America', New
Left Review, July-Aug.
Chang, H-J. 2007. Bad Samaritans: The guilty secrets of rich nations and the
threat to global prosperity. London: Random House.
Dos Santos, T 1973. The Structure of Dependence in Dos Santos, T. "The
structure of dependence", in Todaro, M. (ed) The Struggle for economic
development, pp.68- 75
Evans, P. (1979). Dependent Development: The Alliance of Multinational,
State, and Local Capital in Brazil. Princeton, New Jersey, Princetin University
Press.
Foster-Carter A. 1973. Neo-marxist approaches to development and
underdevelopment, Journal of Contemnorary Asia, 3 (1): 7-33.
Frank A.G. 1971. Capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America,
London: Penguin.

31

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Frank, A.G, 1973. The development of underdevelopment, in Wilber (ed). The


Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment (pp.94-104).
IDS Bulletin. 1980. "Dependency in the Eighties", 12 (1)
Leys, C. 1996. The rise and fall of development theory, London: James Curry
(Chap.2: Underdevelopment and Dependency: critical notes)
O'Brien, P. 1975. A critique of Latin American theories of dependency', in
Oxaal et al (ed), Beyond the sociology of development. London: Routledge.
Owusu, F. 2003. Pragmatism and the Gradual Shift from Dependency to
Neoliberalism: The World Bank, African Leaders and Development Policy in
Africa, World Development 31 (10):16551672.
Palma, G. 1992. "Dependency", in Eatwell, I. et al (eds) The New Palgrave:
Economic Development, London: Macmillan, pp. 1-97.
Palma, G. 1992. "Prebisch" in Eatwell, I. et al. (eds) The New Palgrave:
Economic Development, London: Macmillan, pp. 91-295.
Seers, D. (ed.) 1981. Dependency theory: a critical reappraisal, Institute of
Development Studies
Smith, T. 1985. Requiem or new agenda for third world studies?, World
Politics, 37 (4):532-561.
Valenzuela, JS. and Valenzuela, A. 1979. Modernisation and dependence:
alternative perspectives in the study of Latin American Underdevelopment,
in Villamil (ed), Transnational Capitalism and National Development,
Brighton: Harvester Press.
Warren, B. 1980. Imperialism: Pioneer of Capitalism, London: Verso.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Six: Key Issues in Development: Gender


and Development
What the week is about:
One way to explore and interrogate international development is through a
gendered lens. This means looking at development theory and practice as it
affects and impacts on gender(ed) relations. Indeed, since the 1970s
different schools of feminism have interrogated, and intervened in,
development issues. This week traces these various feminist interventions in
development debates since the latter half of the 20th century. The lecture will
be delivered by Ellie Gore, a PhD Candidate in IDD.
Aims

To introduce students to feminist theory in relation to development

To highlight the antagonisms between different feminism(s) in relation


to development debates

To highlight how feminism has influenced development projects

To outline feminisms impact on contemporary development theory


and practice

Compulsory Seminar Readings:


Wilson, K. 2015. Towards a Radical Re-Appropriation: Gender, Development
and Neoliberal Feminism, Development and Change, 46 (Forum 2015): 803832.
World Bank, Gender and IDA: Fostering Gender Equakity and Empowerment
(2012; watch video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxECHRlrHu8 )

Key reading
Greig, A., Hulme, D. and Turner, M. (2007) Challenging Global Inequality:
Development Theory and Practice in the 21st Century, Basingstoke, Palgrave
Macmillan, Chapter 9.
General Reading
Afshar, H. and Eade, D. (eds) 2004. Development, Women and War: Feminist
Perspectives, London: Oxfam.
Braidotti, R. 1994. Women, the Environment and Sustainable Development:
Towards a Theoretical Synthesis, London: Zed Books, Chapter 5.
Chua, P. (et al) 2000. Women, Culture, Development: a new paradigm for
development studies? Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23 (5): 820-841.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Chowdhry, G. 1995. Engendering Development: Women in Development


(WID) in International Development Regimes, in Marchand, M. and Parpart, J.
(eds.) Feminism, Postmodernism, Development, London: Routledge.
Cornwall, A. et al. 2007. Gender Myths and Feminist Fables: The struggle for
interpretive power in gender and development, Development and Change,
38 (1): 1-20.
Gender and Development 2005, 13(2), special issue titled Mainstreaming: A
Critical Review.
Haraway, D. 2003. Situated Knowledges: the Science Question in Feminism
and the Privilege of Partial Perspective, in Lincoln, Y. S. and Denzin N.K.,
Turning Points in Qualitative Research, (Rowman Altamira).
Kabeer, N. 1994. Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development
Theory. London: Verso.
Kerr, Joanna and Caroline
Globalisation, Oxford: Oxfam.

Sweetman,

2003.

Women

Reinventing

Marchand,
M.
and
Parpart,
J.
L.
1995.
Feminism/Postmodernism/Development, London: Routledge.

eds.,

Mohanty, C. T. 1991. Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial


Disco Greig, A., Hulme, D. and Turner, M. (2007) Challenging Global
Inequality: Development Theory and Practice in the 21st Century,
Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, Chapters 4 and 5.

urses, in Mohanty, C. T. (et al) Third Word Women and the Politics of
Feminism, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
Momsen, J. H. 2010. Gender and Development, London: Routledge, 2nd
edition.
Parpart, J. L. (et al) 2002. Rethinking Empowerment:
Development in a Global / Local World, London: Routledge.

Gender

and

Pietil, H. 2002. Engendering the Global Agenda: The Story of Women and
the United Nations, Development Dossier Series, New York, NY: UN NonGovernmental Liaison Service.
Rai, S. 2008. The Gender Politics of Development: Essays in Hope and
Despair, London: Zed.
Rai, S. 2005. Gender and Development, in J. Haynes (ed.) Development
Studies, London: Palgrave.
Ramamurthy, P. 2000. Indexing Alternatives: Feminist development Studies
and Global Political Economy, Feminist Theory, 1 (2): 239-56.
Razavi, S. and Miller, C. 1995. From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the
Women and Development Discourse, Occasional Paper, Geneva: UNRISD.
Visvanathan, N. (et al) eds. 1997. The Women, Gender and Development
Reader, London: Zed Books.
Wilson, K. 2015. Towards a Radical Re-appropriation: Gender, Development
and Neoliberal Feminism, Development and Change, 46 (4): 803-832.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Seven: Key Issues in Development:


Fragility and Intervention
What the session is about
This lecture returns to some of the themes of Weeks 3 and 5 by exploring
key debates on the role of external intervention (military, humanitarian or
developmental that is, aid) in promoting development. In does so in the
context of the emergence of the fragile or failed state concept which has
increasingly become the centerpiece of international development efforts in
recent years. The lecture will explore arguments in favour of template-style
intervention as well as introduce more recent thinking in development
studies which promotes going with the grain and good enough
approaches to external engagement with developing states and societies.
The lecture will be delivered by Dr Jonathan Fisher.
The seminar examines a central debate within this field on the nature of
intervention and whether so-called liberal peacebuilding interventions are
desirable and effective or problematic and destructive. We will examine the
arguments of one prominent defender of liberal peacebuilding (Paris) and
consider how he has been critiqued (Cooper, Turner and Pugh).
Aims
The session aims to:

Introduce students to key debates on the role of external actors in


development looking both at successes and failures (including the
role of unintended consequences) in this regard

Explore intervention in its broadest sense as not just a military


action but a wider form of external engagement including the use of
aid programmes etc

Unpack the fragile state notion and ideas on security

Introduce students to alternative ways of thinking about external


intervention by contrasting template approaches (best practice) with
going with the grain and politically-informed approaches (best fit)

Compulsory Seminar Readings:


1. Paris, R. 2010. Saving liberal peacebuilding, Review of International
Studies 36 (2): 337-365.
2. Cooper, N; Turner M and Pugh M. 2011. The end of history and the last
liberal peacebuilder: A reply to Roland Paris, Review of International Studies
37 (4): 1995-2007.
General Readings:

35

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Aoi, C; de Coning, C and Thakur, R (eds). 2007. Unintended consequences of


peacekeeping operations, United Nations University Press, Tokyo.
Autesserre, S. 2010. The Trouble with the Congo: Local violence and the
failure of international peacebuilding, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge.
Autesserre, S. 2014. Peaceland: Conflict resolution and the everyday politics
of international intervention, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Beswick, D. and P. Jackson, 2015. Conflict, Security and Development, 2nd
edition, Routledge.
Cooper, N; Turner M and Pugh M. 2011. The end of history and the last
liberal peacebuilder: A reply to Roland Paris, Review of International Studies
37 (4): 1995-2007.
Duffield, Mark,. 2004) Global Governance and the New Wars: The Merger of
Development and Security. London, Zed Books. (Introduction & Chapter 1)
Easterly, W. (2006) The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the
Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. Penguin.
Ferguson,
J.
1990.
The
Anti-Politics
Machine:
Development,
Depoliticization and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge.
Foreman, J. 2013. Aiding and Abetting: Foreign aid failures and the 0.7%
deception, Civitas, London.
(but see also review by J Fisher in International Affairs, 89 (3) 2013: 743744)
Freedman, R. 2014. Failing to Protect: The UN and the Politicisation of
Human Rights, Hurst, London.
Galtung, Johan. 1985) Twenty-five years of peace research, Journal of Peace
Research, vol. 22, (2)
Grimm, S; Lemay-Hebert, N and Nay, O. 2014. Fragile States: An
introduction, Third World Quarterly 35 (3): 197-209.
**See also other articles in this issue of Third World Quarterly as the whole
issue focuses critically on the Fragile States concept and how it has been
used and engaged with by Western and non-Western actors and
organizations**
Keen, David. 2007. Complex Emergencies London: Polity Press (Introduction
& Chapter 1)
Kennedy, D. 2005. The Dark Sides of Virtue: Reassessing International
Humanitarianism, Princeton University Press, New Haven, CT.
Lederach, J.P. 1997) Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided
Societies, Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Lemay-Hebert, N. 2011. The empty-shell approach: The setup process of
international administrations in Timor-Leste and Kosovo, its consequences
and lessons, International Studies Perspective 12 (2): 190-211.
Lemay-Hebert, N. 2013. Critical debates on liberal peacebuilding, Civil Wars
15 (2): 242-252.
36

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Luckham, Robin with Bagayoko, N., Dammert, L., Fuentes, C. and Solis, M..
2009. 'Transforming Security and Development in an Unequal World', IDS
Bulletin 40.2, Brighton: IDS. Online at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgibin/fulltext/122261360/PDFSTART

Moyo, D. 2010. Dead Aid: Why aid is not working and how there is another
way for Africa, Penguin, London.
(also, listen to this interview with Moyo on unintended consequences of aid
from 2011: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Na6ssnb1yqA)
Paris, R. 2010. Saving liberal peacebuilding, Review of International Studies
36:
337-365
(available
at
http://www.engagingconflict.it/ec/wpcontent/uploads/2012/06/Paris-Saving-Liberal-Peacebuilding.pdf)
Paris, R. 2014. The geopolitics of peace operations: A research agenda,
International Peacekeeping 21 (4): 501-508.
Picciotto, Robert and Rachel Weaving. (eds.) 2005. Security and Development:
Investing in Peace and Prosperity, London: Taylor and Francis.
Sachs, J. 2005. The End of Poverty: Economic possibilities for our time
[forward by Bono]. New York: Penguin Books.
Stewart, Frances. 2004. Development and Security Conflict, Security and
Development vol. 4 (3)
Turner, M. 2012. Completing the circle: Peacebuilding as colonial practice in
the Occupied Palestinian Territory, International Peacekeeping 19 (4): 492507.

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Eight: Key Issues in Development:


Education
What this week is about:
This week will introduce the major issues of educational development in
middle and low income countries. It will look at understanding and analyzing
the relationship between education, learning and international
development. It will also briefly examine formal and non-formal schooling
in contexts of chronic poverty, conflict, non-formal education, inclusive
education and disability and early childhood care and development. The
lecture will be delivered by Dr Paul Lynch, School of Education.
Aims:
The aims of the week are to help you:

understand the key issues and debates on education and international


development

examine some of the processes in education and development

explore how schooling is affected in different contexts and situations

explore the challenges of measuring outcomes from education.

Compulsory Seminar Readings:


TBC
General Readings:
Davies, L. (2008) Educating Against Extremism. Stoke-On-Trent: Trentham.
Little, A. (2003) Motivating Learning and the Development of Human Capital,
Compare 33, 4.
Lynch, P., McCall, S., Douglas, G., McLinden, M. and Bayo, A. (2011a).
Inclusive educational practices in Uganda: evidencing practice of itinerant
teachers who work with children with visual impairment in local mainstream
schools. The International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(10) 1119-1134.
Harber, C. (2014) Education and International Development: theory, practice
and issues Oxford: Symposium.
Paulson, J. (2011) Education, Conflict and Development Oxford: Symposium
Phillips, D. and Schweisfurth, M. (2006) Comparative and International
Education: an introduction to theory, method and practice. London:
Continuum.

38

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Phillips, R. and Furlong, J. (2001) Education, Reform and the State: twentyfive years of politics, policy and practice. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Crossley, M Arthur, L & McIness, E. (2015) Revisiting InsiderOutsider
Research
in Comparative and International Education. Bristol: Symposium Books.

Useful official websites:


United Nations Sustainable Knowledge Platform
https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300
Global Education Monitoring Report
http://gem-report-2016.unesco.org/en/home/
UNICEF education work
http://www.unicefusa.org/work/education/
UNICEF gender and education
http://www.unicef.org/girlseducation/
UNICEF Teacher zone - education materials
http://www.unicef.org.uk/tz/
World Bank education
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTEDUCATION/0,,me
nuPK:282391~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:282386,00.html
Asian Development Bank education
http://www.adb.org/Education/educ-acts.asp
A selection of international and comparative education journals:
International Journal of Educational Development
Compare
Comparative Education
Comparative Education Review
Globalisation, Societies and Education
Research in Comparative and International Education
International Journal of Lifelong Education
International Journal of Inclusive Education

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Nine: Key Issues in Development: Politics


and Thinking Politically
What the week is about
International development as a field has long been dominated by
development economists; some of the most well-known thinkers in
development studies Sachs, Collier, Chang come from this field. This
week nevertheless places the focus upon the growing importance of political
scientists and political science in development, in theory and in practice. The
lecture will contrast the perspectives of development economists with those
of development politics scholars and will explore the notion that
development is about power struggles, rather than mutual cooperation. It
will also introduce the thinking and working politically (TWP) agenda and
what this means for development practitioners and theorists. The lecture will
be co-delivered by Dr Jonathan Fisher and Dr Heather Marquette. Dr
Marquette (IDD) is Research Director for the Developmental Leadership
Program, a leading thought-shaper on TWP.
The seminar will examine some of the challenges involved in incorporating
political thinking into development work through examining how various
Western donor institutions have sought to mainstream political economy
analysis into their programming.
Aims
The session aims to:

Introduce students to key debates on the place of political science and


political science frameworks in the theorizing and practice of
development

Explore understandings
struggles

Introduce students to the thinking and working politically agenda


and its critics

of

development

based

around

power

Compulsory Seminar Readings:


1. Fisher, J and Marquette, H (2016), Empowered patient or Doctor knows
best? Political Economy Analysis and Ownership, Development in Practice,
26 (1): 115-126.
2. Yanguas, P and Hulme, D (2015), Barriers to political analysis in aid
bureaucracies: From principle to practice in DFID and the World Bank, World
Development, 74: 209-219.
General Readings:
Abrahamsen, R. 2000. Disciplining Democracy, London: Zed Books.

40

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Baylies, C. 1995. Political Conditionality and Democratisation, Review of


African Political Economy, 65: 321-337.
Court, J. 2006. Governance, Development & Aid Effectiveness: A Quick Guide
to Complex Relationships, ODI Briefing Paper, March.
Dasandi, N; Marquette, H and Robinson, M (2016), Thinking and Working
Politically: From Theory Building to Building an Evidence Base, DLP Research
Paper
37
(http://www.dlprog.org/publications/thinking-and-workingpolitically-from-theory-building-to-building-an-evidence-base.php).
Grindle, M. 2004. Good Enough Governance: Poverty Reduction and Reform
in Developing Countries, Governance, 17(4): 525-48.
Grindle, M. 2005. Good Enough Governance Revisited: A Report for DFID
with reference to the Governance Target Strategy Paper, 2001.
Harrison, G. 2004. 'Globalisation, Governance and Development' New Political
Economy, 9 (2):155-163.
Harrison, G. 2005. 'The World Bank, Governance and Theories of Political
Action in Africa' British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 7 (2):
240-260.
Hudson, D and Leftwich, A. 2014. From Political Economy to Political
Analysis, DLP Research Paper 25 (http://www.dlprog.org/publications/frompolitical-economy-to-political-analysis.php).
Hyden, G. 1992. Governance and the study of politics, in Hyden, G. and
Bratton, M. (eds) (1992) Governance and Politics in Africa, Boulder, CO.:
Lynne Reiner.
Hyden, G., Olowu, D. and Okoth-Ogendo, W. (eds.)
Perspectives on Governance. Trenton: Africa World Press.

1999.

African

Kooiman, Jan.2002. Governing as Governance. London: Sage.


Leftwich, A. 1993. Governance, Democracy and Development in the Third
World, Third World Quarterly, 14(8):605-624.
Leftwich, A. 1994. Governance, the State and the Politics of Development,
Development and Change, 25: 363-86.
Leftwich, A. 2005.. "Politics in Command: Development Studies and the
Rediscovery of Social Science." New Political Economy, 10(4): 573-607
Marquette, H. 2003. Corruption, Politics & Development: The Role of the
World Bank, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Marquette, H. 2004. The Creeping Politicisation of the World Bank: The Case
of Corruption, Political Studies, 52(3).
Minogue, M. 2002. Power to the People? Good Governance and the
Reshaping of the State, in Kothari, U. & A. Minogue (eds) Development
Theory & Practice : Critical Perspectives, Basingstoke: Palgrave:117-35.
Moore, M. 2001. Political Underdevelopment: What
Governance, Public Management Review, 3(3):385-418.

Causes

Bad

Olowu, D. and Sako, S. (eds.) 2002. Governance, Institutional Reforms and


Public Policy Outcomes in Developing Countries. West Hartford, CT:
Kumarian Press.

41

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Robinson, M. and White, G. 1998. The Democratic Developmental State:


Political and Institutional Design, Oxford Studies in Democratisation, Oxford
University Press.
Routley, L and Hulme, D. 2013. Donors, Development Agencies and the use
of Political Economic Analysis: Getting to Grips with the Politics of
Development?, ESID Working Paper No 19 (http://www.effectivestates.org/wp-content/uploads/working_papers/finalpdfs/esid_wp_19_routley-hulme.pdf).
Shepherd, A.W. 2000. Governance, good government and poverty
reduction, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66 (2), 269-84.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 1997. Reconceptualising
Governance, Discussion Paper 2. New York: UNDP.
Unsworth, S. 2009. Whats politics got to do with it? Why donors find it so
hard to come to terms with politics and why this matters, Journal of
International Development, 21 (6): 883-894.
Whaites, A; Gonzalez, E; Fyson, S and Teskey, G. 2015. A Governance
Practitioners Notebook: Alternative Ideas and Approaches (Paris, OECD;
http://www.oecd.org/dac/accountable-effectiveinstitutions/Governance%20Notebook.pdf).

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Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Week Ten: Key Issues in Development:


Emerging Economies and Poverty
What the session is about:
This lecture aims to introduce you to the growing debates around emerging
economies and their role in development. In particular, but not exclusively,
the growth of the economies of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
(BRICS) has fairly rapidly led to a reevaluation of how development should be
understood, where a North-South relationship no longer makes as much
sense. To some extent, the increasing role of emerging economies within the
UN international system has reformulated the manner in which financial aid,
the developmental state and international relations are organised. The
lecture will be delivered by Dr. Marco Vieira from the Department of Politics
and International Studies.
The seminar will problematize the argument that economic growth in the
Global South necessarily goes hand-in-hand with development by
contrasting two perspectives on future development priorities: one which
focuses on the bottom billion (Collier) and the other which recognizes the
significance and perpetuation of poverty within middle-income, emerging
economies such as India (Kanbur and Sumner).
Aims:
The session aims to:

Explore the role of emerging economies in development

Analyse the implications emerging economies have for international


relations, financial aid, and the developmental state.

Reflect on the growing proportion of the worlds poorest located in


middle-income countries, and the implications of this for
development theory and practice.

Compulsory Seminar Readings:


1. Kanbur, R and Sumner, A (2012), Poor Countries or Poor People?
Development Assistance and the New Geography of Global Poverty, Journal
of International Development, 24 (6): 686-695.
2. Collier, P (2007), The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing
and What Can Be Done About It (Oxford, Oxford University Press):3-13 (on
Canvas)
General Readings:

43

Critical Approaches to Development Module Handbook 2016-2017

Abdenur, AE. 2014. Emerging powers as normative agents: Brazil and China
within the UN development system, Third World Quarterly, 35 (10): 18761893.
Browne, S and Weiss, T. 2014. Emerging powers and the UN development
system: Canvassing global views, Third World Quarterly, 35 (10): 18941910.
De Renzio, P and Seifert, J. 2014. South-South cooperation and the future of
development assistance: Mapping actors and options, Third World Quarterly,
35 (10): 1860-1875.
Esteves, P and Assuncao, M. 2014. South-South cooperation and the
international development battlefield: Between the OECD and the UN, Third
World Quarterly, 35 (10): 1775-1790.
Eyben, R and Savage, L. 2012. Emerging and submerging powers: Imagined
geographies in the New Development Partnership at the Busan Fourth High
Level Forum, Journal of Development Studies, 49 (4): 457-469.
Glassman, A; Duran, D and Sumner, A. 2013. Global Health and the New
Bottom Billion: What do shifts in global poverty and disease burden mean for
donor agencies?, Global Policy, 4 (1): 1-14.
Mawdsley, E. 2014. "Human Rights and South-South Development
Cooperation: Reflection on the Rising Powers as International Development
Actors", Human Rights Quarterly, 36 (3): 630-652.
Saull, R. 2012. "Rethinking Hegemony: Uneven Development, Historical Blocs,
and the World Economic Crisis", International Studies Quarterly, 56 (2): 323338.
Sumner, A. 2010. Global Poverty and the New Bottom Billion: What if threequarters of the Worlds poor live in middle-income countries?, IDS Working
Papers, Issue 349: 1-43.
Sumner, A. 2012. Where do the poor live?, World Development, Issue 5:
865-877.
Taylor, J and Li, X. 2012. Chinas changing poverty: A middle income
country case study, Journal of International Development, 24 (6): 696-713.

44