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Student will infer relationships among topics

g. student will recognize different point of view
h. student will identify key information as signalled by vocabulary
i. students will recognize key information as signalled by strees and intonation
j. students will identify key information as signalled by grammatical structure
7. classroom lesson note
A final consideration in your lesson planning process is very practical one: what sort of
lesson note will you actually carry into the classroom with you? If you have pages and pages
of notes and reminders and script, you will never free yourself for spontaneity. Most
experienced teachers operate will with no more than one page of the lesson outline and notes.
Some prefer to put lesson notes on a series of index cards for easy handling by reducing by
your plans to such physically manageable minimum you will reduces the chances of getting
bogged down in all the details that went into the planning phase, yet you will have enough in
writin to provide order and clarity as you proceed.
Sample lesson plans
What follows here is a lesson plan designed for an intermediate level pre-university class the
American language institute san fransisco state university the students in the class range in
age from eighteen to twenty five. Their general goals are academically oriented. Their native
languages are Japanese, Korean, mandarin, Indonesian. thai, and Arabic.
1. Goal
Students will increase their familiaritywith conventions of telephone conversations.
2. Objective
Terminal objective
1. Student will develop inner expectancy rules that enable them to predict
and anticipate what someone else will say on the phone.
2. Students will solicit and receive information by requesting it over the
Im grateful to kareen tenney for permission to adapt one of her lesson
plans here
Enabling objective
1. Student will comprehend a simple phone conversation (played on tape recorder)
2. In the conversation, students will identify who the participant are,what they are going
to do, and when.
3. Student will comprehend and produce necessary vocabulary for his topic
4. Student will comprehend cultural and linguistic background information reganrding
movies, theatres, and arranging to see a movie with someone.

5. Student will infer what a second speaker is saying on the phone by eaves droving on
one speaker only.
6. Each students will ask someone to go a movie with him or her and respond
appropriately to reciprocal request.
7. Students will get life movie information over the phone
3. materials and equipments
Tape recorder with taped conversation
A telephone (if possible) or a toy facsimile eight differentmovie advertisements movie guide
page for extra class work.
1 pre listening
The teacher places a phone onthe front table it will be used later
To point the students thinkingin the right direction for this lesson we will start off with he
following model phone conversation on tape. It is very short and very easy well below
students level there is no question that they will understand it fully its purpose is to set up a
framework of the lesson.
2.listening to the tape
Please listen
Phone; ring
Jack: tom, this is jack. Dya wanna go th movies?
Tom: mmmm....when?
Jack: tonight i have free passes
Tom: uh ok sure what time?
Jack: eight oclock ill-ill meet ya there,ok?
Tom: fine see ya then .
(this tape may be played twice).
3. Whole class discussion
T: did tom call jack?
J: no,jack call tom.
T: right what are they going to do?
Ss: go to the movies
T: good! When are they going?

Ss: tonight (and /or) eight oclock

T: right what are free passes?
S1: free tickets.
T: yes who has free passes?
S2: jack.
T: exactly.what movie are they going to?
Ss: it doesnt say
T: what could that mean?
S1:theres only one theatre on the town
S2:the always meet at the same place etc.
St: good!any of those things are possible. It sound like they know each
other very well.maybe they go to the movies together often
A general discussion about movie-going(and phoning to arrange it) when
involve students personally and will introduce one new term.
4. Schemata building discussion
T:whos been to the movies lately?
S1: (raises hand)
T: s1 what did you see?
S1: harlem nights
t: harlem night-was it good
s1: yes
t: did you go with a friend?
S1; yes did you call him/her to arrange it?
T: she called me.
This conversation will continue to include other ss. The main subject to come back to are
what movies they saw,if they arranged it with a friend by phone, and whether hey went to a
bargain matinee.)
*note: during all instruction the teacher listen with interest to students comments. The teacher
gives feed back after each comment,making to let the students realize that they already know
a lot.
5. listening activity
T; indicates the phone on the front desk) my friend Debbie is going to call me in few minutes.
Of course you wont hear the Debbie talking to me, yoll just hear me right?
I want to you listen carefully and try to figure out two things (write on these on the board as
you say them):
One what does Debbie want to do ?repeat!
Two when?repeat
Ok, listen for what Debbie wants to do and when .(indicating questions on board )
(pause.the phone rings).

T: hullo
Gap 1---T: this is Karen
Gap2 ---T: oh hi deb how are you?
Gap3----T: the movies (look at watch) when?
Gap 4---T: um ok this afternoons fine whadda wanna see
Gap 5-----T: well ill only go to batman if its bargain matinee.
Gap 6------T: there is one oclock?great ill meet you there.bye .
T: what does debby want to do?
Ss: go to the movies.
T: right! When?
Ss: this afternoon (and/or) one oclock.
T: excellent! She wants to go to the movie this afternoon.
Now youre going to hear the same phone call again. This time try to figure out three things:
1. What movie daes Debbie suggest?
2. Am i willing to pay full price?
3. Does debby tell me i will have to pay full price?
(Erase the first questions from the board and put the three new questions on the
board).(repeat the phone call).
T: what movie does debby suggest?
S1: batman
T: righta!was i willing to pay full price
S2:no,you wanted to go to a bargain matinee.
T: yes! Ad what does debby tell me? Will i have to pay full price?
S3: no she tells you that there is a bargain matinee.
T: at what time?
S3: one oclock
T: ok! Good now youre going to hear the phone call one last time.

This time ill stop every time debby shold be speaking,and i want you to tell me what
debby might have said. many different answer maybe correct.
T: (goes back to phone) hullo?
S1: hullo
S2: is Karen there?
S3: is Karen home
T: (smile and nods to show answer are good) this is Karen
S4: its debby
S5:this is debby.
T: oh hi deb how are you?
S7:do you want to go to the movies?
S8: do you have time to see a movie?
(this format continues until the conversation is completed and all students have
participated). listening activity
Teacher passes out eight different movie ads to eight students (see samples on ad
page).teacher puts a second phone on the front table.
T: ok, everyone with an ad please get a partner who does not have and an s1 and s2 (one pair
group) please come up up these phones.s1 has a newspaper and for a movie. She will call s2
and ask him to go to that movie with her. Be sure to arrange the following things in your
phone conversation (write these on the board).
1. What movie?
2. What time?
3. Which theater?
The students come up in pairs and have very short phone conversation to arrange going to
a movie together. If there is not time for each pair to come to the front and use the phones,
pairs can work on their conversations at their desk.
7.exstra classwork assignment
Teacher passes out datebook /movie guide page to each students.
T: everyone please choose at theater from this page.(make sure each student choose a
different theater.)
Circle the theater and the phone number on your handout.
Choose a movie at your theater
Circle the movie.
Circle the times next to it.
Repeat these directions and demonstrate with your own movie list. Go around and make sure
that everyone has circled:
1. A theater
2. The right for number
3. A movie at their theater

4. The time its showing.

T: tonight when you go home,please call the theater youve choosen. Listen to he
recording.find two things.
1. Is your movie still playing?
2. Are the times the same
Please write these questions on the back of your handout(write them on the
1. Is the movie youve choosen still playing?
2. Are the times the same?
Remember that you can call the theater as many times as you want.these are
local calls.
5. Evaluation
Terminal objective (1) and enabling objectives (1) through(5) are evaluated as the
activities unfold without a formal testing component. The culminating pair work
activities unfold without a formal testing components. the culminating pair work
activity is the evaluate component for terminal objective (2) and enabling objective
(6) as fair work together, t circulates to monitor students and to observe informally
whether they have accomplished the terminal objective.the success of the extra class
assignment enabling objective (7)-will be informally observed on the next day.
This chapter has focussed specifically on the planning stage of classroom
teaching. When you walk into the classroom, all the planningyou hope---- will
work to your advantage. We turrn in the next three chapter to the crucial steps of
initiating interaction.sustaining interaction throught group work and classroom
management issues.
Topics for discussion action and research
Note (1) individual work (g) group or pair work (c) whole class discussion
1.(I) Following are some curricular goals selected from varios academic English
language programs:
Understand academic lectures
Write a business letter
Use greetings and small talk
Request information in a restaurant
Read informal essays
For each of the above, briefly describe a specific audience for which the goal might be
appropriate,then,(a)transform the goal into terminal objective(s) and (b) state a number of
enabling objectives that would have to be reached in order to a accomplish the terminal
2.(g/c) direct groups to practice stating other lesson objectives for a course everyone is
familiar with,and to discuss the extent to which one could empirically evaluate students
achievement of the objectives.groups can then share their conclusions with the rest of the

3. (i/c) observe an esl class and which you look for manifestation of
variety,sequencing,pacing,and timing or the lack thereof.write down yor observations and
share them in the form of a brief report with the whole class.
4.(c) accounting for individual differences is not as easy as it sounds.ask members of the class
to describe some dimensions of students differences they have experienced or observed. How
would ensure in each case that students on both ends of the continuum arereahed in some
way ?small groups sometimes provide a means for accounting for differences.what are some
other ways (d on p.154) to divide the class into small groups?justify each.
5. (g) have groups look at the sample lesson plan (pp.157-61) and use the six guidelines for
lesson planning (pp.152-56) to evauate the plan. Should any changes be made? Conclusions
should be shared with the rest of the class.
6. (i/g) Transform the lesson plan (pp.156-61) into some practical lesson note- no more
than one or two index cards perhaps- that you could carry into the classroom with you. What
decisions did you have to make? On what basis did you decide to create your notes the way
you did? Share your notes with others in a smallgroup and discuss your reasons for doing
what you did.
7. (g) A needs analysis normally considers sch questions as who the learners are, why they are
learning English,in what context(s) they use it,etc.ask groups to identity learners they are
familiar with,and devise a list of specific questions that one could use to analyze needs and,in
turn to determine how a curriculum or a set of lessons should be designed.
8. (i) find a teachers manual or instructors edition of an ESL textbook. Look at a chapter or
unit and read through the plan or suggestions for teaching. Using the principles cited in this
and in previous chapter evaluate it for an audience that you would the
suggestions need to be changed or added to for your audience?

For your further reading

Purgason Katherine barnhouse 1991 planning lessons and units in celcelmurcia 1991 b
This is one of the few readily accessible single articles in the field dealing with principles and
practical guidelines for planning lessons. Sample lesson notes are included as an appendix.
Gower roger and walters steve 1983. Teaching practice handbook: a reference book for EFL
TEACHERS IN TRAINING new York.heineman .chapter 4pp.60-83.
Croos david 1991 a practical handbook of language teaching.engle wood cliffts nj prentice
hall(cassesl).chapter11pp 138-50.
Both of these handsbooks for teachers offer some practical guidelines for lesson planning in
the respective chapter referenced .

Brown h douglass1991new vistas an interactive course in English teachers edition white

plains ny:pearson education.
The teachers edition of new vista give a number of ideas of how various techniques combine
to form cohesive classroom lessons.each unit has explicit directions for teachers that can be
used as lessons plans or as general guidelines which can be adapted for various audience.