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PRELIMINARY

Background Research
A group of subjects of Science and Technology aims to make the students acquire
basic competencies in science and technology and cultivate scientific thinking
critically, creatively, and independently. Critical thinking skills can be taught
through an education to be able to assess accurately, and argue well. Mundilarto
(2013) explains that the ability to think creatively and critically required in
studying the physics of matter, so the physics learning can be a strong driving
the growth of the attitude of curiosity, openness to new ideas, and can help
students understand the importance of critical thinking creatively to solve
problems (Suparno, 2009).
Critical thinking skills can be measured using tests of critical thinking abilities.
The test is a means of collecting data to determine the ability of individuals or
groups in solving a problem or demonstrate certain skills that demonstrate
learning outcomes, or in using psychological ability to solve a problem (Djemari
Mardapi, 2004). Test quality with regard to quality. Questions of quality, meets
the criteria as a good measuring tool. Criteria for a good measuring tool can be
evaluated from classical test theory (Classical Test Theory: CTT) and modern test
theory or item response theory (Item Responsse Theory: IRT).
Parameters measured at CTT, namely the reliability of the test, the index of
different items (discrimination index), index of difficulty of items (difficulty
index), content validity (content validity), construct validity (construct validity),
and validity based on criteria (criterion related validity). IRT parameters
measured on the ability (ability) and the parameters of the items comprising the
index of different items (discrimination index), index of item difficulty (difficulty
index), and guess (guessing). One of the criteria that a good measuring tool pick
guess (guessing) are relatively small. Classical test theory is widely used in the
measurement of education in Indonesia, although it has its limitations.
A good test must meet two requirements, namely the validity and reliability.
Validity refers to how far a score on a test can provide evidence that the tests
have measured constructs defined. Reliability refers to the size of the
measurement error. Reliability coefficient expressed by _XX 'and the validity
coefficient expressed by _XY. The test form there are two kinds of objective
tests and subjective tests. Form of objective test is still widely used in the
formative and summative tests. The use of objective tests used form if testee
relatively large and relatively spacious tested material, so that the principle of
objectivity can be met.
There are nine steps to be taken in devising tests (Djemari Mardapi, 2008: 88),
namely: (a) preparing test specifications, (b) writing about the test, (c) examine
the test item or qualitative analysis, (d) conducting trials test, (e) analyze items
or quantitative analysis, (f) repair test, (g) assemble the test, (h) carry out the
tests, (i) interpreting test results.

Critical Thinking is part of the Thinking skill and is part of the performance
assessment. Performance Assessment puts students in real contexts so that
learning is easier for an authentic destination. Performance behavior
demonstrated work habits, industrious, caring for the timeliness and quality of
the work, responsibility, able to work together in groups, task management,
systematic, attention to safety, all components can be assessed using
observasi.Salah format of the usefulness of performance assessment that is
testing the performance of students associated with critical skills.
Stages of Critical Thinking in Afrizon According to Ennis, et al (2012) in Goal for A
Critical Thinking Curriculum, there are five stages of thinking with each indicator,
namely: 1). Give a simple explanation, covering, focus questions, analyzing the
statement, and ask and answer questions about an explanation. 2). Build basic
skills, covers, consider whether the source can be trusted / not, and observe and
consider a report on the results of observation. 3). Summing up, covering,
deduce and mem consider Deduction, induce and consider the results of
induction, create and determine the value of consideration. 4). Provide further
explanation, including, defining the term and consideration in three dimensions,
and identifying assumptions. 5). Set the strategy and tactics, cover, decisive
action, interact with others. Based on these stages, it can be explained that the
stage of critical thinking starts from a simple idea, then build basic skills,
concluded, provide further explanation and set the strategy and tactics.
Indicators of critical thinking, critical thinking skills need to be developed,
implemented and integrated with the curriculum so that students are actively
engaged in learning. According to Ennis in the Poppy (2011: 4) there are five
indicators of critical thinking skills, namely: 1). Give a simple explanation consists
of questions focusing skills, analyzing arguments, asking and answering
questions. 2). Build basic skills consist of adjusting to the source, to observe and
report the results of observation. 3). Summing consists of skills into consideration
the conclusions, generalization and conduct the evaluation. 4). Make further
explanations and examples interpret the term being defined. 5). Set the strategy
and tactics for example, determine a course of action and interact with others
and communicate.
Skills critical capabilities required for the development of students in the future,
therefore, the development of instruments need to be trained in the skills of
teachers and prospective teachers. The instrument produced must meet the
criteria as a good instrument, in accordance with the criteria specified by
classical test theory (CTT) and or a modern test theory (IRT).
There are nine steps to be taken in devising tests (Djemari Mardapi, 2008: 88),
namely: (a) preparing test specifications, (b) writing about the test, (c) examine
the test item or qualitative analysis, (d) conducting trials test, (e) analyze items
or quantitative analysis, (f) repair test, (g) assemble the test, (h) carry out the
tests, (i) interpreting test results. Depicted in Fig. 2.

Figure 2
Flow Critical Thinking Ability Test Preparation
Formulation of the problem
The problems of the proposed research, namely, how to construct a standardized
test of critical thinking skills for high school students?
The purpose and benefits of research
The purpose of the study is compiling standardized test of critical thinking skills
for high school students?
The benefits of research ie, instrument produced is expected to be used to
measure the critical ability of high school students.

II. RESEARCH METHODS


1. The approach used
Research procedures used in the development of critical thinking ability test
instrument, adapted from the model 4-D, which includes define, design, develop,
and disseminate. Model 4-D is often known as the 4-P models, namely the
definition, design, development, and deployment. Selection of model 4-D to
develop the instrument test the ability of critical thinking on the material for heat
and displacement these reasons, the development model of coherent and
simple, so practical to be implemented, the stage of the validation and testing of
the device to make the products better, step-by-step development of logical ,
2. Population and Sample Research
Where research SMA Negeri 1 Sumberlawang, Jln address. Solo-Purwodadi,
District Sumberlawang, Sragen, Central Java Province. The research was
conducted in March until May, 2016.
3. Instruments Data Collectors

Instrument data collectors, critical thinking ability tests. The tests used have
distandardisir and tested parameters.
4. Technical Data Collectors
Data collection techniques used, the testing techniques.
5. Data Analysis Techniques
The research is descriptive qualitative analysis of the data used, descriptive
statistical analysis. If the program uses the same data analysis computer
analysis of data from the QUEST and LISREL.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


1. Results

Figure 3.
Results CFA Critical Thinking Ability Against indicator

Based on the results if the data using charts, most powerful indicator is the
indicator number 2 on giving arguments (0.79). Indicators provide arguments
include arguments according to need, showing the similarities and differences,
the arguments put forward original and utuh.Indikator weakest indicator of
number 3, namely, make deductions, consisting of logically deduce and interpret
appropriately.

Table 4. Results Analyst Critical Thinking Ability Item Using IRT

The results of the analysis based on the ability testee item, the items grouped
into three criteria, namely the items clustered on testee's ability (), -1 1,
are items that can be completed by the testee who has the capability of being. 1
2, items were able to be completed by the testee is capable of good, and
the items are grouped on -1, an item that can be completed by the testee are
less capable.
2. Discussion
CFA analysis results in Figure 3, shows that the ability to think critically is
described through six indicators, according to the model. This is demonstrated

by the relatively small value of RMSEA (RMSEA = 0.111). The sequence of the
most powerful indicator to the weakest, namely: indicator 2 (0.79), indicator 4
(0.45), one indicator indicator (0.42), indicator 6 (0.29), indicator 5 (0 , 22) and
the indicator 3 (0.20). The order of indicators based on its strength, namely, 2
(giving argument), 4 (induction), 1 (formulating a problem), 6 (taking decisions
and decisive actions), 5 (evaluating) and 3 (make deductions). The results
obtained showed that sequences starting with the critical thinking skills argues,
induction, formulate problems, make decisions and decisive action, evaluate, and
make deductions.
The results of the analysis using the theory of modern tests, difficult item
number (18), the item (1, 10, 20, 23, 8, 5, 6, 19, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17, 2, 24 ,
21.22, 4, 14, 15, 11). Item simple numbers (3, 25). Characteristics of items does
not depend on the samples used, because it is used as the basis of modern test
theory.
IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The results of the study, has arranged a standardized test of critical thinking
skills for high school students, made up of six indicators and contains 20 items.
The instrument has a standard prepared as a proven instrument, shown by the
parameters indicated by the results of the analysis. The resulting instrument can
be used to measure critical thinking abilities of high school students
V. REFERENCES